फ़ित्ना  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

fitna arabi bhasha ka ek shabd hai, jisaka arth parikshan ya janch hai. islami arth men vidharmi bagavat, visheshakar muslim samuday (656-661 ee.) men pahala bada antarik sngharsh, jisane sunni aur shiya ke bich grihayuddh aur rajanitik phoot ko janm diya tha.

makka ke umayya parivar ke sadasy tisare khalifa usman[1] ne adhikarik niyuktiyon men makka ke apane parivar ka paksh lekar muhammad ke nazadiki anuyayiyon, madina ke musalamanon se vair mol liya. misr ke sipahiyon dvara usman ki hatya (17 joon 656) ne makkavasiyon ko badale ke lie ukasaya aur jab madiravasiyon dvara manonit chauthe khalifa aur muhammad ke damad ali ise poora karane men asaphal rahe, to virodh ka rukh unake khilaf ho gaya. muhammad ki vidhavaon men se ek, ayasha aur paignbar ke pramukh sahayogiyon talaha aur az-jubair, ki senaon aur ali ki sena ke bich hue yuddh ne, jise oonton ki ladaee (disn. 656) bhi kahate hain. ali ki sthiti ko asthayi roop se surakshit kar diya, lekin isase grihayuddh ki shuruat ho gee. makka ke ek aur umayya tatha siriya ke prashasan muaviya ne usman ki mrityu ke pratishodh ki mang ki aur ali ke khalifa ke pad par baithane par prashn uthaya. sifin ki ladaee (657) men unaka sngharsh, jise adaroo (656) men huee pnchayat men sulajhane ka prayas kiya gaya, ghor anarthakari tha: isane ali ki sena men phoot dal di, unake kuchh anuyayiyon[2] ne aise mamale men manaviy madhyasthata ko svikar karane se inakar kar diya, jisake bare men ve manate the ki allah hi isaka nirnay kar sakata hai. jab madhyasthon ne ali ko adhikarik khalifa ghoshit nahin kiya, to unaki sthiti adhik kamazor ho gee; isake parinamasvaroop islam men aparivartaniy vibhajan hua tatha shiyat ali[3] ki sthapana huee, jisamen ali ke rajanitik sahayogi the, jinhonne antat: apani rajanitik mangon ko dharmik vishvas ka roop diya. ali aur usake vnshajon ko daivi roop se khalifa se pad par muhammad ka uttaradhikari niyukt kiya gaya tha. is natije se sashakt hokar muaviya ne misr par qabza kar liya aur ali ke gadh iraq par akraman shuroo kar diya. yah khuli ladaee antat: 661 men samapt huee, jab ali ki hatya ho gee aur muaviya ne pahale umayya khalifa ke roop men apana shasan shuroo kiya, lekin sunni aur shiyaon ke bich dharmik phoot badhati gee.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shasanakal, 644-656
  2. khavarij
  3. ali ka dal

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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