गौतम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गोतम se punarnirdeshit)

gautam jinhen 'akshapad gautam' ke nam se prasiddhi prapt hai, 'nyay darshan' ke pratham pravakta mane jate hain. inaki patni ka nam ahalya aur putr tatha putri ke nam kramash: shatanand v vijaya the. akshapad gautam ne 'nyay darshan' ka nirman to shayad nahin kiya, par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki nyay darshan ka sootrabaddh, vyavasthit roop akshapad ke 'nyayasootr' men hi pahali bar milata hai. maharshi gautam param tapasvi evn snyami the. maharaj vriddhashv ki putri ahilya inaki patni thi, jo maharshi ke shap se pashan ban gayi thi. treta yug men bhagavan shriram ki charan-raj se ahilya ka shapamochan hua, jisase vah pashan se pun: rishi patni bani.

dhanurdhar tatha smritikar

maharshi gautam ban vidya men atyant nipun the. jab ve apani banavidya ka pradarshan karate aur ban chalate to devi ahilya banon ko uthakar lati thi. ek bar ve der se lautin. jyeshth ki dhoop men unake charan tapt ho gaye the. vishram ke liye ve vriksh ki chhaya men baith gayi thin. maharshi ne soory devata par rosh kiya. soory ne brahman ke vesh men maharshi ko chhatta aur padatran (joota) nivedit kiya. ushnata nivarak ye donon upakaran usi samay se prachalit hue. maharshi gautam nyayashastr ke atirikt smritikar bhi the tatha unaka dhanurved par bhi koee granth tha, aisa vidvanon ka mat hai. unake putr shatanand nimi kul ke achary the. gautam ne gnga ki aradhana karake pap se mukti prapt ki thi. gautam tatha muniyon ko gnga ne poorn patitr kiya tha, jisase vah 'gautami' kahalayin. gautami nadi ke kinare trynbakamh shivaling ki sthapana ki gee, kyonki isi shart par vah vahan thaharane ke lie taiyar huee thin.

nyay darshan men gautam

upalabdh nyay darshan ke adi pravartak maharshi gautam hain. yahi 'akshapad' nam se bhi prasiddh hain. unhonne upalabdh nyayasootron ka pranayan kiya tatha is anvikshiki ko kramabaddh kar shastr ke roop men pratishthapit kiya. nyayavarttikakar udyotakarachary ne inako is shastr ka karta nahin vakta kaha hai-

yadakshapad: pravaro muninan shamay shastrn jagato jagad.[1]

at: ved vidya ki tarah is anvikshiki ko bhi vishvasrashta ka hi anugrahadan manana chahie. maharshi akshapad se pahale bhi yah vidya avashy rahi hogi. inhonne to sootron men bandhakar ise suvyavasthit, kramabaddh evn poornang karane ka saphal prayas kiya hai. isase shastr ka ek parinishthit svaroop prakash men aya aur chintan ki dhara apani gati evn paddhati se age ki or unmukh hokar badhane lagi. vatsyayan ne bhi nyayabhashy ke upasnhar men kaha hai ki rishi akshapad ko yah vidya pratibhat huee thi-

yoakshapadamrirshi nyay: pratyabhadh vadatan varamh.

nyayasootron ke parisiman se bhi gyat hota hai ki is shastr ki prishthabhoomi men avashy hi chirakal ki gaveshana tatha anek vishisht naiyyayikon ka yogadan raha hoga. anyatha nyayasootr itane parishkrit evn paripoorn nahin rahate. chaturth adhyay men sootrakar ne pravadukon ke maton ka uthakar snyuktik khandan kiya hai tatha apane siddhanton ki pratishtha ki hai. isase pratit hota hai ki unake samaksh anek darshanikon ke vichar avashy upalabdh the. mahabharat men bhi isaki pushti dekhi jati hai. vahan kaha gaya hai ki nyayadarshan anek hain. unamen se hetu, agam aur sadachar ke anukool nyayashastr parigrahy hai-

nyayatantranyanekani taistairuktani vadibhi:.
hetvagamasadacharairyadh yuktn tatpragrihyatamh॥[2]

mahabharat men ullekh

mahabharat ke adhyayan se vidit hota hai ki gautamiy nyay darshan ke siddhant us samay ke vidvatsamaj men adhik prachalit the. us samay ke pramukh rashtrahit chintak devarshi narad ko pnchavyavayukt nyayavaky ka gyata kaha gaya hai. yadyapi nyay ka dashavayavavad bhi kabhi prasiddh raha hoga, jo paravartikal men kisi ek deshiy naiyyayik ki parampara men surakshit raha, kintu maharshi gautam ko vah many nahin tha. at: usaka ullekh evn khandan 'nyayabhashy' men dekha jata hai. mahabharat men is dashavayavavad ka snket nahin milata hai. sath hi mahabharat men anek sthalon par pnchavayav nyayavaky ka ullekh hua hai. shantiparv men maharshi vyas ne yudhishthir ko upadesh dete hue kaha hai ki pratyaksh adi praman tatha pratigya adi panchavayav nyayavaky pramey ki siddhi ke lie prayojaniy hai. ye anek vargon ki siddhi ke sadhan hain. inamen bhi pratyaksh aur anuman nirnay ke pramukh adhar ke roop men svikrit hain.

pratyakshamanumann ch upamann tathagam:.
pratigya chaiv hetushch drishtantopanayau tatha.
uktn nigamann teshan prameyanch prayojanamh.
etani sadhananyahurvahuvargaprasiddhaye॥
pratyakshamanumann ch sarveshan yonirishyate.[3]

adiparv men varnit hai ki kanv rishi ke ashram men anek naiyayik raha rakate the, jo nyayatattvon ke karyakaranabhav, kathasambandhi sthapana, akshep aur siddhant adi ke gyata the.[4] yudhishthir ke ashvamedh ygy men naiyyayikagan upasthit the, jo paraspar vijay ki ichchha rakhate the.

tasminh ygye pravritte tu vagmino hetuvadin:.
hetuvadanh bahoonahu: parasparajigishav:॥[5]

nyay darshan mokshavastha men dharm tatha adharm adi atmavishesh gunon ka uparam svikar karata hai. isaka snket mahabharat men milata hai-

apunyapunyoparame yn punarbhavanirbhaya:.
shanta: sannyasino yanti tasmai mokshatmane nam:॥ [6]

nyayabhashy ke hey, han, upay aur adhigantavy roop char prasiddh arthatattv mahabharat men spashtat: nirdisht hain-

du:khn vidyadupadanadabhimanachch vardhate.
tyagattebhyo nirodh: syath nirodhgyo vimuchyate॥[7]

maharaj yudhishthir ko rajadharm ka upadesh dete samay pitamah bhishm ne kaha hai ki pratyaksh, anuman, upaman tatha agam roop nyayadarshan ke prasiddh pramanon se parikshit kar apane tatha paraye ki pahachan rakhana avashyak hai.

pratyakshenanumanen tathopamyagamairapi.
parikshyaste maharaj sve pare chaiv nityash:॥[8]

isase pratit hota hai ki nyayavidya chirakal se hi dridhamool ki tarah vishal aur vaividhyapoorn rahi hai, jo ved, puran, smriti tatha mahabharat adi prachin granthon men vikirn hai. nyayasootrakar maharshi gautam ke samaksh sudridh adharashila ki tarah nyay darshan ke anek prasiddh siddhant upalabdh the. inamen se yuktisngat siddhanton ka chayan kar use shastr roop men pratishthit karane ke shreyas ka labh inhonne kiya. phalasvaroop aj ham logon ko poornang, suvyavasthit aur kramabaddh nyayadarshan upalabdh hai.

nyayasootr ke rachayita

charak snhita ke viman sthan men snbhasha vidhi ki charcha ati hai, aur usamen vadamarg gyan ke lie janane layaq tatvon ki jo soochi milati hai, vahi soochi gautam ke solah padarthon ke lie adharabhoot thi, aisa tark kiya ja sakata hai. satish chandr vidyabhooshan ke mat men 'charakasnhita' men milane vala nyay darshan medhatithi gautam dvara pratipadit nyay darshan hai. unake mat men akshapad se pahale nyay darshan ke rachayita, medhatithi gautam hue the, jinaka ullekh mahabharat, bhasakrit pratibhanatak jaise granthon men milata hai. vidyabhooshan ke anusar akshapad gautam ne hi nyay darshan ko vah roop diya, jis roop men nyay darshan aj upalabdh hai. adhunik pndit kahane lage hain ki nyayasootr ka koee ek karta nahin hai, balki nyayasootr kee bhagon men vikasit hua, jinamen se pahale kuchh ki rachana eesa poorv hai. aj nyayasootr ka jo roop dikhaee deta hai, usaka poorn roop doosari sadi men sampann hua. ji. obar haimar ka kahana hai ki nyayasootr ke pahale aur akhiri (panchaven) adhyay ka kal bahut hi prachin hai. usake mat men tisare aur chauthe adhyay kisi doosari kriti se lie ge the, aur chauthi sadi ke bad ve baki adhyayon ke sath jod diye ge.

nyay darshan ke padarth

ek bat nishchit hai ki akshapad ke nam se prachalit nyayasootr n keval prachin naiyayikon ke lie, balki navy naiyayikon ke lie bhi ek pramanabhoot granth raha. yadyapi nyay darshan ek parivartanashil darshan pratit hota hai, tathapi har ek naiyayik akshapad gautam ko apt (yatharthavakta) ke roop men dekhata hai aur unake vachanon ko kabhi apani mati ke to kabhi prachalit nyay parampara ke anusar spashtikaran aur samarthan karane ka prayas karana hai. gautam ke nyay darshan ka pradhan pratipady vishay praman aur bad hai. isilie gautam ka nyay darshan mukhyat: pranalishastr hai. use moolat: satta shastr kahana kathin hai. gautam is bat ka dhyan bhi zaroor rakhate hain ki praman aur vad tatvgyan ke sadhanamatr hain. 'padarthon' ka achchhi tarah se gyan hone se manushy moksh ke layaq ban sakata hai, aur 'padarthon' ke gyan ke lie praman aur vad sadhan hain, jinaka gyan nyay darshan ka pramukh kshetr hai.

gautam ke nyay darshan ke solah padarth is prakar hain- praman, pramey, snshay, prayojan, drishtant, siddhant, avayav, tark, nirnay, vad, jalp, vitanda, hetvabhas, chhal, jati, nigrah sthan.

adhyay snkhya

gautam ke nyayasootr ke panch adhyay hain. pahale adhyay men gautam ne solah padarthon ki soochi dete hue unake lakshan tatha kuchh sthool prakar die hain. doosare adhyay men gautam ne snshay aur praman ki vishesh pariksha ki hai. tisare aur chauthe adhyay men prameyon ka vishesh vivechan kiya hai. panchaven adhyay men gautam ne jati aur nigrah sthan ka savistar vargikaran kiya hai. isase maloom hota hai ki yadyapi gautam ne solah padarthon ka lakshan tatha vargikaran kiya hai, tathapi praman, pramey tatha snshay, in tin padarthon ko unhonne vishesh pariksha ki hai. prameyon ka vivechan gautam ne bade vistar se kiya hai aur yah karate samay samakalin sattashastriy siddhanton ki charcha bhi gautam ne ki hai. is vivechan men jin maton ka khndan milata hai, usamen charvakon ka dehatmak, sankhyon ka parinamavad, abhavakaranavad[9], eeshvar karanavad 'sab kuchh anity hai' abhyupagam[10], 'sab kuchh nity hai' yah abhyupagam, jo brahmavad ke najadik ata hai, 'sab kuchh prithakh hai' yah abhyupagam, jo 'sab kuchh svalakshan hai' is bauddhamat se samarthy rakhata hai, ityadi bahut se siddhant hain. isamen yah spasht pratit hota hai ki bauddh darshan men paye jane vale anek vichar gautam ne poorvapaksh ke roop men prastut kie hain. gautam ne mithya gyan ki nivritti aur apavarg men jo karan-kary snbndh bataya hai[11] vah buddh ke pratityasamutpad ke siddhant ka anshik anukaran maloom hoti hai. is sab nirdeshon se pratit hota hai ki akshapad gautam buddh ke pashchatavarti the aur anshat: bauddh vicharon se prabhavit the.

eeshvarakaranavad ka khndan

parampara men mana gaya hai ki gautam ne abhav se bhav ki utpatti hone ka jo siddhant poorvapaksh ke roop men liya hai, vah bauddhon ka shoonyavad hai. gautam ki pramey pariksha men aur ek bat par prakash padata hai. parampara men mana jata hai ki nyay darshan shuroo se eeshvaranishth darshan hai. lekin is pramey pariksha men gautam eeshvarakaranavad ka khndan karate hue nazar ate hain. tikakaron ne is eeshvar khndan ka spashtikaran karate hue kaha hai ki gautam ne vedantiyon ke is siddhant ka khndan kiya hai ki eeshvar jagath ka upadan karan hai. lekin eeshvar jagath ka nimitt karan hai, is mat ka gautam ne samarthan hi kiya hai. par jis sootr ka adhar ye tikakar lete hain, usaka arth nimitt karan eeshvar ke anukool lagana aur prakrit sndarbh men usaki sntoshajanak utpatti dena kathin hai. gautam eeshvaravadi nahin the, yah siddh karane ke lie doosara bhi adhar milata hai. gautam ke mat men apavarg prapti ke lie jin padarthon ka gyan avashyak tha, un padarthon ka samavesh gautam ne 'pramey' tattv men kiya tha. un prameyon ki soochi men pahala hi pramey atma hai. gautam ne atma ka jo vivaran diya hai, usase spasht hai ki gautam ka ullikhit atma 'jivatma' hi tha. gautam ki pramey soochi men 'paramatma' ka koee sthan nahin hai. agar gautam eeshvaravadi hote to unhonne prameyon ki soochi men eeshvar ko vishesh sthan diya hota. bhasarvgy namak pashchatavarti naiyayik ke 'nyayasar' men ham dekh sakate hain ki vahan eeshvar hi sabase adhik mahattv rakhane vala pramey mana gaya hai.

tatvgyan ki prapti

gautam ke anusar tatvgyan prapt karane ke lie pramanon ka sahara lena avashyak hai tatha tatvgyan ka snrakshan tatha snvardhan karane ke lie vad paddhati ka sahayy zaroori hai. gautam kahate hain ki jis prakar bagiche ko pashuon se tatha choron se bachane ke lie usaki simaon par kanten bikherane padate hain, usi prakar alp, vitanda adi vad prakaron ka bure hote hue bhi tatvanishchay ka rakshan karane ke lie istemal karana padata hai. naiyayikon ko chahie ki ve unaka istemal jab kabhi zaroorat ho karen.

yatharth gyan ke sadhan

gautam ke anusar praman, yatharth gyan ke char sadhan hain-

  1. pratyaksh praman
  2. anuman praman
  3. upaman praman
  4. shabd praman

pratyaksh praman

indriyon ka vishay ke sath snbndh hone par jo gyan milata hai, jo shabdatmak nahin hota, tatha jo bad men khndit ya badhit n hone vala nishchayatmak gyan hota hai, vahi pratyaksh hai. gautam ne, prama-yatharth anubhav aur praman, us yatharth anubhav ka karan yane sadhan, inamen antar nahin kiya, isilie unhonne pratyaksh praman ko hi pratyaksh praman kar diya hai. pashchatavarti naiyayikon ne prama aur praman men hone vala antar spasht kiya. jayntabhatt ne apani 'nyayamnjari' men dikhaya hai ki pratyaksh praman ke is gautamakrit lakshan men 'khndit n hone vala nishchayatmak gyan'[12] yah varnan sab pramanon ko saman roop se lagoo hota hai.

anuman praman

pratyaksh ke bad gautam ne anuman ka varnan kiya hai. gautam ne anuman ka 'lakshan' nahin diya. anuman 'pratyakshapoorvak' gyan hai. lekin pratyakshapoorvakatv to upaman aur shabd praman men bhi saman hai. isalie gautam ke kiye hue anuman ke vargikaran ke adhar par anuman ka any pramanon se bhed karane ki koshish nyayasootr ke tikakaron ne ki hai. gautam ke anusar anuman tin prakar ka hai- poorvavath, sheshavath aur samanyatodrisht. is vargikaran ka nishchit arth batane men vastyayan, udyotakar adi asaphal rahe hain. lekin sankhyakarika ki gaudapadakrit tika tatha dinanagapoorv bauddh tarkagranthon men paye jane vale ullekhon ke adhar par ham is vargikaran ka arth sthool roop men is prakar bata sakate hain-

  1. jisamen poorvakalin udaharanon ke adhar par vartamanakalin ya bhavishyakalin sadhy siddh kiya jata hai, vah poorvavath anuman hai. jaise ki asaman men badal ghire hue dekhakar ham anuman lagate hain ki ab barish hogi. ya dhoom aur agni ka hamesha sath rahana hamane dekha hai, isase ham vartaman men dekhe ge dhoom ke bare men anuman lagate hain ki yah dhoom bhi kisi agni se utpann hua hai.
  2. jisamen vartaman vastu sthiti ka hi ekadesh dekhakar usake avashisht desh ke sambandh men anuman kiya jata hai, vah sheshavath anuman hai. jaise ki samudr ki ek boond chakhakar samudr ka sara pani khara hai, aisa anuman.
  3. jis anuman men diye jane vale pratyaksh drisht udaharan sadhy ke sakshath udaharan nahin hai, sadhy ki jati ke nahin hain, balki sadhy ke sadrish hain, vah anuman samany yani sadrishy par adharit hone ke karan samanyatodrisht kahalata hai, balki sadhy ka darshan sadrishy ke madhyam se hi ho sakata hai. jaise ki chndr ki gati ham pratyakshat: nahin dekh sakate, lekin chndr apana sthan badalata hai, itana ham dekh sakate hain. is sthanantaran se ham anuman lagate hain ki chndr zaroor gatiman hai. usi prakar gyanendriyon ka pratyaksh gyan hamen kabhi nahin hota hai, balki doosare kriyasadhakon ke sath sadrishy janakar gyan sadhan ke roop men ham sirf unaka anuman hi kar sakate hain.

upaman praman

tisara upaman praman hai. upaman kisi aprasiddh vastu ki aisi janakari hai, jo prasiddh vastu ke sath usaka sadharmy janakar hoti hai. jaise hamen agar gavay namak prani ki janakari n ho aur hamen kisi saty vakta ne bataya ho ki gavay bail hota hai, to usake batae hue sadrishy ke adhar par ham gavay ko pahachan sakate hain. chautha shabd praman hai, jo apt (yatharthavakta) ka vachan hai.

shabd praman

atma, sharir, indriy, (pnch gyanendriy), arth (rooparasagandhasparshashabd) buddhi (gyan), manas, pravritti, dosh, pretyabhav (maranottar astitv) phal, du:kh aur apavarg (moksh) yah barah pramey hain. inake svaroop ka gyan apavarg ke lie upayogi hai. gautam manate hain ki apavarg ke lie sarvapratham mithya gyan ka nash hona chahie. usi se kam, krodhadi doshon ka nash ho sakata hai. usase karm ke prati pravritti ka nash hoga tatha pravritti nash se hi punarjanm shrinkhala khndit hogi. punarjanm shrinkhala khndit hone se hi du:kh ka nash hoga aur du:kh nash hi apavarg ka svaroop hai. isilie yah svabhavik hi hai ki du:kh, janm (pratyabhav), pravritti, dosh, gyan tatha apavarg aur inake ashrayabhoot dravy atma, sharir, indrie, arth aur manas ke svaroop ke bare men mithya gyan nasht ho, kyonki yatharth gyan hona apavarg ke lie atyavashyak hai. is prakar gautam ke prameyon ki soochi unake dvara pratipadit moksh marg se talluk rakhati hai.

jab kisi vastu men kisi any vastu ke anek saman dharm dikhaee dete hain, jaise- khambhe men oonchaee, kalapan adi jo kisi manushy men bhi dikhaee dete hain, lekin jinake adhar par bhed kiya ja sake, aise vishesh dharm spasht nahin dikhaee dete, tab snshay paida hota hai, jaise- khambhe ke bare men yah khambha hai, aisa nishchay n ho, balki khambhapan aur manushyatv in donon vishesh dharmon ka smaran ho, tab donon vishesh dharmon men se kaun-sa vishesh dharm hai, age ane vali vastu khambha hai ya manushy, aisa snshay ho sakata hai. nyay darshan men snshay ka bada mahatv hai. prachan naiyayikon ne kaha hai ki snshay hi nyay ka dvar hai.

siddhant ke prakar

jis uddeshy se koee prani pravritt hota hai, vah prayojan hai. jisake bare men samany jan tatha parikshak donon ki sahamati hoti hai, vah drishtant kahalata hai. siddhant char prakar ka hota hai-

  1. sarvatntr - yah sab shastrakaron ko many hai.
  2. pratitntr - yah thode hi shastrakaron ko many hai.
  3. adhikaran- jisake adhar par doosare siddhant siddh kie jate hain.
  4. abhyupagam - jo kisi doosare siddhant ki siddhi ke lie thodi der ke lie svikrit kiya jata hai.

nyay men avayav ek vishesh tatv hai. avayav ka arth hai, anuman ke ghatak, jab koee vyakti kisi hetu par adharit anuman ka prayog karata hai, tab use ek vishisht akar men hi prastut karana chahie, aisa tarkik manate hain. vah uchit akar kya hai, isake bare men darshanikon men matabhed hain. gautam ke aur bad men hue vaisheshikon ke anusar yah akar panch ghatakon s banata hai- pratigya (sadhy ka kathan), hetu (hetu ya sadhan ka kathan), drishtant (udaharan), upanay (drishtant aur sadhy men apekshit sadharmy ya vaidharmy ka pradarshanash) aur nigaman (nishkarsh ka pratipadan). karanotpatti ke (karyakaran bhav ke) adhar par tatv nishchiti ki disha men jo vichar kiya jata hai vah vichar tark hai. paksh aur pratipaksh ka vichar karate hue jo padarth ka nishchay kiya jata hai, vahi nirnay hai.

snbhasha ka vargikaran

charakasnhita men snbhasha ka (charcha, bahas) vargikaran do prakaron men kiya gaya tha-

  1. sndhayasnbhasha - jab do vadi ek doosare ka parabhav karane ki aur khud vijay pane ki ichchha nahin rakhate hain, balki gyan pane ke lie charcha karate hain, tab vah charcha sndhayasnbhasha kahalati hai.
  2. vigrihyasnbhasha - jab bahas men pratipaksh ko parajit karane ki ichchha rahati hai, tab vah bahas vigrihyasnbhasha kahalati hai.

gautam ne nyayasootr men sndhayasnbhasha ka hi ullekh 'vad' nam se kiya tatha jise charak ne vigrihyasnbhasha kaha, usi ka vargikaran jalp aur vitanda men kiya. jalp aur vitanda men antar yah hai ki jalp karane vala apana paksh sthapan karate hue pratipaksh ka khndan karane ka prayas karata hai. vitanda karane vala bhi pratipaksh ka khndan karane ka yatn zaroor karata hai, lekin apana koee paksh sthapit nahin karata. pashchaty darshanon men jise snshayavad (skeptisizm) ke nam se jana jata hai, usaka vyavahar vitanda ka anupam udaharan hai.

hetvabhas

anumanon men jo hetu pesh kiya jata hai, vah sadosh ho to use hetvabhas kahate hain. gautam ne panch hetvabhason ka nirdesh kiya hai. bad men un hetvabhason ka arth badala, nam aur snkhya vahi qayam rakhi gayi. vad, jalp aur vitanda, tinon prakar ki bahas men hetvabhas snbhav hai. jab vadi prativadi ke bolane ka doosara hi arth lagakar prativadi ke bolane men badha dalata hai, tab use chhal kaha jata hai. gautam ne usake tin prakar batae hain.

jati ka arth

jati ka arth hai akshep, jo sadharmy ya vaidharmy ke adhar par upasthit kiya jata hai. jab vadi ki yukti ka khndan kisi samarth pratiyukti se karana prativadi ke lie snbhav nahin hota, tab prativadi sadharmyashrit ya vaidharmyashrit akshep ka prayog karata hai. yah akshep samarth nahin hota, lekin samarth akshep ka adhar hota hai. isalie bad men ise dooshanabhas nam mila. charakasnhita men 'uttar' nam ka tatv ullikhit hai, jo jati ke sadrish hai. lekin vad paddhati men mahattv rakhane vale is jati tantr ka vistrit vichar pahale gautam ne hi prastut kiya, aisa maloom padata hai. gautam ne jati ke chaubis prakaron ka nirdesh kiya hai. isase bad men hamesha prayukt ki jane vali yuktiyon ka gautam ne kitani gaharaee se adhyayan kiya tha, yah bhi spasht dikhaee deta hai. arastu ki 'sofistikal refyuteshns' men jo tatv hai, vahi jati ka mool tatv dikhata hai. gautam ne samakalin sofiston ka adhyayan hi nahin kiya, balki kisi ek had tak (achchhe uddeshyon se prerit) sofijm ka prastav bhi kiya tha.

nigrah sthan

jab koee vadi apana paksh saphalata ke sath siddh karata hai tatha pratipaksh ka dosh spashtata ke sath diya jata hai, tab pratipaksh parabhoot hota hai. vahi pratipaksh ke parabhav ka sthal hai, jise gautam ne nigrah sthan kaha. jati aur nigrah sthan ke prakaron ka vishad vivechan gautam ne panchaven adhyay men kiya hai. gautam ke pahale jo nyay darshan pravritt hua tha, use anvikshiki kaha jata hai. anvikshiki ke arth do hain- hetuvidya aur atmavidya. aisa lagata hai ki gautam se pahale nyay ka svaroop pramanavidya tatha vadavidya hi tha. nyay ki koee apani sattashastriy bhoomika nahin thi. yadyapi gautam ka nyay darshan bhi prastut roop se pramanavidya tatha vadavidya hi tha tathapi gautam ne pramey padarth ka savistar vichar karate he 'atma' ko nyay darshan ka ek vichary vishay banakar usaka pratipadan kiya. is prakar gautam ka nyay darshan hetu vidya aur atm vidya in donon arthon men anvikshiki siddh hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani

  1. nyayavarttik ka mangalacharan.
  2. mahabharat shantiparv 210.22
  3. shantiparv mahabharat 24.11-14
  4. mahabharat, adiparv 71.42-45
  5. ashvamedhikaparv 85.57
  6. shantiparv mahabharat 47.36
  7. shantiparv mahabharat 241.19
  8. shantiparv mahabharat 56.41
  9. jisaka vargikaran bauddhon ke shoonyavad ke sath kiya jata hai
  10. jo ki bauddhon ka mana ja sakata hai
  11. (nyayasootr 1.12)
  12. avyabhichari, vyavasayatmak gyanamh

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