क़ुरआन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

quran sharif

quran ya quran (arabi: القرآن, al-qurh'an) islam dharm ki pavitratam pustak hai aur islam ki ninv hai. musalaman manate hain ki ise parameshvar (allah) ne devadoot (farishte) jibrael dvara hazarat muhammad ko sunaya tha. musalamanon ka manana hai ki quran hi allah ki bheji antim aur sarvochch pustak hai. quran shabd ka pratham ullekh svayn quran men hi milata hai, jahan isaka arth hai - usane padha, ya usane uchchara. yah shabd isake siriyaee samanantar kuriyana ka arth leta hai jisaka arth hota hai grnthon ko padhana. halanki pashchaty janakar isako siriyaee shabd se jodate hain, adhikansh musalamanon ka manana hai ki isaka mool qura shabd hi hai. par chahe jo ho muhammad sahab ke janmadin ke samay hi yah ek arabi shabd ban gaya tha.[1] muslim samaj ke liye avashyak bidat men quran ki sahi samajh-boojh, hadis (paigambar muhammd ki dikshaon ya parnparaon) ke moolyankan aur unaki vaidhata tay karane, vidharmata ka khndan karane aur qanoon ke snhitakaran ke liye arabi vyakaran aur bhashashastr (fard kifaya) ka adhyayan zaroori hai.

adhyay

  • islam dharm ki pavitr pustak ka nam quran hai jisaka hindi men arth 'sasvar path' hai. quran sharif 22 sal 5 mah aur 14 din ke arse men zaroorat ke mutabiq kiston men nazil hua. quran sharif men 30 pare, 114 sooraten aur 540 rukooa hain. quran sharif ki kul ayat ki tadad 6666 (chhah hazar chhah sau chhiyasath) hai.[2]
  • quran men kul 114 adhyay hain jinhen soora kahate hain. bahuvachan men inhen soorat kahate hain. yani 15ven adhyay ko soorat 15 kahenge. har adhyay men kuchh shlok hain jinhen ayat kahate hain. ‎quran ki 6,666 ayaton men se (kuchh ke anusar 6,238) abhi tak 1,000 ayaten vaigyanik tathyon par bahas karati hain.[1]
  • quran men kul 6,233 ayaten (vaky) hain. arabi varnamala ke kul 30 akshar 3,81,278 bar ae hain. zer (i ki matraen) 39,582 bar, zabar (a ki matraen) 53,242 bar, pesh (u ki matraen) 8,804 bar, mad (dohare, tihare 'a' ki matraen) 1771 bar, tashadid (dohare akshar ke pratik) 1252 bar aur nuqte (bindu) 1,05,684 hain. isake 114 men se 113 adhyayon ka arnbh bismillahirrahamanirrahim se hua hai, arthath "shuroo ati kripashil, ati dayavan allah ke nam se." pathan-pathan aur knthasth men asani ke lie poore grnth ko 30 bhagon men bant kar har bhag ka namankaran kar diya gaya hai. har bhag 'para' (Part) kahalata hai.[3]

lauh mahaphooj men quran

Blockquote-open.gif quran hakim 22 sal 5 mah aur 14 din ke arse men zaroorat ke mutabiq kiston men nazil hua. kuran majid men 30 pare, 114 sooraten aur 540 rukooa hain. quran majid ki kul ayat ki tadad 6666 (chhah hazar chhah sau chhiyasath) hai. Blockquote-close.gif

quran ke vishay men usake anuyayiyon ka vishvas hai aur svayn quran men bhi likha hai- sachamuch poojy quran adrisht pustak men (vartaman) hai. jab tak shuddh n ho, use mat chhuo. vah lok-paralok ke svami ke pas utara hai.[4] adrisht pustak se yahan abhipray us svargiy lekh-patitka se hai jise islami paribhasha men 'lauh-mahaphooj' kahate hain. srishtikarta ne adi se usamen trikalavritti likh rakkha hai, jaisa ki sthanantar men kaha hai-

hamane arabi quran racha ki tumako gyan ho. nissandeh vah uttam gyan-bhandar hamare pas pustakon ki mata (lauh mahaphooj) men likha hai.[5]

jagadishvar ne quran men varnit gyan ko jagath ke hit ke lie apane prerit ke hriday men prakashit kiya, yahi is sabaka bhavarth hai. apane dharm ki shiksha dene vale granth par asadharan shraddha hona manushy ka svabhav hai. yahi karan hai ki quran ke mahatmy ke vishay men anek kathaen janasamuday men prachalit hain, yadyapi un sabaka adhar shraddha chhod kar quran men dhoondhana yukt nahin hai, kintu aise vakyon ka usamen sarvatha abhav hai, yah bhi nahin kaha ja sakata. ek sthal par kaha hai-

yadi ham is quran ko kisi parvat (va parvat-sadrish kathor hriday) par utarate, to avashy too use parameshvar ke bhay se daba aur phata dekhata. in drishtanton ko manushyon ke lie ham varnit karate hai jisase ki vah sochen.[6]

lekhan

hazarat muhammad (sall.) svayn padhe-likhe n the. quran ka jo bhi ansh avatarit hota vah vishesh eeshvariy pravadhan se muhammad ko knthasth (yad) ho jata[7] muhammad turnt ya shighratashighr apane sathiyon ko bol kar use likhava dete. itihas men pramanit taur par aise likhane valon (vahy-lipikon) ki snkhya 41 ullikhit hai. un sab ke nam, pita ke nam, qabile (vnsh, kul) ke nam bhi itihas ke rikard par hain.

quran ka prayojan, varnan-shaili

'kadachit tumako gyan ho. isalie us (muhammad) par hamane arabi quran utara!'[8]

'mngal sndeshaprad, bhayadayak, vah grnth-arabi quran-param kripalu dayamay ki or se utara hai. isamen us (prabhu) ka lakshan varnit hai jisamen ki jatiyan use janen'[9]

'he muhammad ! is prakar hamane arabi quran tere hridayasth kiya, too usase gramon ki janani (makka) aur usake asapas ko ikattha hone ke din (pralay) se daravai.'[10]

'he muhammad ! is prakar hamane us arabi hukm (quran) ko utara. jo kuchh tere pas (us) gyan men se aya, yadi use chhod toone un (logon) ki ichchha ka anusaran kiya, to mahaprabhu ki or se tere lie sahayak aur rakshak (koee) nahin.'[11]

uparyukt quran se uddhrit in vakyon men 'quran' yah nam, usaki bhasha aur pratipady vishay batalaya gaya hai. quran kya hai? eeshvar-pradatt ek arabi granthh. usake pradan ka prayojan kya? yahi ki sanmarg-bhrasht janon ko bhay dikha aur shraddhaluon ko unake puny karyon ke mngalamay parinam ka sndesh de satpath par aroodh kiya jay. mahanubhav muhammad ke samay ka 'arab' kahan tak sanmarg-vyut ho gaya tha? us samay ka vyavahar kahan tak duracharapoorn ho gaya tha? agyan kahan tak apani parakashtha ko pahunch chuka tha? ityadi baton ka parichay kuchh to pratham vindu se mil chuka hai aur kuchh ka varnn age bhi yathasthan hoga. un agyanatamonimagn, sadachar-sngyahin, krurakarma arab-nivasiyon ko sachche raste par le chalane ke do hi upay the. ek to yah tha ki unako papon ka dushparinam samajhakar unhen achchhe kamon ki or prerit kiya jay.

kitani hi bar anek pralobhan satpurushon ko bhi sanmarg-bhrasht karane men saphal hote hain. sarvapriy banane ki ichchha bahudha amadhur saty prakashit karane ki agya nahin deti. isilie oopar snket kiya gaya hai ki logon ki ichchha ka anusaran karane vala kabhi eeshvar ki raksha aur sahayata ka bhajan nahin ho sakata. sachamuch snsar men samalochan aur snshodhan ka kam bahut kathin hai. nana chhal-pakhandayukt snsar ke dushkrityon ki yadi nirbhikatapoorvak samalochana ki jati hai to ek bar janasamudr apane nissimadhikar tatha chirasthapit niti ke tarngon ka gatyavarodh dekh, apani sampoorn shakti ko usake pratikar men lie prastut ho jata hai. badi-badi tarngo ki to bat hi alag hai, kshudr budbud-samuday bhi abhimatt ho apane svaroop ka vichar n kar us samay usake sir par padaprahar karane ka udyog bhi arambh kar deta hai. kintu nishchal-niti, satyamanask, sudharak-

nindantu nitinipuna yadi va strivantu.
lakshmi samavishatu gachchhatu va yatheshtamh॥
adyaiv maranamastu yugantare va.
nyayatpathah pravichalanti padn n dhiraah॥1॥

bhartrihari ke is vakyanusar apana sarvasv svah karane ke lie us pralay-kolahalapoorn, snkruddh jan-sindhu ki kuchh bhi paravah n kar, sumeruvath apane sthan par sthit rahata hai. usaka sadupadesh arany-rodan-sa pratit hota hai athava gambhir bherinad ke samane kshin vinasvar. sahayakon aur snrakshakon ke bina akela, apane bhishan virodhiyon ka samukhy, vah us nirashapoorn andhanisha men karata hai jab use kshanamatr ke lie bhi asharoopi taron ki timatimahat bhi nahin dikh padati. sudharak muhammad ka jivan bhi aisi hi ghatanaon se poorn hai.

oopar ke vakyon men quran ka arabi men utarana bhi aya hai. makka aur usake asapas ke lie tabhi quran ki upayogita hai jab ki vah vahan ki bhasha men ho. doosari jagah kaha bhi hai-

"yadi ham arabi se bhinn bhasha men quran banate, to avashy (log) kahane lagate- 'usake tantpary kyon nahin spasht kiye gaye. kya ! arab ka adami aur arab ki bhasha se bhinn bhasha?' yah vishvadiyon ke lie margadarshak aur svasthaprad hai."[12]

anuprasabaddh-varnan

yuddhapriy arab ke logon men us samay kavita ke lie bada prem tha. vahan kitane hi aise kavi hue hai jinaki kavitaen yuddhagni bhadakane men ghi ka kam deti thin. isake lie is vishay ke vishesh jigyasuon ko shraddhey naheshaprasad sadh virachit prasiddh hindi-granth 'arab kavy' padhana chahie. sundar bhasha aur svasthy-labh ke lie makka nagar ke pratishthit gharanon se do-do, tin-tin varsh ke bachche asthir-vas baddoo arabon ke deron men palate the. svayn mananiy muhammad ka shaishav bhi isi praka vyatit hua tha.

isase bhi unaki bhasha atyant parimarjit aur sundar thi. quran 'ath' se 'iti' tak anuprasabaddh likha gaya hai; jaise-

kulh huballahu ahadh. allahussamadh.
lamh yalidh v lamh yooladh. v lamh yakunh kuphuvanh ahadh॥

kah, vah parameshvar ek, sarvadhar (hai). (vah) n utpann karata, n utpann hua hai aur n koee usake saman (hai).[13]

kramashah utarana

musalamani vichar ke anusar bhi sampoorn quran mahanubhav muhammad ko ek hi bar hridayasth nahin hua. quran men bhi aya hai-

'jab tak ki us (quran) ka utarana poora n ho jay, usaki prapti men shighrata n kar.'[14]

sarvapratham 'hira' ki gufa 'iqa bi ismi rabbikh' (apane eeshvar ke nam se padh) yah vaky mahatma muhammad ke hriday men prakashit hua. yah samay prayah vikram snvath 667 ka hoga. us samay vah chalis varsh ke ho chuke the. prayah prati varsh ekant chintanarth uparyukt sathan par unaka jana hota tha. isi eeshvariy gyan ke hridayasth hone ko 'vahi' ka utarana kahate hain. 'vahi' ke utarane ke vishay men bhi bhinn-bhinn vichar hain. isake vishay men sarvamany hone se quran ke hi kuchh ansh yahan uddhrit kiye jate hain.

"avashy yah (quran) jagadish ne utara hai aur usake sath ek apt (devadoot) utara."[15]

yah apt doot aur koee svayn devendr jibraeel the jo hazarat ke pas 'vahi' late the. devadooton ya farishton ke bare men anek kathaen islami sahity men payi jati hai. jaise vrihadakar anek shrringadi snyukt hona ityadi, kintu quran men aisa varnan kahin aya hai. quran ke utarane hi ke karan 'ramazan' ka mahina bahut pavitr mana gaya hai.

ramazan men utarata vibhag

"pavitr ramazan ka mahina jisamen marg-pradarshak, manv-shikshak (satyasaty), vibhajak, spasht quran utara gaya. atah tumamen se jo koee 'ramazan' mahine ko pave, upavas rakhe aur yadi rogi yatra men ho, to doosare dinon men."[16]

'ramazan' arab ka navan mahina hai. shabdarth 'jisamen garmi ki adhikata ho' athava 'garmi ki adhikata se yukt' hai. jis ratri men 'vahi' pratham-pratham utari, vah 'ramazan' ke antim das dinon men anyatam 'lailatulqadr' athava maharatri ke nam se vikhyat hai.[17] vah ratri aur mas donon hi- jinamen pavitr quran utara islam dharm men bahut pavitr mane jate hai. 'qad' ke nam se quran men ek adhyay (soorat) bhi hai.

quran –sngrah

yah pahale kaha ja chuka hai ki sampoorn quran ek sath nahin utara. hazarat ki avastha ke chalisaven varsh se lekar 63ven varsh (mrityu ke samay) tak-arthath 23 varshon men thoda-thoda karake utara hai; atah arambh hi men quran ka pustakaroopen sngathit hona sambhav nahin. vaky aur adhyay bhi apane utarane ke samay ke kram se vartaman pustak quran men sthapit nahin kiye gaye hai. 'quran' ke kitane hi vaky makka men aur kitane hi madina men utare hain, jisase quran ke 114 adhyay 'makki'-'madani' do bhedon men vibhakt hai. quran ke dekhane se maloom hota hai ki usamen is bhed par bhi dhyan nahin diya gaya hai. han, pahale adhyayon ki apeksha pichhale adhyay prayah chhote haih. pratham adhyay 'fatiha' ke anantar doosara adhyay 'albakra' ya bakra (bakr, bakrat) hai jo 'madina' men utara. usake bad ka 'al imran' bhi madani hai. astu, yah nishchit hai ki mahatma ke jivan men quran vartaman pustak-kram men sampadit nahin hua tha. quran men aya 'kitab' shabd bhi usake vartaman pustak ki or snket nahin karata, balki usake us roop ki or snket karata hai jo ki svargiy pustak 'lauh mahaphooj' men surakshit hai. mahatma ke jivan-kal se hi usake ek-ek vaky ko badi savadhanata se resham, charm aur asthiyon par likhakar rakkha jata tha. kitane hi bhaktajan unhen kanthasth bhi kar liya karate the. is prakar quran ke sampoorn ansh bhali prakar surakshit rakkhe gaye the. pichhe jab pathon aur vakyon men bhed hone laga, to chaturth khalifa 'usman' ko ek pustak ke roop men sabako sngrah karane ki avashyakata padi. is sngrah ki pramanikata ke vishay men bahut matabhed hai. us samay 'khalifa' ya uttaradhikari hone ke lie mahatma ke anuyayiyon men vivad uth khada hua jo badhate-badhate grihayuddh ki agni ko prajjvalit karane men samarth hua aur mahatma ki priy putri 'fatima' tatha jamata viravar 'ali' ke putr, 'hasan' aur 'husen' jisaki ahuti hue. yah vivad deh-sambandhiyon aur dharm-sambandhiyon men uttaradhikari (khalifa) hone ke vishay me tha. deh-sambandhiyon ke uttaradhikar ko yukt manane vale hi 'shiya' log hai aur doosare (bahusnkhyak) 'sunni' ke nam se pukare jate hai. mahatma ke koee jivit putr n tha. putriyon men shrimati fatima ke yahi do putr 'hasan' aur 'husen' the. ve kuchh musalamanon ki svarthasiddhi men badhak jan padate the aur unhonne unhen bari-bari se talavar ke ghat utar chhutti payi. vartaman pustak ke roop men quran ka sngrah khalifa 'usman' ne karaya tha. yahi 'sunniyon' ke mukhiya the. 'shiya' logon ka kahana hai ki is pustak men quran ke kitane hi vaky aur kitane hi adhyay bhi chhod diye gaye hain. udaharanarth vah 'sijda' adhyay ke kitane hi vaky upasthit karate hai. prachin bhashyakaron ne bhi unamen se kitane hi ko jahan-tahan uddhrit kiya hai. patana ki 'khudabaks laibreri' men hastalikhit quran ki ek prachin prati hai, jisake ant men bhi aise anek vakyon ka sngrah hai. vartaman 'quran' 30 'siparon ya khandon men vibhakt hai, kitanon hi ka kahana hai ki pahale inaki snkhya chalis thi.

vaky-parivartan

adhyay 'albakr' men aya hai-

"jin 'ayaton (vakyon) ko ham sthanantarik ya parivartit karate hai, usake saman ya usase achchhi late hain. kya too nahin janata ki parameshvar sab chijon par shaktimanh hai."[18]
"jab ham 'ayat' ke sthan par doosari ayat badalate hain aur parameshvar jo kuchh badalata hai, use bhali prakar janata hai."[19]

quran ne kitane hi vaky jo pahale mananiy thaharaye gaye the, pichhe unhen chhod kar doosari agyaen ayin. isi bat ka uparyukt vakyon men varnan hai. isaka tatpary eeshvar ki agya ke desh-kal ke anusar hone se hai. samayantar men 'moosa' , 'eesa' ko diye gaye eeshvariy gyan ke bhi kuchh ansh anupayukt ho gaye, jis par anek pichhe doosare eeshvaradooton ko eeshvar ka sndesh lane ki avashyakata padi. usi prakar mahatma muhammad ke pas bheje gaye kitane hi ansh pichhe upayogi n rahe, isalie eeshvar ne unhen badal diya.

manushy ki pahale ek jati thi
'us (eeshvar) ne adam ko sampoorn gyan sikhaya'.[20]
'sab jatiyon ke lie eeshvar-prerit (bheje gaye).'[21]
'kanannasu ummatinh vahidatinh' (sare manushy ek jati the).

inamen ek tatv par prakash dala gaya hai ki pahale manushy ki ek hi jati thi aur unaki shiksha ke lie sabake pitamah 'adam' (adim-poorvaj) ko eeshvar ne gyanopadesh diya. pichhe jab jatiyon men vibhakt ho gaye, to unake upadesh ke lie eeshvar ne pratyek jati men ek-ek eeshvarak shikshak niyukat kiye. yah bhi isalie ki unhonne us prachin gyan ko bhula ya adal-badal diya tha.

prachin shastron ka samarthak

he muhammad, tujh par saty-snyukt granth utara jo poorvatanon ka samartnak hai.'[22]
'kah, jo kuchh ham par ibrahim, ismaeel, ishaq, yaqoob, jati (israil-santati), moosa, eesha aur doosare rishiyon par parameshvar ki or se utara. ham unamen se kisi ko alag nahin karate. ham sab par aur parameshvar par vishvas rakhate hai.'[23]

ye vaky pratyek musalaman ko is bat ki shiksha dete hai ki vah bhoomndal ke sare rishiyon ki shiksha par vishvas aur adar-buddhi rakkhe. prayah sare hi mahapurushon aur dharmachayon ko yah kahate hue suna jata hai ki vah kisi nootan siddhant ka prachar nahin kar rahe hain, balki vah usi sanatan tatv ka prachar kar rahe hai jo kalantar men vismrit ho gaya tha.

yahan quran ki varnan-shaili ke vishay men kuchh likhana aprasngik n hoga. gady hone par bhi usaki rachana badi chittakarshak hai, yah pahale likh aye hain. prachin mahatmaon aur rajaon ke upadeshaprad itihas quran ka ek vishesh bhag grahan karate hain. isake atirikt chhote-chhote drishtanton aur sundar kahavaton ka bhi prayog jahan-tahan kiya gaya hai.

'ham tujhse bahut achchhi katha bayan karate hain. too (muhammad) agyaniyon men se tha, isaliye tere pas yah quran bheja.'[24]

kahin-kahin nastikon (=kafiron) aur doosaron ke akshepon ka uttar bhi diya gaya hai-

kafir kahate hai ki, yadi vah (musalaman) hamari bat manate to n mare jate. kah, yadi tum sachche ho to maut ko apane oopar se hata dena.[25]

islam-virodhiyon ke vidvesh ke vishay men kaha hai.

eeshvar-satta-varnan

"chahate hain ki eeshvar ki jyoti ko munh se (foonkakar) bujha den, kintu prabhu prakash ko poorn kiye bina nahin rah sakata, chahe nastik (kafir) bura mane."[26]

eeshvar ke achinty nirman-kaushal ko in shabdon men varnan kiya gaya hai-

"unake lie too ek sansarik drishtant varnan kar. hamane akash se jal utara, phir usase bhoomi par vanaspati ugi. punah vah kanashah ho gee (aur) use vayu udata (phirata) hai. parameshvar sab chijon par shaktimanh hai."[27]

eeshvar ki satta ke bare men aya hai-

"parameshvar akash aur prithvi ka prakash hai. usaka prakash hai mano tak men dipak aur dipak kanch men. kanch tara ke saman hai. usamen apaurvaty apashchaty 'jaitoon' vriksh ka tel pada hai. yadyapi use ag ne chhua nahin hai, kintu samip hai ki usaka tel prajjvalit ho jaya. prakash ke oopar prakash!! parameshvar apane prakash se chahe jisako shiksha de. eeshvar manushyon ke lie drishtant varnan karata hai. vah sab vastuon ka gyata hai."[28]

kahavaten

vistar-bhay se adhik n likhakar yahan do-char kahavaten uddhrit ki jati hain-

'kachana hatya se badhakar hai.'[29]
'sare prani mrityu ke asvad (ya gras) hain…..'
'snsar ka jivan vyarth abhiman ke atirikt kuchh nahin.'[30]
'manushy nirbal utpann kiya gaya hai.'[31]
'la alarrasooli illalh balag {pahuncha dene ke siva doot par (aur kuchh kartavy) nahin.'}
"manushy sachamuch hriday ka kachcha banaya gaya hai."[32]

quran ki manohar rachana, sundar shabd-vyavahar ke karan ek kahavat prasiddh hai jise svayn quran ne is prakar varnan kiya hai-

'kya kahate hain? bana laya. kah, usake sadrish koee soorat (adhyay tum bhi bana) lao. (isake lie) parameshvar ke sivay jisako (sahayatarth) bula sako, bulao, yadi tum sachche ho.'[33]

mahatma muhammad ke yah kahane par, ki main jo kuchh quran ke vaky sunata hoon, sab bhagavanh ne mere pas bheje hain. log kahate the ki yah jhootha hai. muhammad svayn in baton ko bana leta hai aur pichhe eeshvar ko unaka banane vala kahata hai. isi bat ki or yahan snket kiya hai. yah vaky quran men anek bar aya hai. isi vishay par aur bhi kaha hai. purane vakyon ki pramanikata

'yadi manushy aur jinn ekatr hon, ek-doosare ke sahayak hokar bhi is quran aisa (granth) banana chahen, to (bhi) nahin (bana) la sakate.'[34]
yah bhi ek se adhik bar aya hai-

uparyukt vakyon se pathakon ko age badi sahayata milegi. quran ke sare madhyam purush ke ekavachan men prayukt hone vale vaky adhikatar svayn mahatma muhammad aur bahuvachan men musalamanon ya nastikon ko sambodhit karake kahe gaye hai. ek bat aur smaran rakhani chahiy ki quran ki pathan-pathan-pranali avichchhinn rup se aj tak chali ayi hai. samay ke parivartan, rajy-kranti aur vijetaon ki dharmandhata jis prakar hinduon aur yahoodiyon ke dharmik sahity ke adhikansh ko vinash karane men saphal huee, vaisa musalamanon ke sahity ke sath nahin hua. isilie quran ke yatharth arth ko samajhane ke lie paramparagat bhashy, kathanak aur shabd-rahasy ki anivary avashyakata hai. quran ka pratyek vaky kisi-n-kisi vishesh desh, kal aur vyakti se snbandh rakhata hai ; jaise ki age dekhane se gyat hoga. us sambandh ko janane ke lie yahi parampara ek matr sadhan hai; isalie parampara ko chhodakar managadhant arth karane vali anek kal ki tikaen mananiy nahin kahi ja sakatin.

quran aur usake sam-samayik

makka-nivasiyon men apane dharm ki shiksha ka prachan karate samay 'kaba' ke pujari 'kuraish' mahatma muhammad ko bhanti-bhanti ke kasht dene lage. jab chacha ke marane par unaki shatruta bahut badh gee aur ant men vah log pran lene par utaroo ho gaye, to mahatma ne bhag kar 'madina' ko apana nivas-sthan banaya. isi pravas ki tithi se musalamanon ka 'hizi' samvath prarambh hota hai. quran men inhin moorti-poojakon ko 'kafir' ya nastik ke nam se pukara gaya hai. us samay 'madina' men yahudi log bhi paryapt snkhya men nivas karate the aur vyavahar men chatur hone se vah bade prabhavashali tatha dhanadhy ho gaye the. kahin-kahin eesaee logon ki bhi basti thi. is prakar mahatma ko in dharmanuyayiyon ke snsarg ka bhi vahan vishesh avasar mila. in dharmanuyayiyon ka varnan quran men bhi ata hai. inake atirikt unhen kuchh aise logon ki sngati bhi pahale hi se prapt thi jo moorti-poojakon ke ghar utpann hokar bhi moortipooja men shraddha rakhane vale n the aur n yah yahoodi ya khisht dharm hi ke anuyayi the. in logon men 'saada'-putr qais, 'hazash'-putr 'abdullah', 'havaris'-putr 'usman' aur 'amroo'-putr 'jaid' prasiddh hain. yah log yadyapi quran ki shiksha ko achchha manate, parantu svayn islam dharm ke anuyayi n hue. mahatma muhammd ke sale shri 'khadiza' ke bhaee 'naufal'-putr 'bark' ki bhi islam ke prati sahanubhooti thi.

snrakshan

quran ko choonki rahati duniya tak ke lie, samast snsar men manav-jati ka margadarshan karana tha aur is bat ko bhi nishchit banana tha ki eesh-vani poori ki poori surakshit ho jae, ek shabd bhi n kam ho n zyada, isamen kisi manav-vani ki milavat, koee bahy hastakshep, snshodhan-parivartan hona snbhav n rah jae isalie eeshvariy star par tatha manaviy star par isake kee vishesh prayojan kie ge:-

  1. choonki isase pahale ke eeshagrnthon men manaviy hastakshep se bahut kuchh kami-beshi ho chuki thi isalie quran ke snrakshan ki zimmedari svayn eeshvar ne apane oopar le li. khud quran men ullikhit hai- hamane ise avatarit kiya aur ham hi isaki hifazat karenge.[35] eeshvar ne isake lie nimnalikhit pravadhan kie—
  2. prathamik star par eeshvar ne paigambar ko poora grnth knthasth kara diya, quran men isaki pushti bhi kar di[36]
  3. paigambar (sall.) ke kee sathiyon ne quran ko poorn shuddhata ke sath knthasth (hifz) kar liya.
  4. paigambar (sall.) ke jivan-kal men hi quran ka snkalan-kary poora kar liya gaya.
  5. paigambar (sall.) ke dehavasan (632 ee.) ke bad do uttaradhikariyon (khalifaon hazarat aboobakr (razi.) aur hazarat umar (razi.) ke shasan-kal (632-644 ee.) men unaki vyaktigat nigarani men sare lipikon ki likhit samagri ko ek-doosare se janch kar tatha grnth ke knthasthakaron se punah-punah janch kar, paigambar (sall.) ke nirdeshit kram men pustak-roop men le aya gaya. phir tisare khalifa hazarat usman (razi.) ke shasanakal (644-656 ee.) men is grnth ki sat pratiyan taiyar ki geen. ek-ek prati islami rajy ke vibhinn bhagon (yaman, siriya, filistin, arameniya, misr, iraq aur eeran) men sarakari prati ke taur bhi bhej di gee. unamen se kuchh mool-pratiyan aj bhi tashakand, istnbool adi ke sngrahalayon men maujood hain.
  6. eeshvar ne eeshadoot hazarat muhammad (sall.) ko adesh dekar chaibis ghnton men pratidin panch bar ki anivary namazon men quran ke kuchh ansh padhana anivary kar diya. isake alava svaichchhik namazon men bhi ise anivary kiya gaya. ramazan ke mahine men rat ki namaz (taravih) men poora quran padhe jane aur sune jane ko 'mahapuny' kahakar poore vishv men prachalit kiya gaya. poore quran ko (ya kuchh adhyayon ko) knthasth karana 'mahan puny kary' kaha gaya, aur lakhon-karodon logon ne poorn grnth ko, tatha snsar ke sabhi musalamanon ne grnth ke kuchh adhyayon ko knthasth kar liya. (yah kram 1400 varsh se jari hai, bhavishy men bhi jari rahega). is prakar quran apane moolaroop men (poori shuddhata, poornata v vishvasaniyata ke sath) surakshit ho gaya.[3]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 quran (hindi) islam sab ke lie. abhigaman tithi: 9 march, 2011.
  2. kuran noor ki hidayat (hindi) (ech ti em) veb duniya. abhigaman tithi: 23 sitnbar, 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 quran (hindi) islam dharm. abhigaman tithi: 9 march, 2011.
  4. 56 : 3 : 3-5
  5. 53 : 1 : 3-5
  6. 59 : 3 : 4
  7. soorah qiyamah (75) ayat 17-19
  8. 12 : 1 : 2
  9. 41 : 1 : 2-4
  10. 42 : 1 : 7
  11. 13 : 15 :6
  12. 41 : 5 : 12
  13. 112
  14. 20 : 6 : 10
  15. 26 : 11 : 2-3
  16. 2 : 23 : 3
  17. 97 : 1 : 1
  18. 2 : 13 : 3
  19. 16 : 14 : 1
  20. 2 : 4 : 2
  21. 10 : 5 : 6
  22. 3 : 1 : 3
  23. 3 : 6 : 4 ; athava kuchh bhed se 2 : 16 : 7
  24. 12 : 1 : 3
  25. 3 : 17 : 13
  26. 9 : 5 : 3
  27. 18 : 6 : 1
  28. 28 : 5: 1
  29. 2 : 27 :1
  30. 3 : 19 :4
  31. 4 : 5 :3
  32. 70 : 1 : 19
  33. 10 : 4 : 8
  34. 17 : 10 :4
  35. soorah hijr 15, ayat 9
  36. soor: 75, ayat 17-19

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