Makhanchor.jpg bharatakosh ki or se ap sabhi ko krishn janmashtami ki hardik shubhakamanaen Makhanchor.jpg

इन्द्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

indr
Indra

indr vaidik yug ka pratham devata tha. use devataon ke raja (devaraj) ke roop men smaran kiya gaya hai. rigved ke lagabhag ek chauthaee mntron men usaka ullekh hai. isase usake mahatv aur vyapak prabhav ka pata chalata hai. use kahin par sngyavat ka devata bataya gaya hai jo badalon men garjan aur bijali paida karata hai. kahin par use soory devata mana gaya hai. parntu usaka mukhy mahatv devataon ko vijayi banane ke karan hai. yah vijay vah prakritik shaktiyon ko anukool banakar dilata hai. sath hi un par chapati nak vale aur kale adivasiyon ko parajit karake bhi jo aryon ka vistar rokate the. is prasng men vrittasur ke sndarbh ka vishesh mahatv hai. jisaka vadh indr ne dadhichi ki haddiyon ke vajr se kiya tha.

rigved men indr

rigved ke pray: 250 sookton men indr ka varnan hai tatha 50 sookt aise hain jinamen doosare devon ke sath indr ka varnan hai. is prakar lagabhag rigved ke chaturthansh men indr ka varnan paya jata hai. isase ham is nishkarsh par pahunchate hain ki indr vaidik yug ka sarvapriy devata tha. indr shabd ki vyutpatti evn arth aspasht hai. adhikansh vidvanon ki sammati men indr jhnjhavat ka devata hai. jo badalon men garjan evn bijali ki chamak utpann karata hai. kintu hilabraint ke mat se indr soory devata hai. vaidik bharatiyon ne indr ko ek prabal bhautik shakti mana jo unaki sainik vijay evn samrajyavadi vicharon ka pratik hai. prakriti ka koee bhi upadan itana shaktishali nahin jitana vidyut-prahar. indr ko agnidev ka judavan bhaee [1] kaha gaya hai jisase vidyutiy agni evn ygyvediy agni ka samipy prakat hota hai.

rigved men antariksh sthaniy 'indr' ka varnan sarvadhik pratapi devata ke roop men kiya gaya hai, rigved ke qarib 250 sookton men inaka varnan hai. inhen varsha ka devata mana jata tha. unhonne vriksh rakshas ko mara tha isilie unhen 'vritrahan' kaha jata hai. anek qilon ko nasht kar diya tha, is roop men ve 'purandar' kahe jate hain. indr ne vritr ki hatya karake jal ko mukt kiya tha isalie unhen 'purmid' kaha gaya. indr ke lie ek visheshan 'ansujit' (pani ko jitane vala) sambodhan bhi ata hai. indr ke pita 'dyons' hain, 'agni' usaka yamaj bhaee hai aur 'marut' usaka sahayogi hai. vishnu ke vritr ke vadh men indr ki sahayata ki thi. rigved men indr ko samast snsar ka svami bataya gaya hai. usaka priy ayuddh 'bajr' hai isalie unhen 'brajabahoo' bhi kaha gaya hai. indr kushal rath-yoddha (ratheshth), mahanh vijeta (vijendr) aur som ka palan karane vala 'somapa' hai. indr toofan aur megh ke bhi devata hai . ek shaktishali devata hone ke karan indr ka 'shatakratu' (ek sau shakti dharan karane vala) kaha gaya hai, vritr ka vadh karane ka karan 'vritrahan' aur 'madhavan' (danashil) ke roop men jana jata hai. unaki patni indrani athava shachi (oorja) hain. prachin bharatiy granthon men indr ke sath krishn ke virodh ka ullekh milata hai.

indr aur vishnu

parichay

indr ki charitavali men vritravadh ka bada mahattv hai.

  • adhikansh vaidik vidvanon ka mat hai ki vritr sookha (anavrishti) ka danav hai aur un badalon ka pratik hai jo akash men chhaye rahane par bhi ek boond jal nahin barasate. indr apane vajr prahar se vritraroopi danav ka vadh kar jal ko mukt karata hai aur phir prithvi par varsha hoti hai. oldenavarg evn hilabraint ne vritr-vadh ka doosara arth prastut kiya hai. unaka mat hai ki parthiv parvaton se jal ki mukti indr dvara huee hai.
  • hilabraint ne soory roopi indr ka varnan karate hue kaha hai: vritr shit (sardi) evn him ka pratik hai, jisase mukti keval soory hi dila sakata hai. ye donon hi kalpanaen indr ke do roopon ko prakat karati hain, jinaka pradarshan maidanon ke jhnjhavat aur himachchhadit parvaton par tapate hue soory ke roop men hota hai. vritr se yuddh karane ki taiyari ke vivaran se prakat hota hai ki devon ne indr ko apana nayak banaya tatha use shaktishali banane ke lie prabhoot bhojan-pan adi ki vyavastha huee. indr prabhoot somapan karata hai. indr ka astr vajr hai jo vidyut prahar ka hi ek kalpanik nam hai.
  • rigved men indr ko jahan anavrishti ke danav vritr ka vadh karane vala kaha gaya hai, vahin use ratri ke andhakar roopi danav ka vadh karane vala evn prakash ka janm dene vala bhi kaha gaya hai.
  • rigved ke tisare mandal ke varnananusar vishvamitr ke prarthana karane par indr ne vipasha (vyas) tatha shatadru nadiyon ke athah jal ko sukha diya, jisase bharaton ki sena asani se in nadiyon ko par kar gayi.

vibhinn prnsag

indr ke pita ka nam tvashta ya dyauah milata hai aur mata shavasi. shachi ya indrani usaki patni hai jisaki ganana saptamatrikaon men hoti hai. isako kahin par kashyap aur aditi ka putr bataya gaya hai to kahin par prajapati ka. jaynt usaka putr tha jisane sita ki jngha par chonch mari thi aur jo samudr mnthan ke samay amrit ghat lekar bhaga tha. bali aur pandav arjun bhi isi ke snsarg se paida hue the. vedon men agni aur soory ke sath isaki ganana hoti thi. yah airavat hathi ki savari karata hai. uchchaiahshrava isaka ghoda hai. vajr isaka astr aur amaravati isaka nivas hai. isake nndan van men parijat paya jata hai.

indr airavat hathi ki savari karate hue.

indr ki shaktiyan

indr ke yuddh kaushal ke karan aryon ne prithvi ke danavon se yuddh karane ke lie bhi indr ko sainik neta man liya. indr ke parakram ka varnan karane ke lie shabdon ki shakti aparyapt hai. vah shakti ka svami hai, usaki ek sau shaktiyan hain. chalis ya isase bhi adhik usake shaktisoochak nam hain tatha lagabhag utane hi yuddhon ka vijeta use kaha gaya hai. vah apane un mitron evn bhakton ko bhi vaisi vijay evn shakti deta hai, jo us ko somaras arpan karate hain.

indr evn varun ka snyukt varnan

nau sookton men indr evn varun ka snyukt varnan hai. donon ekata dharan kar som ka pan karate hain, vritr par vijay prapt karate hain, jal ki naharen khodate hain aur soory ka akash men niyamit parichalan karate hain. yuddh men sahayata, vijay pradan karana, dhan ev unnati dena, dushton ke viruddh apana shaktishali vajr bhejana tatha rajjurahit bandhan se bandhana adi karyon men donon men samanata hai. kintu yah samanata unake srishti vishayak gunon men kyon n ho, unamen maulik chh: antar hai:

  1. varun raja hai,
  2. asuratv ka sarvotkrisht sattadhari hai tatha usaki agyao ka palan devagan karate hain,
  3. jabaki indr yuddh ka premi evn vair-dhooli ko phailane vala hai.
  4. indr vajr se vritr ka vadh karata hai, jabaki varun sadhu (vinamr) hai aur vah sandhi ki raksha karata hai.
  5. varun shanti ka devata hai, jabaki indr yuddh ka dev hai evn marooton ke sath samman ki khoj men rahata hai.
  6. indr shatrutavash vritr ka vadh karata hai, jab ki varun apane vraton ki raksha karata hai.

pauranik mat

pauranik devamandal men indr ka vah sthan nahin hai jo vaidik devamandal men hai. pauranik devamandal men trimoorti-brahma, vishnu aur shiv-ka mahattv badh jata hai. indr phir bhi devadhiraj mana jata hai. vah dev-lok ki rajadhani amaravati men rahata hai, sudharma usaki rajasabha tatha sahastr mantriyon ka usaka mantrimandal hai. shachi athava indrani patni, airavat hathi (vahan) tatha astr vajr athava ashani hai. jab bhi koee manav apani tapasya se indrapad prapt karana chahata hai to indr ka sinhasan snkat men pad jata hai. apane sinhasan ki raksha ke lie indr pray: tapasviyon ko apsaraon se mohit kar pathabhrasht karata hua paya jata hai. puranon men is sambandh ki anek kathaen milati hain. pauranik indr shaktiman, samriddh aur vilasi raja ke roop men chitrit hai.

katha
indr
Indra

ek bar anavrishti ke karan akal pada. rishigan jivit the, tatha tapasyarat the. unhen nishchint dekhakar indr vahan par prakat hue aur unase poochhane lage ki ve kis prakar jivit hai? rishigan bole-'matr vrishti hi manushy ke jivan ka sadhan nahin hai. prakriti har sthiti aur ritu ke anukool manushy ke jivit rahane ka prabndh kar deti hai. udaharan ke lie maroobhoomi men bhi kuchh n kuchh khady upalabdh hota hi hai tathapi anavrishti kashtakar avashy rahati hai.' rishigan pun: tap rat ho gaye.[2]

prajapati ki ukti thi ki paparahit, jarashoony, mrityu-shok adi vikaron se rahit atma ko jo koee jan leta hai, vah snpoorn lok tatha sabhi kamanaon ko prapt kar leta hai. prajapati ki ukti sunakar devata tatha asur donon hi us atma ko janane ke lie utsuk ho uthe, at: devataon ke raja indr tatha asuron ke raja virochan paraspar eershyabhav ke sath hathon men samidhaen lekar prajapati ke pas pahunche. donon ne battis varsh tak brahmachary palan kiya, taduparant prajapati ne unake ane ka prayojan poochha. unaki jigyasa janakar prajapati ne unhen jal se apoorit sakore men dekhane ke lie kaha aur kaha ki vahi atma hai. donon sakoron men apana-apana pratibinb dekhakar, sntusht hokar chal pade. prajapati ne socha ki dev hon ya asur, atma ka sakshatkar kiye bina usaka parabhav hoga. virochan sntusht man se asuron ke pas pahunche aur unhen bataya ki atma (deh) hi poojaniy hai. usaki paricharya karake manushy donon lok prapt kar leta hai.

devataon ke pas pahunchane se poorv hi indr ne socha ki sakore men abhooshan pahanakar sajjit roop dikhata hai, khndit deh ka khndit roop, andhe ka andha roop, phir yah ajar-amar atma kaise huee? ve pun: prajapati ke pas pahunche. prajapati ne indr ko pun: battis varsh apane pas rakha taduparant bataya-'jo svapn men poojit hota hua vicharata hai, vahi atma, amrit, abhay tatha brahm hain.' indr pun: shnka lekar prajapati ki seva men prastut hue. is prakar tin bar battis-battis varsh tak tatha ek bar panch varsh tak (kul 101 varsh tak) indr ko brahmachary rakhakar prajapati ne unhen atma ke svaroop ka poorn gyan in shabdon men karavaya-

  • yah atma svaroop sthit hone par avidyakrit deh tatha indriyan man se yukt hain. sarvatmabhav ki prapti ke uparant vah akash ke saman vishuddh ho jata hai. atma ke gyan ko prapt kar manushy kartavy-karm karata hua apani ayu ki samapti kar brahmalok ko prapt hota hai aur phir nahin lautata.[3]

ramayan men indr

devataon ka raja indr kahalata tha. use meshavrishan bhi kahate hain. ram-ravan yuddh dekhakar kinnaron ne kaha ki yah yuddh saman nahin hai kyonki ravan ke pas to rath hai aur ram paidal hain. at: indr ne apana rath ram ke lie bheja, jisamen indr ka kavach, bada dhanush, ban tatha shakti bhi the. vinit bhav se hath jodakar matali ne ramachndr se kaha ki ve rathadi vastuon ko grahan karen.[4] yuddh-samapti ke bad ram ne matali ko agya di ki vah indr ka rath adi lautakar le jay[5]

durvasa muni ka shrap

ek bar indr madirapan kar unmatt ho gaye. ve ekant men rnbha ke sath krida kar rahe the, tabhi durvasa muni apane shishyon ke sath unake yahan pahunche. indr ne atithisatkar kiya. durvasa ne ashirvad ke sath ek parijat pushp indr ko diya. vah pushp vishnu se upalabdh hua tha. indr ko aishvary ka itana mad tha ki unhonne vah pushp apane hathi ke mastak par rakh diya. pushp ke prabhav se hathi alaukik garimayukt hokar jngal men chala gaya. indr use snbhalane men asamarth rahe. durvasa ne unhen shrihin hone ka shrap diya. amaravati bhi atynt bhrasht ho chali. indr pahale brihaspati ki aur phir brahma ki sharan men pahunche. samast devata vishnu ke pas gaye. unhonne lakshmi ko sagar-putri hone ki agya di. at: lakshmi sagar men chali gayi. vishnu ne lakshmi ke parityag ki vibhinn sthitiyon ka varnan karake unhen sagar mnthan karane ka adesh diya. mnthan se jo anek ratn nikale, unamen lakshmi bhi thi. lakshmi ne narayan ko varamala dekar prasann kiya.


sahastrar namak raja ki patni manas sundari jab garbhavati huee to udas rahane lagi. raja ke poochhane par usane bataya ki indr ka vaibhav dekhane ki usaki utkat abhilasha thi. raja ne use turnt indr ki riddhi ke darshan karaye. phalasvaroop usaki kokh se jis balak ne janm liya usaka nam indr hi rakha gaya. vanarendr indr ke vaibhav ke vishay men sunakar lnka ke adhipati mali ne apane chhote bhaee sumali ke sath indr par akraman kiya. anek sainikon ke sath mali mara gaya. sumali ne bhagakar patal lnkapuhri men pravesh kiya. tadanntar indr vastav men 'indravat' ho gaya. [6]

vatsanabh ki tapasya

  • vatsanabh namak maharshi ne kathor tapasya ka vrat liya. ve tapasyarat the.
  • unake sare sharir par dimak ne ghar bana liya.
  • banbi-roopi vatsanabh tab bhi tapasya men lage rahe.
  • indr ne bhayanak varsha ki, dimak ka ghar bah gaya tatha varsha ka prahar rishi ke sharir ko kasht pahunchane laga.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rigved .6.59.2
  2. rigved mndal 9
  3. chhandogyopanishad, adhyay 8, khnd 7-15.–
  4. balmiki ramayan, yuddh kand, sarg 103, shlok, 2-13
  5. balmiki ramayan, yuddh kand, sarg 115, shlok, 4
  6. pum charit, 7.1-41.-

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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