ख़लीफ़ा उमर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

khalifa umar muslim samuday ke doosare khalifa the. kuchh logon ke anusar ali, jo muhammad sahab ke chachere bhaee aur damad the,[1] hi muhammad sahab ke asali varis the, parantu pratham khalifa abu baqar banaye gaye the aur unake marane ke bad umar ko doosara khalifa banaya gaya.[2]

khalifa ka pad

'khalifa' arabi bhasha ka shabd hai, jisaka arth hota hai- 'uttaradhikari'. 'khalifa' shabd ko muslim samuday ke shasak ke lie bhi prayog kiya jata tha. jab muhammad sahab ki mrityu huee (lagabhag 8 joon, 632) to abu baqar ne khalifa 'rasool allah' ya 'paignbar' ke uttaradhikari ke roop men unake rajanitik aur prashasanik karyon ka uttaradhikar snbhala tha. aboo baqar ka shasan 632 se 634, keval do varsh hi chal paya tha ki ve bimar pad gaye aur mrityu dasha men a pahunche. dehant se pahale unhonne bina vichar-vimarsh ke hi umar ko doosara khalifa bana diya tha.

mrityu

doosare khalifa umar bin al-khattab ke kal men khalifa shabd ka istemal muslim rajy ke nagarik aur dharmik pramukh ke roop men hone laga. isi arth men 'quran' men is shabd ko 'adam' aur 'devid' ke lie bhi istemal kiya gaya hai, jinhen 'khuda' ka up-rajy sahayak kaha jata tha. umar se vafadari ki shapath keval unhin sathiyon ne li, jo us samay madina men the, jisase kuchh any sathiyon ne unhen 'khalifa' manane men anakani karani shuroo kar di. us samay arabon ne 'islam' phailane ke lie eeran par hamala kiya aur isase krodhit hokar kuchh eeraniyon ne khalifa umar ko satta lene ke lagabhag das varshon bad 7 navambar, 644 eesavi ko mar dala.

uttaradhikari

apani mrityu se poorv khalifa umar ne pahale hi chh: logon ka ek gut bana liya tha, jisamen se apasi samajhaute dvara ek ko chunakar khalifa banaya jana tha. isamen 'ali' aur 'usman' shamil the. usman ko chun liya gaya aur ve 11 navambar, 644 ko tisare khalifa banaye ge.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kyonki unhonne muhammad sahab ki ekamatr sntan fatima se vivah kiya tha.
  2. hajarat ali (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 17 aprail, 2013.

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