अलग़ज़ाली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alagazali

alagazali (1058-1111 ee.) snsar ke un prasiddh vyaktiyon men se ek hain, jinaki yogyata aur gyan ka loha unake jivan kal men hi sabane man liya tha. imam gazali sahab any vidvanon ki tarah kisi ek vidya ke nahin, balki ek hi sath kee vidyaon ke gyata the. ve vidvanh bhi the aur darshanik bhi, soofi bhi the aur dharm mimansak bhi, mutakallim (vad-vidyanuyayi) bhi the aur vicharak bhi. parantu imam sahab ka badappan is bat men hai ki ve pahale vyakti the, jinhonne sachchaee ki khoj men sare vishv ka chakkar lagaya, kathinaeeyan jhelin aur us samay ki samast vidyaon aur shikshaon ka naye sire se adhyayan kiya tatha ant men us sachchaee ko prapt karane men saphal hue, jisaki talash ke lie unhonne adhyapan kary chhoda aur apana sarvasv nyauchhavar kar diya.

jivan parichay

imam sahab, jinaka nam muhammad, jati hujajtulislam aur gazali upanam hai, pndrahavi shatabdi ke madhy men khurasan pradesh ke zila toos men paida hue the. aisa kaha jata hai ki inaka janm ek ganv men hua tha, jisaka nam 'gazala' tha aur isi karan bad men ap gazali ke nam se jane ge. parantu aisa bhi kaha jata hai ki gazali ke pita oon katakar becha karate the aur katane ko arabi bhasha men 'gazal' kahate hain, is karan inaka nam gazali pada.

gazali ke pita ek dharmik aur nekadil vyakti the. unhonne khuda se prarthana ki ki ai khuda mujhe ek aisa beta de, jo vidvanh bane. khuda ne usaki prarthana svikar ki aur unhen putr ratn ki prapti huee, jisaka nam muhammad rakha gaya, jo bad men imam gazali ke nam se prasiddh hua. isi prakar usake pita ne phir prarthana ki ki ai khuda aisa ladaka de, jo dharmopadeshak bane. khuda ki dayaluta dekhie ki unhen phir putr ratn ki prapti huee, jisaka nam ahamad rakha gaya aur bad men ek mahanh dharmopadeshak bana. abhi ye bhaee chhote hi the ki unake pita ka nidhan ho gaya. marane se pahale unhonne apane donon bachchon ko apane ek dost ko saunp diya aur paisa dekar bachchon ka shiksha prabandh karane ke lie kaha. dost ne bachchon ko shiksha dilani shuroo kar di. kuchh dinon ke pashchath jab usake pita ki di huee sampatti samapt ho gee, tab us dost ne unako ek vidyalay men pravisht kara diya, jahan ve khairat ki roti par basar karake apani padhaee men pratritt ho ge.

shiksha ka prarambh

imam sahab prarambhik shiksha toos men prapt karane ke pashchath jurjan chale ge. us yug men padhaee ka yah tarika tha ki adhyapak jo vaktavy dete the, shishy use likh liya karate the aur atyant savadhani se sambhal kar rakhate the. imam sahab ne bhi aisa hi kiya. kuchh dinon ke pashchath ve svadesh laute. rah men daka pada aur imam sahab ke pas men jo kuchh bhi saman tha, sab lut gaya, jisamen ve kharre bhi the. imam sahab ko in kharron ke lutane ka bada du:kh hua. ve dakuon ke saradar ke pas ge aur kaha ki main keval un kharron ko vapas chahata hoon, kyonki unamen jo baten likhi hain, unako sunane aur yad karane ke lie mainne yah yatra ki hai. dakoo saradar hns pada aur bola tumane kya khak sikha, jab tumhari yah halat hai ki ek kagaz n raha to tum kore rah ge. parantu usane ve kharre unhen vapas kar diye. imam sahab ko is vyngy se atyant pida huee. isake phalasvaroop ghar pahunchakar unhonne sab likhi huee baten knthasth kar lin.

pustak rachana

isake pashchath age padhaee ke lie ve nesapor ge. vahan par allama juaini namak ek vriddh sajjan padhate the. yahan se imam sahab ka sitara chamakana prarambh hua aur yahin par unhonne ek pustak likhi, jisaka nam tha 'al-manakhool'. unake adhyapak ne jab yah pustak dekhi to unhonne socha ki ye shishy to mujh par hi havi ho raha hai. isake phalasvaroop unhonne imam sahab se kaha tumane to mujhe zinda hi dafan kar diya. kam se kam meri maut ki pratiksha to kar lete. adhyapak ki maut ke bad imam sahab bagadad a ge aur vahan madarase nijamiya men adhyapan shuroo kar diya. us samay unaki ayu 34 varsh ki thi. kaha jata hai ki unake pas anumanat: 400 vidyarthi shiksha ke lie aya karate the aur sabhi unaki yogyata ka loha manate the.

pravritti

alagazali ka maqabara

imam sahab ek vishesh prakar ki pravritti rakhate the. vah jitane bhi dharmik siddhant aur sampraday the, sab par paini drishti dalate the. bagadad us samay snsar bhar ke siddhanton aur vicharon ka akhada tha. us dharati par panv rakhakar pratyek vyakti svatntr ho jata tha aur jo kuchh bhi chahata tha, vyakt kar sakata tha. is svatntrata ke karan kee prakar ke siddhant aur vichar phaile hue the. imam sahab vahan sab sampradayon ke vyaktiyon se mile aur unake vichar sune. un sabase milane ke pashchath imam sahab ke man men sndeh utpann hua aur ve svayamev bol uthe, 'yay allah. inamen se sachchaee par kaun hai? kisako sachcha kahen aur kisako jhootha?' aur phir jab har ek par samikshatmak drishti dali to sabhi men unhen kuchh n kuchh kamiyan drishtigat hueen. isi karan ve khojabin men jut ge aur is tarah darshan ke har pahaloo par janakari prapt ki. is mod par pahunchakar unhonne yah avashyak samajha ki kyon n aise gyan ki khoj ki jae, jo bilkul sachcha aur vastavik ho. imam sahab ka sachchaee aur vastavikata ka mapadnd tha- vah jisako pa lene ke pashchath sndeh ke badal bilkul chhnt jayen aur vastavikata prakat ho jaye.

soofivad ka prabhav

is sachchaee ko pa lene ke lie unhonne socha ki paramparik shikshaon aur siddhanton se unako dhyey ki prapti nahin ho sakati. isalie to jivan ka svayn nishpaksh bhav se adhyayan karana hoga. sabhi adhyatmik aur naitik siddhanton ko phir se dekhana aur unako gyan ki kasauti par rakhana hoga. is tarah unaka jhukav soofivad ki or hua. parantu gazali ne jivan ko jis prakar apana liya tha, vah soofivad se bhi mel nahin khata tha. phalat: unhonne yah phaisala kiya ki snsar ko chhodakar sachchaee ki khoj men nikal jana hi sarthak hai aur ek din vastav men ve bagadad se nikal pade. pahale sham (damishk) ae aur do sal tak vahan rahe. isake bad ghoomate-ghoomate ve haj ke lie makka madina gaye. isi yatra ke madhy men unhonne 'sikandariya' bhi dekha. 499 hijari (1106 ee.) men jab vah paigambar ibrahim ke janm sathan khalil men the, tab unhonne tin baton ki pratigya ki-

  1. kisi badashah ke darabar men nahin jaoonga.
  2. kisi badashah ke dhan ko svikar nahin karoonga.
  3. kisi se vad-vivad nahin karoonga.

any pustakon ke rachana

isi yatra men gazali ne apani sarvashreshth pustak 'ahyaul-uloom' (vidya snjivani) ki rachana ki, jo ki doosara quran samajhi jati hai. imam sahab ke shishyon ki tarah unaki likhi pustaken bhi anek hain. unhonne bis varsh ki ayu se hi lekhan kary prarambh kar diya tha. das-gyarah varsh yatra men gujare phir bhi saikadon pustaken likhin. inaki likhi pustaken yoorop men bhi bahut prachalit hueen. 'ahyaul-uloom' aur 'al munakij minal-jalal' inaki sarvashreshth pustakon men se hain. unaka dehant 1111 ee. men hua. 'darshan ke itihas' ke lekhak jaaurj henari levis ka kahana hai, agar 'dekart' (1596-1650) ke samay 'ahyaul-uloom' ka anuvad french bhasha men ho chuka hota, to log yahi kahate the ki dekart ne ah, yaul-uloom se churaya hai.

adhyatmik pravrittiyon ka parikshan

al-gazali ne apane samay ki samast darshanik evn adhyatmik pravrittiyon ka parikshan kiya. mool roop se islam ke mukhy abhiprayon ko samarthan dene men ve andhavishvasi dharmashastriyon ke uddeshyon se sahamat the. lekin inake anusar un logon ke tark sashakt nahin the, kyonki ve antarik anubhavon ke gambhir mahattv ke prati avahelana ka bhav lie hue the. ve satta ko soofi anubhav ke madhyam se samajhana chahate the, jo unake anusar divy vyaktitv men manav ke vishvas ko samajhane ka ekamatr sadhan hai. dekart ki bhanti inhonne samast darshanik sthitiyon par apani prasiddh kriti 'tahaphat-ul-philasapha' (darshanikon ka khndan) men sndeh vyakt kiya hai. sath hi inhonne naitik evn dharmik snkalp ke adhar par sachchi dharmanishth bhavana ko pratishthit karane ka prayas kiya hai.

arastoovad ke khilaf

choonki inhonne arastoovad ko islam ke shatru ke roop men liya tha, isalie ye 'al-pharadi' evn 'ibne-sina' ke darshanon se bhi asahamat hi rahe. kahane ki avashyakata nahin ki ye donon darshanik andhavishvasapoorn dhng se arastu ke darshan ko ekamatr sambhav evn us adhyatmaparak vidya ke roop men svikar kar chuke the, jinake antargat samast tatvamimansiy evn nitishastriy samasyaen hal ki ja sakati hain. vyaghat siddhant ki sahayata se inhonne nimnalikhit bhautik tatvamimansiy darshanik siddhanton ka khndan karane ka prayas kiya hai-

  1. yah ki jagath shashvat hai.
  2. yah ki eeshvar keval samanyon se avagat rahata hai aur isalie koee vishisht vidhata nahin hai.
  3. yah ki matr atma amar hai aur isalie sharir ke punarujjivit hone ka koee prashn nahin hai.

is prakar is prakriya men inhonne karanata ke snbndh men apani ati mahattvapoorn avadharana ko vikasit kiya hai. karanata ko ye snkalp karane ke arth men lete hain. ye samay snbndh ke antargat prakriti ki karanata ko poorn roop se asvikrit karate hain. samay ke antargat matr ghatanaon ka anuvartitv sabhi prakar ke karan snbndhi vyakhyaon ke viruddh jata hai. nisrit karm hai. is snbndh men uchchatam sima ke roop men inhonne shashvat (daivi) snkalp ko mana hai jise pratham karan kaha jata hai. isi prakar se yah bhi ingit karate hain ki satta ka aiky janane men nahin balki snkalp karane men nihit hai. main snkalp karata hoon isalie main hoon. jagath ka snkalp karane men eeshvar usase avagat bhi ho jata hai.  

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

vishv ke pramukh darshanik |lekhak: shri es.ech. amanatullah |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684 |prishth snkhya: 34 |


snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah