सूफ़ी मत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

soofi mat islami jagat se juda hua ek rahasyavadi pnth hai. soofi eeshvar ki aradhana premi aur premika ke roop men karate hain. soofi log apane udgam ke arambh se hi mooladhara islam se pray: prithakh the. prarambh se hi inaka uddeshy manavata ki seva aur adhyatmikata ki pragati raha hai. soofi mat ke manane valon ko 'soofigar' ya 'soofi' kaha jata hai. rahasyavadiyon ka janm islam ke antargat bahut pahale hi ho gaya tha. yahi bad men soofi kahalaye the. inamen se adhikansh aise the, jo mahanh bhakt the aur samriddhi ke bhonde pradarshan aur islami samrajy ki sthapana ke bad utpann naitik-patan ke karan du:khi the. atah in soofiyon ko rajy se koee sarokar nahin tha. bad ke dinon men bhi uname yah parampara jari rahi.

itihas

islami itihas men dasavin shatabdi anek karanon se mahattvapoorn mani jati hai. isi samay abbasi khilafat ke avasheshon se turkon ka uday hua aur isi kal men darshan aur vishvason men mahattvapoorn parivartan hue. darshan ke kshetr men is samay mutajil athava tark-buddhivadi darshan ka adhipaty samapt hua, jo quran aur hadis, hazarat muhammad aur unake sahayogiyon ki parampara, par adharit thi. isi samay soofi rahasyavad ka janm hua. tark-buddhivadiyon par snshayavad aur nastikata phailane ka arop lagaya gaya. vishesh roop se tark diya gaya ki addhaitavadi darshan, jo eeshvar aur usaki srishti ke mool roop se ek hone ki bat karata hai, isalie dharmadrohi hai, kyonki isase srashta aur srishti men bhed samapt ho jata hai.

soofi shabd ki utpatti

'aboo nasr al siraj' ki pustak 'kitab-ul-luma' men kiye gaye ullekh ke adhar par mana jata hai ki soofi shabd ki utpatti arabi shabd 'soof' (oon) se huee, jo ek prakar se ooni vastr ka soochak hai, jise prarambhik soofi log pahana karate the. 'safa' se bhi utpatti mani jati hai. safa ka arth 'pavitrata' ya 'vishuddhata' se hai. is prakar achar-vyavahar se pavitr log soofi kahe jate the. ek any mat ke anusar- hajarat muhammad sahab dvara madina men nirmit masjid ke bahar safa arthat 'makka ki pahadi' par kuchh logon ne sharan lekar apane ko khuda ki aradhana men lin kar liya, isalie ve soofi kahalaye. soofi chintak islam ka anusaran karate the, parantu ve karmakand ka virodh karate the. inake pradurbhav ka ek mahattvapoorn karan yah bhi tha ki us samay (saltanat kal) ulema[1] varg men logon ke kattarapnthi drishtikon ki pradhanata thi. saltanat kalin sultan sunni musalaman hone ke karan sunni dharmavettaon ke adeshon ka palan karate the aur sath hi shiya sampraday ke logon ko mahatv nahin dete the. soofiyon ne inaki pradhanata ko chunauti di tatha ulemaon ke mahatv ko nakar diya.

shiksha

vibhinn soofi sampraday tatha unake snsthapak
sampraday snsthapak samay
chishti sampraday khvaja mueenuddin chishti 12 vin shatabdi
suharavardi sampraday shihabuddin suharavardi 12vin shatabdi
kadiri sampraday shekh abdul kadir jilani 16vin shatabdi
shattari sampraday shah abdul shattari 15vin shatabdi
firadausi sampraday badaruddin -
naqshabandi sampraday khvaja baki villah 16vin shatabdi

prarambhik soofiyon men 'rabiya' (8vin sadi) evn 'mnsoor hallaj' (10 vin sadi) ka nam mahattvapoorn hai. mnsoor hallaj aise pahale soofi sadhak the, jo svayn ko 'analahak' ghoshit kar soofi vicharadhara ke pratik bane. soofi snsar men sabase pahale ibnul arabi dvara diye gaye siddhant 'vahadat-ul-vujood' ka ulemaon ne jamakar virodh kiya. vahadat-ul-vujood ka arth hai- 'eeshvar ek hai aur vah snsar ki sabhi vastuon ka nimitt hai.' is prakar vahadat-ul-vujood ekeshvaravad ka samanarthi hai. ulema varg ke logon ne brahma tatha jiv ke madhy malik evn gulam ke rishte ki kalpana ki, doosari or soofiyon ne eeshvar ko adrishy, sampoorn vastavikata aur shashvat saundary ke roop men mana. soofi sant eeshvar ko 'priyatama' evn svayn ko 'priyatam' manate the. unaka vishvas tha ki eeshvar ki prapti prem-sngit se ki ja sakati hai. atah soofiyon ne saundary evn sngit ko adhik mahatv diya. soofi guru ko adhik mahatv dete the, kyonki ve guru ko eeshvar prapti ke marg ka path pradarshak manate the. soofi sant bhautik evn bhog vilas se yukt jivan se door saral, sade, snyamapoorn jivan men astha rakhate the. prarambh men soofi andolan khurasan prant ke as-pas visheshakar balkh shahar evn irak tatha misr men kendrit raha. bharat men is andolanon ka arambh dilli saltanat se poorv hi ho chuka tha.

bharat men pravesh

'paramparavadiyon' ki rachanaen islami kal ki char vicharadharaon men bnt gee. inamen se hanafi vicharadhara sabase adhik udaravadi thi. ise hi poorvi turkon ne apanaya aur ye poorvi turk hi kalantar men bharat aye. rahasyavadiyon ka janm islam ke antargat bahut pahale hi ho gaya tha. in logon ko hi bad ke samay men 'soofi' kaha jane laga. inamen se adhikansh aise the, jo mahanh bhakt the aur samriddhi ke bhonde pradarshan aur islami samrajy ki sthapana ke bad utpann naitik-patan ke karan dukhi the. atah in soofiyon ko rajy se koee sarokar nahin tha. ye log badashahon, raja aur maharajaon dvara pradan kiye jane vale dan-upahar adi ko svikar nahin karate the. bad ke ane vale samay men bhi uname yah parampara jari rahi. mahila rahasyavadi 'rabiya' (mrityu athavin shatabdi) aur 'mnsoor-bin-halaj' (mrityu dasavin shatabdi) jaise prarambhik soofiyon ne eeshvar aur vyakti ke bich prem sambandh par bahut bal diya. kintu unaki sarveshvaravadi drishti ke karan unamen aur paramparavadi tatvon ke bich sngharsh ki sthiti utpann ho gee. in paramparavadiyon ne afavahon ke bal par mnsoor ko phansi lagava di. isake bavajood muslim janata men soofivadi vichar jad jamate gaye.

alagazali

soofi sant evn unaki upadhiyan
soofi sant upadhi
shekh nizamuddin auliya mahaboobe ilahi
shekh nasiruddin mahamood chirag-e-dilli
saiyyad muhammad gesoodaraj banda navaj
shekh ahamad sarahindi mujadih aliphasani

alagazali, jinaki mrityu 1127 ee. ke lagabhag huee aur jinhen paramparavadi tatv aur soofi donon hi samman ki drishti se dekhate the, rahasyavad aur islami paramparavad ke bich mel karane ka prayatn kiya. isamen vah kafi saphal bhi hue. unhonne yah kahakar ki eeshvar aur usake gunon ka gyan tark se n hokar atmgyan se hi ho sakata hai, tarkabuddhivadi darshan ko ek aur dhakka pahunchaya. is prakar daivi pustak 'quran' rahasyavadiyon ke lie mahattvapoorn thi.

bauddh tatha hindoo riti-rivajon ka prabhav

soofiyon ki ashram vyavastha, pashchatap, vrat aur pranayam jaisi kriyaon ke srot, kuchh vidvan kabhi-kabhi bauddh aur hindoo yaugik paddhati men dhoondhate hain. islam ke uday se poorv bauddh dharm madhy eshiya men phaila hua tha aur buddh ke snt hone ki kathaen islami kathaon men bhi sammilit ho gayi thi. islam ke uday ke pashchath bhi yogi pashchimi eshiya men jate rahe. snskrit ki yog par pustak 'amrit kund' ka farasi men anuvad bhi hua. atah yah spasht hai ki hindoo aur bauddh karmakandon aur ritiyon ko soofiyon ne bharat ane se pahale hi atmasat kar liya tha. lekin yah vivad ka vishay hi hai ki kya bauddh karmakandon aur vishesh roop se vedant darshan ne soofi mat ko bahut adhik prabhavit kiya hai. darshan ki utpatti ka mool bindu khojana bahut kathin hota hai. soofi snt aur kee adhunik vicharak soofi darshan ka mool 'quran' men hi dhoondhate hain. mahattvapoorn bat yah nahin hai ki darshanon ka mool kahan hai, balki yah ki soofiyon tatha hindoo yogiyon aur rahasyavadiyon ke bich prakriti, eeshvar, atma aur padarth ke sambandh men vicharon men kafi samanata hai aur yahi bat parasparik sahanashilata aur ek doosare ke siddhaton ko samajh sakane ki bat ko sthapit karati hai. soofi mat ke manavatavad ko tatkalin prasiddh farasi shayar, sanai ne bahut sundar shabdon men vyakt kiya hai-

'astikata aur nastikata donon usaki or daud rahe hain,
aur udaghoshana karate hain ek sath-'vah ek hai, koee nahin bantata usaka rajay.'

vibhajan

isi samay ke asapas soofi barah vargon athava silasilon men vibhajit ho gaye. pratyek 'silasila' ka ek neta hota tha, jo pramukh rahasyavadi hota tha aur apane shishyon ke sath 'khanaqah' arthat ashram men rahata tha. soofi vicharadhara men 'guru' arthat 'pir' aur 'shishy' arthat 'murid' ke bich sambandh ka mahatv bahut adhik tha. pratyek pir apana uttaradhikari arthat 'bali' niyukt karata tha, jo usake bad kam ko age badhata tha. soofi silasile mukhyatah do vargon men vibhajit ho ge. pahala hai 'ba-shar', arthat ve jo islami vidhan (shar) ko manakar chalate hain, aur doosara 'be-shar', arthath ve jo 'shar' se bndhe hue nahin hain. bharat men donon silasile milate hain. yadyapi in soofi snton ne apane mat nahin chalaye, kintu unamen kuchh janata men prasiddh ho gaye aur jinaka hindoo aur muslim donon saman roop se adar dete hain.

'ba-shar' silasilon men se keval do hi uttar bharat men adhik prachalit hue aur terahavin tatha chodahavin shatabdi men unake anuyayiyon ki snkhya bhi bahut badh gayi. ye do silasile the 'chishti' aur 'suharavardi'. chishti silasile ki bharat men sthapana 'khvaja moinuddin chishchi' ne ki thi, jo 1192 men prithviraj chauhan ki parajay aur mrityu ke kuchh samay bad hi bharat aye the. kuchh samay to lahaur aur dilli men rahane ke bad ve ajamer jakar bas gaye, jo us samay ka ek mahattvapoorn rajanitik kendr tha aur jahan musalaman bhi kafi snkhya men the. inaki gatividhiyon ki koee pramanik samagri nahin hai. unhonne koee pustak bhi nahin likhi. kintu aisa lagata hai ki unake uttaradhikariyon ke sath-sath unaki prasiddhi bhi badhati gayi.

soofi snton ka yogadan

shekh moinuddin, jinaki mrityu 1235 men huee, unake shishy the- bakhtayar kaki aur unake shishy hue farid-uddin gnj-e-shakar. farid-uddin ne 'hansi' (adhunik hariyana) aur 'ajodhan' (adhunik pnjab), ko apana kary kshetr banaya. unaka dilli men bhi bahut man tha. ve jab bhi dilli ate the, logon ki bahut badi snkhya unaki seva men upasthit hoti thi. unaka drishtikon itana vishal aur manaviy tha ki unaka kuchh kavyavad sikkhon ke dharm-grnth 'adi-grnth' men bhi sammilit kiya gaya. chishchi snton men sabase prasiddh snt hue hai 'nizamuddin auliya' aur 'nasiruddin chirag-e-dilli'. ye snt hinduon sahit janata ke nimn vargon ke sath mukt sambandh rakhate the. unaka jivan bahut pavitr aur sidha-sada tha aur ve logon se unaki zuban hindi ya hindavi men batachit karate the. ve dharm parivartan karane men vishvas nahin rakhate the, yadyapi bad men bahut se parivaron aur vargon ne in snton ki sadabhavana ke karan dharm-parivartan kar liya. soofi snton ne apane pravachanon me eeshvar ki nikatata ka abhas utpann karane ke lie git-sngit ki paddhati apanayi, jise 'sama' kaha jata hai. isase ve aur prasiddh hue. isake atirikt v aksar pravachan dene ke lie hindi kavy ka prayog karate the, taki shrotaon par adhik prabhav pade. nizamuddin auliya ne yog ki 'pranayam paddhit' apanayi. isase yogi unhen siddh kahane lage the.

chaudahavin shatabdi ke madhy men 'nasiruddin chirag-e-dilli' ki mrityu ke pashchath chishti dilli men utane prabhavashali nahin rahe. parinamatah chishti snt idhar-udhar phail gaye aur poorvi bharat tatha dakshini bharat men apana sndesh phailane lage.

suharavardi silasila

suharavardi silasila bhi usi samay bharat aya, lekin usaka karyakshetr mukhyatah pnjab aur multan raha. is mat ke sarvadhik prasiddh snt 'shekh shahabuddin suharavardi' aur 'hamiduddin nagauri' hue hain. chishchiyon ki bhanti suharavardi snt phakkad jivan vyatit karane men vishvas nahin karate the. ve rajy ki seva svikar karate the. unamen se kuchh dharm-vibhag ke uchch-padadhikari bhi the. doosari or chishti shasan ki rajaniti se door rahate the aur shasakon aur sarakaron ki sngati se bachate the. parantu itana tay hai ki donon ne hi janata ke vibhinn vargon men janamat banakar unamen ek sath rahane ki bhavana utpann karake shasakon ki sahayata ki.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. dharmavetta

snbndhit lekh

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