अकलंकदेव  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

achary akalnkadev jain darshan men ek yug nirmata ke roop men jane jate hain. shilalekhon evn granthon men prapt ullekhon ke adhar par ve athavin shati (ee. 720-780) ke achary mane jate hain. ye jain nyay ke pratishthata kahe jate hain. anekant, syadvad adi siddhanton par jab tikshnata se bauddh aur vaidik vidvanon dvara dohara prahar kiya ja raha tha tab sookshmaprgy akalnkadev ne un praharon ko apane vad-vidyakavach se nirast karake anekant, syadvad, saptabhngi adi siddhanton ko surakshit kiya tha tatha pratipakshiyon ko sabal javab diya tha. inhonne saikadon shastrarth kiye aur jainanyay par bade jatil evn durooh granthon ki rachana ki hai. unake ve nyayagranth nimn hain-

  1. nyay-vinishchay
  2. siddhi-vinishchay
  3. praman-sngrah
  4. laghiyastray
  5. devagam-vivriti (ashtashati)
  6. tattvarthavartik v usaka bhashy adi.

parichay

akalnk ke pita ka nam purushottam tha, jo manyakhet nagari ke raja shubhatung ke mntri the. ve do bhaee the-akalnk aur nishkalnk. donon hi bahut bade vidyabhyasi the. unake man men bauddhon ke dvara jain mat ke viruddh uthaye gaye akshepon ko nirmool sabit karane ki jigyasa prabal roop se jag padi thi aur usi uddeshy ki poorti hetu donon bhaiyon ne bauddh math men gupt roop se rahakar bauddh shastron ka adhyayan kiya. parantu ek din bhed khul jane ke kararan un donon ke samaksh maut a khadi huee. kisi tarah akalnk ki jan to bach gee, lekin nishkalnk ko pranadand se mukti n mil saki. akalnk jain nyay ke snsthapak kahe jate hain. isaka yah arth nahin samajhana chahie ki jain nyay jaisi kaee chiz thi hi nahin. samantabhadr, siddhasen adi acharyon ne jain darshan ka pratipadan karate samay jain nyay ko chhod nahin diya tha. kintu jain nyay men jo suvyavastha aur sudridhata dekhi jati hai, usaka shrey akalnk ko hi hai. akalnk ke pahale ke acharyon ne jo bhoomika taiyar ki thi, usake adhar par unhonne jain nyay ka ek bhavy prasad khada kiya. isi se kabhi-kabhi jain nyay ko 'akalnk nyay' bhi kaha jata hai.

rachanaen

akalnk ne umasvati ke 'tatvarthasootr' tatha samantabhadr ki 'aptamimansa' par kramash: 'tatvartharajavartik' tatha 'ashtashati' namak tika likhi hai. 'tatvartharajavartik' men jain dharm evn darshan ke vibhinn pakshon ke vivechan milate hain tatha 'ashtashati' men pishesh roop se anekantavad ka pratipadan hua hai. jain nyay ko sudridhata pradan karane ke lie akalnk ne 'laghiyastray, 'nyayavinishchay', 'siddhivinishchay' tatha 'praman sngrah' ki rachana ki. laghiyastray men tin karan hain- praman pravesh, nay pravesh tatha pravachan pravesh. pahale ye tin svatntr granthon ke roop men the, kintu bad men inhen ek hi granth laghistray ke roop men snkalit kar diya gaya. aisa mana jata hai ki jain nyay ka yah pahala granth hai, jisamen praman, ney aur nikshep ka tarkik pranali se niroopan hua hai. itana hi nahin balki kshanikavad ka khndan bhi isamen kiya gaya hai. nyayavinishchay men tin prastav hain- pratyaksh, anuman aur pravachan. inaki tulana siddhasen virachit 'nyayavatar' ke pratyaksh, anuman aur shrut tatha bauddhanyayachary dharmakirti dvara pratipadit pratyaksh, svarthanuman evn pararthanuman se ki jati hai. 'siddhivinishchay' men barah prastav hain- inamen praman, nay, nikshep adi vishleshit hain. 'praman sngrah' men kul 88 karikaen hain, jo 9 prastavon men bnti huee hain. inamen pratyaksh, anuman, hetu aur hetvabhas, vad, pravachan, saptabhngi, nay, praman, nikshep adi ki pratishtha badi hi tarkik kushalata ke sath huee hai.

praman siddhant

jain nyay men praman ko paribhashit karate hue sarvapratham samantabhadr ne kaha hai ki yah gyan praman ho sakata hai, jo sv aur par ka avabhasak ho. siddhasen divakar ne samantabhadr ke dvara ki gee paribhasha ka samarthan to kiya hai, kintu usamen ek visheshan badha diya hai. unake anusar praman vahi gyan ho sakata hai, jo sv aur par ka avabhasi hone ke sath hi 'badhavivarjit' bhi ho. akalnk ne praman pratishtha karate hue nimnalikhit siddhant prastut kiya hai- praman ko avisnvadi hona chahie. snshay, viparyay aur anadhyavasay se yukt gyan ko visnvadi kahate hain. at: praman vah gyan hai, jisamen snshay, viparyay evn anadhyavasay n ho. parantu koee bhi gyan n poorn roop men praman ho pata hai aur n apraman hi. avisnvad ke adhiky ke karan koee gyan praman ho jata hai aur visnvad ke adhiky ke karan apraman. itana hi nahin apitu praman ko 'vyavasayatmak' bhi hona chahie. praman vyavasayatmak tabhi hota hai, jab vah savikalpak hota hai. at: nirvikalpak, kalpanapraudh evn avyapadeshy gyan praman ki koti men nahin rakhe ja sakate hain. is siddhant ke adhar par bauddhadarshan ke nirvikalpak pratyaksh tatha nyay darshan ke avyapadeshy arthath avikalpak pratyaksh ke siddhanton ka khndan hota hai. praman ke lakshan ko batate hue jahan par samantabhadr ne 'sv', 'par' aur 'apabhasak' shabdon ko rakha hai, vahin par akalnk ne kramash: 'atma', arth' aur 'grahak' shabdon ka prayog kiya hai. praman ke vishay ka niroopan karate hue akalnk ne kaha hai ki dravy paryay tatha samany vishesh hi nahin, balki atmarth yani 'sv' aur 'arth' bhi praman ke vishay hote hain. akalnk ke anusar praman ke do pradhan bhed hain- pratyaksh aur paroksh. pratyaksh pun: do bhagon men vibhajit hota hai- mukhy evn sanvyavaharik. mukhy pratyaksh ke antargat tin prakar ke gyan hote hain- avadhi, man:paryay aur keval. sanvyavaharik pratyaksh ke roop men mati-gyan ata hai. paroksh gyan ke panch bhed hain- smriti, pratyabhigyan, tark anuman aur agam. pratyaksh ki koti men ve gyan ate hain jo 'vishad' hain. vaishady ko paribhashit karate hue akalnk ne kaha hai jo anuman se adhik (niyat desh, kal tatha akar ke roop men) visheshon ki pratibhasana karata hai, use vishad gyan kahate hain. pratyaksh gyan ki aspashtata par bal dene ke lie akalnk ne 'sakar' aur 'anjasa' padon ka vyavahar kiya hai.

gyan ki prapti

agamon men atma se prapt hone vale gyan ko pratyaksh kaha gaya hai kyonki unamen 'aksh' ka arth atma liya gaya hai. shesh sabhi gyan paroksh ki koti se rakhe ge hain. man aur indriyon se prapt hone vale gyanon ko bhi paroksh gyan hi kaha gaya hai. kintu jainetar paramparaon tatha samany vyavahar men man aur indriyon se prapt gyan ko pratyaksh gyan kaha gaya hai. akalnk ne man aur indriyon se prapt gyan ko sanvyavaharik pratyaksh kaha hai. yadyapi paramarthik ya ya adhyatmik drishti se yah gyan paroksh ki koti men hi ate hain, tathapi lok vyavahar tatha itar darshanon men inhen pratyaksh mana jata hai. sath hi vaishady bhi anshik roop se inamen paya jata hai. isalie inhen pratyaksh kah sakate hain. parantu inake lie pratyaksh nam hi uchit hoga. atma se prapt pratyaksh ko mukhy pratyaksh kahate hain. isake tin bhed hain- avadhi, man:paryay aur keval.

avadhi-gyan

jo gyan avadhigyanavaran tatha viryantaray ke kshayopasham se utpann hota hai, use avadhigyan kahate hain. isaka vishay keval roopi dravy hota hai. dravy, kshetr, kal tatha bhav ke drishtikon se isaki maryadaen hoti hain. isalie inhen avadhi-gyan kahate hain. jo gyan doosare ke man ki baton ki janakari karata hai, use man:paryay gyan kahate hain. avadhi gyan ka anantarvabhag isaka kshatr hai.

keval-gyan

keval-gyan sarvgyta ki sthiti hai. isamen sabhi dravyon aur paryayon ko janane ki kshamata prapt ho jati hai. jab kabhi gyanavaran nasht ho jate hain, tab keval-gyan ki utpatti hoti hai. yah poornaroopen nirmal ya vishad hota hai. any sabhi gyan isi men vilin ho jate hain. yah atma ki svabhavik sthiti hoti hai. avaranon ke hat jane par atma sabhi ksheyon ko jan leta hai. tatvarthasootr men mati aur shrut ko paroksh gyan kaha gaya hai. kintu akalnk ne kaha hai ki mati, smriti, sngya, chinta, abhinibodh shabd roop men ane se poorv matigyan ki koti men rakhe jate hain, parantu shabd roop men abhivyakt hone par shrutgyan ho jate hain. mati gyan men ashink se vaishady hota hai, at: use pratyaksh gyan samajha ja sakata hai. lekin shrut gyan avishad hota hai. isalie use paroksh kahate hain.

man:paryay

poorvanubhav ke snskar ki punaravritti smriti kahi jati hai. ise 'grihitagrahi' kahakar any darshanon men praman ki koti men nahin rakha gaya hai. yah utani hi chijon ko prastut karati hai jitani poorvanubhav men aee huee hoti hai. at: yah poorvanubhav ki sima ke andar hoti hai. akalnk ne smriti ko paroksh mana hai, kyonki isamen avisnvad dekha jata hai. yadi isamen avisnvad n mana jaye to anuman, shabd vyavahar adi sabhi nirarthak ho jayenge. choonki smriti paratntr hota hai, isalie ise paroksh praman kaha ja sakata hai, kintu apraman nahin kaha ja sakata. vartaman ko dekhakar usake atit ko dhyan men lana, phir donon ke milane ke parinamasvaroop gyan ki prapti karana pratyabhigyan kahalata hai. ise bauddh nyay men praman nahin mana gaya hai. naiyayik ise manas vikalp kahate hain tatha mimansakon ki drishti men yah indriy pratyaksh hai. akalnk ne ise svatntr praman ghoshit kiya hai.

akalnk aur any darshanik

any darshanikon ne tark ko n to praman ki koti men rakha hai aur n hi apraman ki koti men. kintu akalnk ne kaha hai ki tark ko praman manana hi hoga, kyonki yah vyaptigrahi hai. yadi ise praman n mana jayega to vyapti ka kya hoga. itana hi nahin balki apane sambandh men tark avisnvadi bhi hota hai. 'nyay-vinishchay' men akalnk ne kaha hai ki sadhan se sadhy ke vishay men gyan prapt karana anuman hai. ling aur vyapti ke pichhe (anu) hone vala gyan anuman kaha jata hai. unake anusar avinabhav hi anuman ka lakshan hai. anuman ke kee avayav mane gaye hain, kintu akalnk ne keval pratigya aur hetu ko hi paryapt mana hai. unhonne kary svabhav aur anupalabdhi ke alava karan hetu, poorvachar hetu, uttar hetu aur sahachar hetu ko prithakh manane ka samarthan kiya hai. choonki anuman ka ek hi lakshan (avinabhav) mana gaya hai, isalie usake abhav men ek hi hetvabhas mana jana chahie. parantu avinabhav ka abhav vibhinn prakaron se hota hai. isalie hetvabhas ke char prakar mane ja sakate hain- viruddh, asiddh, sandigdh tatha akinchitkar. naiyayikon ne chhaladi ka prayog sahi mana hai, parantu akalnk ke anusar chhal ka prayog uchit nahin, kyonki chhaladi se utpann jalp, vitanda adi ke astitv men ve vishvas nahin karate. ve mithya uttar ko jatyuttar manate hain. sath hi yah bhi kahate hain ki mithya uttaron ki ginati nahin ho sakati, kyonki ye anant hain. saptabhngi ke pratipadan men pramanasaptabhngi tatha nayasaptabhngi ke lie kramash: sakaladesh aur vikaladesh ki yojana akalnk ke dvara hi banaee gee hai. nayaniroopan tatha anekant-vivechan bhi unake granthon men vyavasthit dhng se hua hai.

is prakar akalnk ne jain nyay ko ek vyavasthit roop pradan kiya hai, jisake karan ham unhen usi koti men pratishthit karate hain, jisamen dharmakirti, kumaril, prabhakar adi ate hain. vidyanand ne sambhavat: isi karan 'siddhervatrakalnkasy mahato nyayavedin:[1] vachanon dvara akalnk ko 'mahanyayavetta' jastik-nyayadhish kaha hai.


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