Makhanchor.jpg bharatakosh ki or se ap sabhi ko krishn janmashtami ki hardik shubhakamanaen Makhanchor.jpg

मनुस्मृति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat men vedon ke uparant sarvadhik manyata aur prachalan ‘manusmriti’ ka hi hai . isamen charon varnon, charon ashramon, solah snskaron tatha srishti utpatti ke atirikt rajy ki vyavastha, raja ke kartavy, bhanti-bhanti ke vivadon, sena ka prabandh adi un sabhi vishayon par paramarsh diya gaya hai jo ki manav matr ke jivan men ghatit hone sambhav hain yah sab dharm-vyavastha ved par adharit hai. usake uparant isake itane snskaran prakashit hue ki unaka nam dena sambhav nahin hai. is grnth men nirnayasagar ke snskaran evn kullookabhatt ki tika ka upayog hua hai. manusmriti ka angrezi anuvad kee bar ho chuka hai. daau. buhalar ka anuvad sarvashreshth hai. unhonne ek vidvattapoorn bhoomika men katipay samasyaon ka udghatan bhi kiya hai.

rachana kal

manusmriti ka rachana kal ee.poo. ek hazar varsh se lekar ee.poo. doosari shatabdi tak mana jata hai. isaki rachana ke snbndh men kaha gaya hai ki dharm, varn aur ashramon ke vishay men gyan prapti ki ichchha se rishigan svaynbhuv manu ke samaksh upasthit hue. manu ne unako kuchh gyan dene ke bad kaha ki mainne yah gyan brahma se prapt kiya tha aur marichi adi muniyon ko padha diya. ye bhrigu (jo vahan upasthit the) mujhase sab vishayon ko achchhi tarah padh chuke hain aur ab ye ap logon ko bataenge. is par bhrigu ne manu ki upasthiti men, unaka bataya gyan, unhin ki shabdavali men anyon ko diya. yahi gyan guru-shishy parnpara men 'manusmriti' ya 'manu-snhita' ke nam se prachalit hua. bharat men manusmriti ka sarvapratham mudran 1813 ee. men kalakatta men hua tha. 2694 shlokon ka yah grnth 12 adhyayon men vibhakt hai. vibhinn adhyayon ke varny-vishay is prakar hain-

  1. varnashram dharm ki shiksha,
  2. dharm ki paribhasha,
  3. brahmachary, vivah ke prakar adi,
  4. grihasth jivan,
  5. khady-akhady vichar tatha janm-maran, ashauch aur shuddhi,
  6. vanaprasth jivan,
  7. rajadharm aur dnd,
  8. nyay shasan,
  9. pati-patni ke karttavy,
  10. charon varnon ke adhikar aur karttavy,
  11. dan-stuti,prayashchitt adi tatha
  12. karm par vivechan aur brahm ki prapti.

astik hinduon ke kary-vyavahar ka adhar dirghakal tak manusmriti rahi hain. isaka prabhav nyay pranali par bhi pada hai. manu ne janm se lekar mrityu tak ka manushy ka poora karyakram prastut kiya hai. dharm, arth, kam, moksh ye char purusharth; dev, rishi aur pitri ye tin rin; solah snskar, panch mahaygy; char ashram aur char varn sabhi ka isamen vivechan hai.

hindoo grnth

yah hindoo dharm ka sabase pradhan hindoo-grnth hai. isake rachayita ke vishay men matabhed hai. kuchh ka mat hai ki pahale ek 'manav dharmashastr' tha jo ab upalabdh nahin hai. at: vartaman 'manusmriti' ko manu ke nam se pracharit karake use pramanikata pradan ki gee hai. parntu bahumat ise svikar nahin karata. mahabharat, ramayan, taittiriy-snhita, aitarey brahman tatha shatapath brahman tatha narad-snhita men manu aur 'manusmriti' ka ullekh isaki prachinata ka pusht praman hai. bharatiy vandamay men 14 manu varnit hain. nirukt men bhi manu svaynbhuv ke mat ki charcha huee hai. at: yask ke poorv padyabaddh smritiyan thin aur manu ek vyavahar-praneta the. gautam, vasishth, apastamb ne manu ka ullekh kiya hai. mahabharat men manu ko kabhi keval manu, kabhi svaynbhuv manu[1] aur kabhi prachetas manu[2] kaha gaya hai. sarvapratham manu 'svaynbhuv' manu the. vartaman manvntar (manuo ke anusar kal vibhajan) jis manu ke nam se hai ve vaivasvat manu. taittiriy snhita tatha aitarey brahman men manu ke vishay men ek gatha hai, jisamen unhonne apani sampatti ko apane putron men banta hai aur apane putr nabhanedishth ko kuchh nahin diya hai.

rigved ke anusar

rigved men manu ko manav-jati ka pita kaha gaya hai.[3] ek vaidik kavi ne stuti ki hai taki vah manu ke marg se chyut n ho jay.[4] ek kavi ne kaha hai ki manu ne jo kuchh kaha hai, aushadh hai.[5] pratham men 'manavyo hi praja:' kaha gaya hai.

shatapath brahman ke anusar

shatapath brahman men manu aur pralay ki kahani hai. shantiparv[6] men aya hai ki kis prakar bhagavanh brahma ne ek sau sahastr shlokon men dharm par likha, kis prakar manu ne un dharmon ko udghoshit kiya aur kis prakar ushana tatha brihaspati ne manu svaynbhuv ke granth ke adhar par shastron ka pranayan kiya. mahabharat men ek sthan par vivaran kuchh bhinn hai aur vahan manu ka nam nahin aya hai. shantiparv[7] ne bataya hai ki kis prakar brahma ne dharm, arth evn kam par ek lakh adhyay likhe aur vah mahagranth kalantar men vishalaksh, indr, bahudantak, brihaspati evn kavy (ushana) dvara kram se 10,000, 5,000, 3,000 evn 1,000 adhyayon men snkshipt kiya gaya.

narad-smriti ke anusar

narad-smriti men aya hai ki manu ne 1,00,000 shlokon, 1080 adhyayon evn 24 prakaranon men ek dharmashastr likha aur use narad ko padhaya, jisane use 12,000 shlokon men snkshipt kiya aur markandey ko padhaya. markandey ne bhi ise 8,000 shlokon men snkshipt kar sumati bhargav ko diya, jinhonne svayn use 4,000 shlokon men snkshipt kiya. vartaman manusmriti men aya hai[8] ki brahma se virath ki udbhooti huee, jinhonne manu ko utpann kiya, jinase bhrigu, narad adi rishi utpann hue; brahma ne manu ko shastradhyayan karaya, manu ne das rishiyon[9] ko vah gyan diya; kuchh bade rishi manu ke yahan gaye aur varnon evn madhyam jatiyon ke dharmo (kartavyon) ko padhane ke lie unase prarthana ki aur manu ne kaha ki yah kary unake shishy bhrigu karenge.[10] manusmriti men yah padhane ki bat arambh se ant tak hai aur sthan-sthan par rishi log bhrigu ke vyakhyan ko rokakar unase kathin baten samajh lete hain.[11] manu sarvatr virajaman hain; unaka nam 'manurah'[12] ya 'manurabravith' ya 'maroranushasanamh'[13] ke roop men darjanon bar aya hai.

bhavishy puran ke anusar

bhavishy puran ke anusar, jaisa ki hamen hemadri, snskaramayookh tatha any granthon se pata chalata hai, svaynbhuv-shastr ke char snskaran the, jo bhrigu, narad, brihaspati evn angira dvara pranit the.[14] ati prachin lekhak vishvaroop ne manusmriti ke uddharan diye hain aur vahan manu svaynbhoo kahe gaye hain.[15] kintu vishvaroop dara uddhrit bhrigu ki baten manusmriti men nahin payi jatin. isi prakar aparark dvara uddhrit bhrigu ki baten bhi manusmriti men nahin payi jatin.

dharmashastr evn arthashastr

manusmriti ka praneyan kisane kiya, yah kahana kathin hai. yah saty hai ki manav ke adi poorvaj manu ne isaka pranayan nahin kiya hai. isake praneta ne apana nam kyon chhipa rakha, yah kahana dushkar hi hai. ho sakata hai ki is mahanh granth ko prachinata evn pramanikata dene ke lie hi ise manukrit kaha gaya hai. maiksamoolar ke sath daau. buhalar ne yahi pramanit karane ka prayatn kiya hai ki manav-charan ke dharmasootr ka snshodhit roop hi manusmriti hai. kintu sambhavat: manav dharmasootr namak granth kabhi vidyaman hi nahin tha.[16] mahabharat ne svaynbhuv manu evn prachetas manu men antar bataya hai, jinamen pratham dharmashastrakar evn doosare arthashastrakar kahe gaye hain. kahin-kahin keval manu rajadharm ya arthavidya ke praneta kahe gaye hain. ho sakata hai, arambh men manu ke nam se do granth rahe honge. jab kautily 'manavon' ki or snket karate hain to vahan sambhavat: ve prachetas manu ki bat uthate hain.

chahe jo ho, yah kalpana karana asngat nahin hai ki manusmriti ke lekhak ne manu ke nam vale dharmashastr evn arthashastr ki baton ko le liya. yah bat sambhavat: kautily ko gyat nahin thi, kyonki sambhavat: tab tak yah snshodhan-sampadan nahin ho saka tha, ya hua bhi raha hoga to kautily ko isaki soochana nahin thi. vartaman manusmriti men isake lekhak ko svaynbhuv manu kaha gaya hai, jinake atirikt chh: any manuon ki charcha ki gayi hai, jinamen prachetas ki ganana nahin huee hai.

shaili

vartaman manusmriti men 12 adhyay evn 2694 shlok hain. manusmriti saral evn dharapravah shaili men pranit hai. isaka vyakaran adhikansh men panini-sammat hai. isake siddhant gautam, baudhayan evn apastamb ke dharmasootron se bahut-kuchh milate-julate hain. isake bahut-se shlok vasishth evn vishnu ke dharmasootron men bhi paye jate hain. bhasha evn siddhanton men manusmriti evn kautiliy men bahut-kuchh samanata hai.[17]

soochi

manusmriti ki vishay-soochi yah hai--

  • varnadharm ki shiksha ke lie rishigan manu ke pas jate hain; manu bahut kuchh sankhy mat ke anusar atmaroop se sthit bhagavanh se vishv-srishti ka vivaran dete hain; virath ki utpatti, virath se manu, manu se das rishiyon ki srishti huee; bhanti-bhanti ke jiv, yatha- manushy, pashu, pakshi adi ki srishti; brahma ve dharm-shiksha manu ko di, manu ne rishiyon ko shikshit kiya; manu ne bhrigu ko rishiyon ko dharm ki shiksha dene ka adesh diya; svaynbhuv manu se chh: any manu utpann hue; nimesh se varsh tak ki kal ikaiyan, charon yug evn unake sandhya-prakash; ek sahastr yug brahma ke ek din ke barabar hain; manvantar, pralay ka vistar; charon yugon men kramash: dharmavanati; charon yugon men vibhinn dharm evn lakshy; charon varnon ke visheshadhikar evn kartavy; brahmanon evn manu ke shastr ki stuti; achar paramochch dharm hai; sampoorn shastr ki vishayasoochi;
  • dharm-paribhasha; dharm ke upadan hain ved, smriti, bhadr logon ka achar, atmatushti; is shastr ke lie kisaka adhikar hai; brahmavart, brahmarshidesh, madhyadesh, aryavart ki simaen; snskar kyon avashyak hain; aise snskar, yatha- jatakarm, namadhey, choodakarm, upanayan; varnon ke upanayan ka uchit kal, uchit mekhala, pavitr janeoo, tin varnon ke brahmachariyon ke lie dand, mrigachhala, brahmachari ke kartavy evn acharan;
  • 36, 18 evn 9 varshon ka brahmachary; samavartan, vivah; vivahayogy ladaki; brahman charon varnon ki ladakiyon se vivah kar sakata hai; ath prakar ke vivahon ki paribhasha, kis jati ke lie kaun vivah upayukt hai, pati-patni ke kartavy; nari-stuti, pnchahnik; grihasth-jivan ki prashnsa, atithi-satkar, madhupark; shraddh, shraddh men kaun nimantrit nahin hote;
  • grihasth ki jivan-vidhi evn vritti; snatak-achar-vidhi, anadhyay-niyam; varjit evn avarjit bhojy evn pey ke lie niyam;
  • kaun-se mans evn tarakariyan khani chahie; janm-maran par ashuddhikal, sapind evn samanodak ki paribhasha; vibhinn prakar se vinbhinn vastuon ke sparsh se pavitrikaran, patni evn vidhava ke kartavy;
  • vanaprasth hone ka kal, usaki jivanacharya, parivrajak evn usake kartavy; grihasth-stuti:
  • rajadharm, dand-stuti, raja ke lie char vidyaen, kam se utpann raja ke das avagun evn krodh se utpann ath avagun (dosh); mantri-parishad ki rachana, doot ke gun (patrata), durg evn rajadhani, purush evn vividh vibhagon ke adhyaksh; yuddh-niyam; sam.dan, bhed evn dand namak char sadhan; gramamukhiya se oopar vale rajyadhikari; kar-niyam; barah rajaon ke mandal ki rachana; chh: gun- sndhi, yuddh-sthiti , shatru par akraman, asan, sharan lena evn dvaidh; vijayi ke kartavy;
  • nyayashasan-sambandhi raja ke kartavy ; vyavaharon ke 18 nam, raja evn nyayadhish, any nyayadhish; sabha; sabha-rachana; nabaligon, vidhavaon, asahay logon, kosh adi ko dane ke lie raja ka dharm; chori gaye hue dhan ka pata lagane men raja ka kartavy; diye hue rin ko prapt karane ke lie rinadata ke sadhan; sthitiyan jinake karan adhikari muqadama har jata hai, sakshiyon ki patrata, sakshy ke lie ayogy vyakti, shapath, jhoothi gavahi ke lie arth-dand, sharirik dand ke dhng, sharirik dand se brahmanon ko chhutakara; taul evn tatakhare; nyoonatam, madhyam evn adhikatam arth-dand; byaj-dar, pratigyaen, pratikool (bipakshi ke) adhikar se pratigya, sima, nabalig ki bhoomi-sampatti, dhan-sngrah, raja ki sampatti adi par prabhav nahin padata; damadupat ka niyam; bandhak; pita ke kaun-se rin putr nahin dega; sabhi len-den ko kapatachar evn balaprayog nasht kar deta hai; jo svami nahin hai usake dvara vikray; svatv evn adhikar; saksha; pratyadan; mazadoori ka n dena; paramparavirodh; vikray-vilop; svami evn gorakshak ke bich ka jhagada , ganv ke ird-gird ke charagah; sima-sngharsh galiyan (apashabd), apavad evn pishun-vachan; akraman, mardan evn kucheshtgy; prishthabhag par koda marana; chori, sahas (yatha hatya, dakaiti adi ke kary); svaraksha ka adhikar; brahman kab mara ja sakata hai; vyabhichar evn balatkar, brahman ke lie mrityu-dand nahin, pratyut desh-nikala; mata-pita, patni, bachche kabhi bhi tyajy nahin hain; chungiyan evn ekadhikar; dason ke sat prakar,
  • pati-patni ke nyayy (vyavaharanukool) kartavy, striyon ki bhartsana, pativrat ki stuti; bachcha kisako milana chahie, janak ko ya jisaki patni se vah utpann hua hai; niyog ka vivaran evn usaki bhartsana; pratham patni ka kab atikraman kiya ja sakata hai; vivah ki avastha; bntavara, isaki avadhi, jyeshth putr ka vishesh bhag; putrika, putri ka putr, god ka putr, shoodr patni sapind uttaradhikar pata hai; sakuly, guru evn shishy uttaradhikari ke roop men; brahman ke dhan ko chhodakar any kisi ke dhan ka antim uttaradhikari raja hai; stridhan ke prakar; stridhan ka uttaradhikar; basiyat se hatane ke karan; kis sampatti ka bntavara nahin hota; vidya ke labh, punarmilan; mata evn pitamah uttaradhikari ke roop men; bant di janevali sampatti; jua evn puraskar, ye raja dvara band kar diye jane chahie; pnch mahapap, unake lie prayashchitt; gyat evn agyat (gupt) chor; bandigrih; rajy ke sat ang; vaishy evn shoodr ke kartavy;
  • keval brahman hi padha sakata hai; mishrit jatiyan; mlechchh, kamboj, yavan, shak, sabake lie achar-niyam; charon varnon ke visheshadhikar evn kartavy, viparti men brahman ki vritti ke sadhan; brahman kaun-se padarth n padarth n vikray kare; jivika-prapti evn usake sadhan ke sat uchit dhng;
  • dan-stuti; prayashchitth ke bare men vividh mat; bahut-se dekhe hue pratiphal; poorvajanm ke pap ke karan rog evn sharir-dosh; pnch naitik pap evn unake lie prayashchitt; upapatak aur unake lie prayashchitt; santayan, parak, chandrayan jaise prayashchitt; papanashak pavitr mantr;
  • karm par vivechan; kshetrgy, bhootatma, jiv; narak-kasht; sattv, rajash evn tamash namak tin gun; ni:shraiyas ki utpatti kisase hoti hai; anand ka sarvochch sadhan hai atm-gyan; pravritt evn nivritt karm; phalaprapti ki ichchha se rahit hokar jo karm kiya jay vahi nivritt hai; ved-stuti; tark ka sthan; shisht evn parishadh; manav shastr ke adhyayan ka phal.

sahity

manu ko apane poorv ke sahity ka paryapt gyan tha. unhonne tin vedon ke nam liye hain aur atharvaved ko atharvagirasi shruti[18] kaha hai. manusmriti men aranyak, chh: vedangon, dharmashastron ki charcha ayi hai. manu ne atri, utathyaputr (gautam), bhrigu shaunk, vasishth, vaikhanas adi dharmashastrakaron ka ullekh kiya hai. unhonne akhyana, itihas, puran evn khilon ka ullekh kiya hai. manu ne vedant ki bhanti brahm ka varnan kiya hai; lekin yahan yah bhi kalpana ki ja sakati hai ki unhonne upanishad ki or snket kiya hai. unhonne 'vedavahya: smritay: ki charcha karake mano yah darshaya hai ki unhen virodhi pustakon ka pata tha. ho sakata hai ki aisa likhakar unhonne bauddhon, jainon adi ki or snket kiya hai. unhonne dharm-virodhiyon aur unaki vyavasayik shreniyon ka ullekh kiya hai. unhonne astikata evn vedon ki ninda ki or bhi snket kiya hai aur bahut prakar ki boliyon ki charcha ki hai. unhonne 'kechith', 'apare', 'anye' kahakar any lekhakon ke mat ka udghatan kiya hai. buhalar ka kathan hai ki pahale ek manavadharmasootr tha, jisaka roopantar manusmriti men hua hai. kintu, vastav men yah ek kori kalpana hai, kyonki manavadharmasootr tha hi nahin.

antarik evn bahy

ab ham antarik evn bahy sakshiyon ke adhar par manusmriti ke kal-nirnay ka prayatn karenge. prathamat: ham bahm sakshiyan lete hain. manusmriti ki sabase prachin tika meghatithi ki hai, jisaka kal hai 900 ee.. yagyvalkyasmriti ke vyakhyakar vishvaroop ne manusmriti ke jo lagabhag 200 shlok uddhrit kiye kiye hain, ve sab barahon adhyayon ke hain. donon vyakhyakaron ne vartaman manusmriti se hi uddharan liye hain. vedantasootr ke bhashy men shnkarachary ne kaha hai. kumaril ke tantravartik men manusmriti ko sabhi smritiyon se aur gautam dharmasootr se bhi prachin kaha hai. mrichchhakatik[19] ne papi brahman ke dand ke vishay men manu ka havala diya hai, aur kaha hai ki papi brahman ko mrityu-dand n dekar desh-nishkasan-dand dena chahie. valabhiraj gharasen ke ek abhilekh se pata chalata hai ki sanh 571 ee. men vartaman manusmriti upasthit thi. jaimini sootr ke bhashyakar shabarasvami ne bhi, jo 500 ee. ke bad ke nahin ho sakate, pratyut pahale ke hi ho sakate hain, manusmriti ko uddhrit kiya hai. aparark evn kullook ne bhavishy puran dvara uddhrit manusmriti ke shlokon ki charcha ki hai. brihaspati ne, jinaka kal hai 500 ee., manusmriti ki bhoori-bhoori prashnsa ki hai. brihaspati ne jo kuchh uddhrit kiya hai vah vartaman manusmriti men paya jata hai. smritichandrika men ullikhit adgira ne manu ke dharmashastr ki charcha ki hai. ashvaghosh ki vajrasoochikopanishad men manav dharm ke kuchh aise uddharan hain jo vartaman manusmriti men paye jate hain, kuchh aise bhi hai, jo nahin milate. ramayan men vartaman manusmriti ki baten payi jati hain. uparyukt bahy sakshiyon se spasht hai ki dvitiy shatabdi ke bad ke adhikatar lekhakon ne manusmriti ki pramanik granth mana hai.

snshodhan

kya manusmriti ke kee snshodhan hue hai? sambhavat: nahin. naradasmriti men jo yah aya hai ki manu ka shastr narad, markandey evn sumati bhargav dvara snkshipt kiya gaya; bhramak ukti hai, vastav men aisa kahakar narad ne apani mahatta gayi hai. ab ham kuchh antarik sakshiyon ki or bhi snket kar len.

nyay-vidhi

vartaman manusmriti yagyvalky se bahut prachin hai, kyonki manusmriti men nyay-vidhi-sambandhi baten apoorn hain aur yagyvalkyasmriti is bat men bahut poorn hai. yagyvalky ki tithi kam-se-kam tisari shatabdi hai. at: manusmriti ko isase bahut pahale racha jana chahie. manu ne yavanon, kambojon, shakon, pahalavon evn chinon ke nam liye hain, atev ve ee. poo. tisari shatabdi se bahut pahale nahin ho sakate. yavan, kamboj evn gandhar logon ka varnan ashok ke panchaven prastar-anushasan men a chuka hai. varttaman manusmriti gathan evn siddhanton men prachin dharmasootron, arthath gautam, baudhayan evn apastamb ke dharmasootron se bahut age hai. at: nissandeh isaki rachana dharmasootron ke uparant huee hai. at: spasht hai ki manusmriti ki rachana ee. poo. doosari shatabdi tatha eesa ke uparant doosari shatabdi ke bich kabhi huee hogi. snshodhit evn parivardhit manusmriti ki rachana kab huee, is prashn ka uttar manusmriti evn mahabharat ke parasparik sambandh ke gyan par nirbhar rahata hai. shri vi0 en0 mandalik ne kaha hai ki manusmriti ne mahabharat ka bhavansh liya hai. buhalar ne badi chhanavin ke uparant yah udghoshit kiya hai ki mahabharat ke barahaven evn terahaven parvon ko kisi manav dharmashastr ka gyan tha aur yah manav dharmashastr aj ki manusmriti se gahare roop men sambandhit lagata hai. kintu yahan buhalar ne mahabharat ke sath apana pakshapat hi prakat kiya hai. hapkin ne yah kaha hai ki mahabharat ke terahaven adhyay men vartaman manusmriti ki charcha hai. manusmriti men bahut-se aitihasik nam aye hain, yatha- angira, agasty, ven, nahush, sudas, paijavan, nimi, prithu, manu, kuber, gadhiputr vishvamitr, vasishth, vats, akshama, sarangi, daksh, ajigart, vamadev, bharadvaj. inamen bahut-se nam vaidik parampara ke bhi hain.

manusmriti ne yah nahin kaha hai ki ye nam mahabharat ke hain. mahabharat men 'manurabravith' , 'manurajadharma;', 'manushastr' jaise shabd aye hain, jinamen kuchh uddharan aj ki manusmriti men paye jate hain. isake atirikt mahabharat ke bahut-se shlok manusmriti se milate hain, yadyapi vahan yah nahin kaha gaya hai ki ve manu se liye gaye hain. isase spasht hai ki manusmriti mahabharat se purana granth hai. ee. poo. chauthi shatabdi men svaynbhuv manu dvara pranit ek dharmashastr tha, jo sambhavat: pady men tha. isi kal men prachetas manu dvara pranit ek rajadharm bhi tha. ho sakata hai ki do granthon ke sthan par ek brihath granth raha ho jisamen dharm evn rajaniti donon par vivechan tha. mahabharat ne prachetas ka ek vachan uddhrit kiya hai jo aj ki manusmriti men jyon-ki-tyon paya jata hai.[20] uparyukt donon tathakathit manu ki pustakon ki or ya keval ek pustak ki or yask, gautam, baudhayan evn kautily snket karate hain. mahabharat bhi apane pahale ke parvon men aisa hi karata hai. vah bahucharchit granth aj ki manusmriti ka adhar ev moolabij hai. tab ee. poo. doosari shatabdi evn eesa ke uparant doosari shatabdi ke bich sambhavat: bhrigu ne manusmriti ka snshodhan kiya. yah kriti prachin granth ke snkshipt evn parivardhit roop men prakat huee. isase yah bat spasht ho jati hai. ki manu ke bahut-se uddharan jo any pustakon men milate hain, aj ki manusmriti men kyon nahin prapt hote. bat yah huee ki snshodhan men bahut-si baten hat gayin aur bahut-si a gayin. vartaman mahabharat vartaman manusmriti ke bad ki rachana hai. narad-smriti ka yah kathan ki sumati bhargav ne manu ke granth ko 4000 shlokon men snkshipt kiya, kuchh sima tak thik hi hai. aj ki manusmriti men lagabhag 2700 shlok hain. ho sakata hai 4000 shlokon men narad ne vriddh-manu evn brihanmanu ke shlokon ko bhi sammilit kar liya hai. manusmriti ka prabhav bharat ke bahar bhi gaya. champa ke ek abhilekh men bahut-se shlok manu[21] se milate hain. barama men jo dhammathath hai, vah manu par adharit hai. bali dvip ka qanoon manusmriti par adharit tha.

tikakar aur vyakhyakar

  • manu ke bahut-se tikakar ho gaye hain. medhatithi, govindaraj evn kullook.
  • in logon ke atirikt vyakhyakar hai narayan, radhavanand, nandan evn ramachandr.
  • kuchh any vyakhyakar the jinaki kritiyan poornaroop se upasthit nahin hain, any hain ek kashmiri tikakar (nam agyat hai), asahay, udayakar, bhaguri, bhojadev, dharanidhar.
  • medhatithi ne apane pahale ke bhashyakaron ki or snket kiya hai.
  • ahnink, vyavahar evn prayanchitt par vishvaroop[22], mitakshara, smritichandrika, parasharamadhaviy tatha any lekhakon ne vriddh-manu se darjanon uddharan liye hain.
  • mitakshara[23] tatha any kritiyon ne brihatmanu se kuchh shlok uddhrit kiye hain. kintu abhi tak vriddh-manu evn brihanmanu ke koee svatantr granth upalabdh nahin ho sake hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shanti, 21.12
  2. shanti, 59.43
  3. rigved 1.80.16; 1.114.2; 2.33.13
  4. ma n: path: pitryanmanavadadhi doorn naisht paravat:. rigved, 8.30.3 .
  5. 'yadvai kin ch manuravadattadh bheshajamh', -tai0 sn0 2.2.10.2; 'manurve yatkinchavadattadh bheshajn bheshajatayai', - tandy0 23.16.17
  6. shantiparv, 336.38-46
  7. shantiparv, 58.80-85
  8. manusmriti, 1.32-33
  9. 1.58
  10. 1.59-60
  11. 5.1-2; 12.1-2
  12. 9.158, 10.78 adi
  13. 8.139, 279; 9.239 adi
  14. bhargaviya naradiyabarhaspatyangirasyapi. svaynbhuvasy shastrasy chatastr: snhita bhata:॥ chaturvarg0, danakhand, pri0 528; snskaramayookh, pri0 2 .
  15. yagy0 par bhashy, 2.73,74, 83, 85, jahan manu0 8,.68, 70-71, 380 evn 105-6 kramash: svaynbhoo ke nam se uddhrit hain
  16. dekhie prakaran 13
  17. tulana kijie- 'alabdhalabhartha labdhaparirakshini rakshitabibardhani vriddhasy tirtheshu pratipadini ch.' kotily (1-4) aur 'alabdharmichchheddanden labdhn rakshedavekshaya. rakshitn vardhayedh vriddhacha vriddhn patreshu nikshipeth॥ manu0 (7.101).
  18. 11.33
  19. mrichchhakatik, 9.39
  20. 3.54
  21. 2. 136
  22. yagy0 par, 1.69
  23. yagy0 par, 3.20

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

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