मुहम्मद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg muhammad ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- muhammad (bahuvikalpi)
muhammad
Prophet-Muhammad-Logo.jpg
poora nam aboo alh‌-qasim muhammad ibn abd allah ibn abd alh‌-muttalib ibn hashim ibn abd manaf ibn qusi ibn kilab
any nam hazarat muhammad
janm 570 ee.
janm bhoomi makka, arab
mrityu 632 ee.
mrityu sthan madina, arab
abhibhavak abd alh ibn abd al mutallib (abdullah) aur amana (amina bin bahab)
pati/patni khadija, ayasha, hafasa, sauda, 'umm salma, zainab, umm habibi, juveriya, ramalah, rihana, mariya, maimoona, safiya (13 patniyan)
sntan putr: al-qasim, abd allah, ibrahim
putri: fatima, zainab bin muhammad, umm bin muhammad, ruqaya bin muhammad
prasiddhi islam dharm ke sabase mahanh nabi aur akhiri paigambar mane jate hain.

hazarat muhammad sahab (janm- 570 ee., makka, arab; mrityu- 632 ee., madina) arab ke ek prasiddh dharmachary aur islam ke pravartak the. quran ne kahin bhi hazarat muhammad (sall.) ko ‘islam dharm ka pravartak’ nahin kaha hai. quran men hazarat muhammad (sall.) ka parichay nabi (eeshvariy gyan ki khabar dene vala), rasool (manavajati ki or bheja gaya), rahamatulh-lil-alamin (sare snsaron ke lie rahamat v sakshath anuknpa, daya), hadi (satyapath-pradarshak) adi shabdon se karaya hai. svayn paigambar muhammad (sall.) ne islam dharm ke ‘pravartak’ hone ka n dava kiya, n is roop men apana parichay karaya.

inaka poora nam 'aboo alh‌-qasim muhammad ibn abd allah ibn abd alh‌-muttalib ibn hashim ibn abd manaf ibn qusi ibn kilab' tha.

hazarat muhammad (sall.) ke ek kathan ke anusar ‘islam ke bhavy bhavan men ek eent ki kami rah gee thi, eeshadootattv dvara vah kami poori ho gee aur islam apane antim roop men sampoorn ho gaya’ (apake kathan ka bhavarth.) isase siddh hua ki hazarat muhammad (sall.) islam dharm ke pravartak nahin hain. (isaka pravartak svayn allah hai, n ki koee bhi paigambar, rasool, nabi adi). aur hazarat muhammad (sall.) ne usi islam ka ahvan kiya jisaka, itihas ke har charan men doosare rasoolon ne kiya tha. is prakar islam ka itihas utana hi prachin hai jitana manavajati aur usake bich niyukt hone vale asnkhy rasoolon ke silasile (shrinkhala) ka itihas.[1]

jivan parichay

hazarat muhammad ka janm makka men 570 ee. men hua aur mrityu 632 ee. men madina nam ke nagar men huee. vah amina ke garbh se utpann abdulla ke putr the.[2] janm ke poorv hi pita ki aur panch varsh ki ayu men mata ki mrityu ho jane ke phalasvaroop mohammad sahab ka palan-poshan unake dada mutallib aur chacha aboo talib ne kiya tha. 25 varsh ki ayu men unhonne khadija namak ek vidhava se vivah kiya. mohammad sahab ke janm ke samay arabavasi atyant pichhadi, qabilaee aur charavahon ki zindagi bita rahe the. atah muhammad sahab ne un qabilon ko sngathit karake ek svatntr rashtr banane ka prayas kiya. 15 varsh tak vyapar men lage rahane ke pashchath ve karobar chhodakar chintan-manan men lin ho gaye. makka ke samip hira ki choti par kee din tak chintanashil rahane ke uparant unhen devadoot jibaril ka sndesh prapt hua ki ve jakar quran sharif ke roop men prapt eeshvariy sndesh ka prachar karen. tatpashchath unhonne islam dharm ka prachar shuroo kiya. unhonne moorti pooja ka virodh kiya, jisase makka ka purohit varg bhadak utha aur antatah muhammad sahab ne 622 ee. ko makka chhodakar vahan se 300 kilomitar yasarib (madina) ki or kooch kar diya. unaki yah yatra islam men 'hizarat' kahalati hai. isi din se 'hijari snvat' ka prarambh mana jata hai. kalantar men 630 ee. men apane lagabhag 10 hazar anuyayiyon ke sath muhammad sahab ne makka par chadhaee karake use jit liya aur vahan islam ko lokapriy banaya. do varsh pashchath 632 ee. ko unaka nidhan ho gaya.

janm

islam dharm ke pravartak hazarat muhammad sahab the, jinaka janm 570 ee. ko sudi arab ke makka namak sthan men kuraish qabile ke abdulla namak vyapari ke ghar hua tha. aise andhakar ke samay arab ke pradhan nagar bakka (makka) men abdulmatallab ke putr ki bharya 'amana' ke garbh se svanamadhany mahatma muhammad 617 vikram snvat men utpann hue. inaka vnsh ‘hashim’ vnsh ke nam se prasiddh tha. jab yah garbh men the tabhi inake pita svargavasi hue. mata aur pitamah ka balak par asadharan sneh tha. ek sthan se doosare sthan par ghoomane vale baddoo logon ki striyon ko palane ke lie apane bachchon ko de dena makka ke nagarikon ki pratha thi. ek samay ‘sad’ vnsh ki ek baddoo stri ‘halima’ makka men aee. unako koee aur bachcha nahin mila tha jisase jab dhanahin ‘amana’ ne apane putr ko saupane ko kaha, to usane yah samajh kar svikar kar liya ki khali hath jane se jo hi kuchh palle pad jay, vahi achchha. halima ne ek mas ke shishu muhammad ko lekar apane dere ko prasthan kiya. is prakar balak muhammad 4 varsh tak baddoo-grih men palata raha. isake bad vah phir apani snehamayi mata ki god men aya. ek samay sati ‘amana’ ne kutumbiyon se bhent karane ke lie balak muhammad ke sath apane mayake ‘madina’ ko prasthan kiya.

mauhatarama amana ka svargarohan

madina se lautane par marg men ‘avba’ namak sthan par pitrichhaya-vihin balak muhammad ko amritatuly matri-karasparsh se bhi vnchit kar devi ‘amana’ ne svargarohan kiya. bahoo aur putr ke viyog se khinn pitamah ‘abdulmatallab’ ne vatsalyapoorn hriday se pautr ke palan-poshan ka bhar apane oopar liya, kintu bhagy ko yah bhi svikrit nahin tha aur muhammad ko 8 varsh ka chhodakar vah bhi kal ke gal men chale gaye. marate samay unhonne apane putr ‘abootalib’ ko bula kar karun svar men adesh diya ki matri-pitri-vihin vats muhammad ko putr saman janana.

mahatma muhammad ne ‘abootalib’ ko premapoorn abhibhavakata men kabhi van men oont-bakari charate tatha kabhi sathiyon ke sath khelate-koodate apane ladakapan ko sanand bitaya. jab vah 12 varsh ke the aur unake chacha vyapar ke lie bahar jane vale the, tab unhonne sath chalane ke lie bahut agrah kiya. chacha ne marg ke kasht ka khyal kar ise svikar n kiya. jab chacha oont lekar ghar se nikalane lage, to bhatije ne oont ki nakel pakad kar rote hue kaha- “chachaji, n mere pita hain, n man. mujhe akele chhod kar kahan jate ho. mujhe bhi sath le chalo." is bat se abootalib ka chitt itana dravit hua ki vah asvikar n kar sake aur sath hi muhammad ko bhi lekar ‘sham’ ki or prasthit hue. isi yatra men balak ne khishth-tapodhan ‘bahera’ ka pratham darshan paya.

mahatma muhammad ke vivah

jan-pravad hai ki asadharan pratibhashali mahatma muhammad ajivan akshar-gyan se rahit rahe. vyavahar-chaturata, eemanadari adi anek sadgunon ke karan kuraish-vnsh ki ek samriddhishalini stri ‘khadija’ ne apana gumashta banakar 25 varsh ki avastha men navayuvak muhammad se ‘sham’ jane ke lie kaha. unhonne ise svikar kar badi yogyatapoorvak apane kartavy ka nirvah kiya. isake kuchh dinon bad ‘khadija’ ne unake sath byah karane ki ichchha prakat ki. yadyapi ‘khadija’ ki avastha 40 varsh ki thi, usake do pati pahale bhi mar chuke the, kintu usake anek sadgunon ke karan mahatma muhammad ne is prarthana ko svikar kar liya.

kitane hi ne musalaman mahatma par apane musalaman ho jane ka abhar (ihasan) rakhate the. jis par kaha gaya hai— "tujh par ihasan rakhate hain ki musalaman ho ge, kah-mujh par ihasan mat rakho, yah parameshvar ne tumhare oopar upakar kiya hai ki tumako sachcha rasta diya.[3]

mahatma muhammad ka pratham vivah shrimati khadija ke sath 25 varsh ki avastha men hua. vivah ke anantar vah 25 varsh tak jivit rahin. madina pravas se 3 varsh poorv, jabaki mahatma 50 varsh ke ho ge the, unaka svargavas hua. islam ki shiksha sarvapratham inhonne svikar ki. kee charanon se majaboor hokar mahatma ko (prayah) das vivah aur karane pade, kintu yah sab 53 varsh ki avastha ke bad hue. par mahatma ke pas ek 'jaid' nam ka das rahata tha. usake musalaman ho jane par unhonne itana hi nahin ki use dasata se mukt kar diya, pratyut apana poshy putr banakar usaka vivah apani phoophi, 'umaiya' ki ladaki 'jainab' se kara diya. jainab ki badi–badi ichchhaon aur uchch–vnsh ke abhiman ne dasata se mukt jaid ke sath patari n jamane di. donon men barabar jhagada hone laga. anek bar jaid ne sambandh vichchhed (=talaq) karana chaha, kintu bar–bar mahatma 'apani stri ko apane pas rahane de aur allah se dar'- kahakar use rok diya karate the, yadyapi bar–bar pariksha ne unhen nishchit kar diya tha ki in donon ka man milana kathin hai. kintu sambandh–vichchhed se utpann hone vali kathin samasya ko dekhakar vah isi tarah talate jate the. 'jainab' aur usake bhaee musalaman hone ke karan 'quraishiyon' ke kop–bhajan bane hue the aur unhonne bhi ghar–bar chhodakar 'madina' men pravas kiya tha. talaq dene par 'jainab' ka vivah hona kathin tha. musalaman hone se musalaman bhinn ke sath sambandh nahin ho sakata tha aur musalaman men bhi quraish ke vnsh ki pratishtha ke khyal se kisi aquraishi se vivah ayukt tha, yadyapi isase bahut pahale hi adesh mil chuka tha—

"bhagavan ne poshy putron ko tumhara putr nahin banaya, yah tumhari kapol- kalpana hai."[4]

isase jainab ke sath vivah karane men islam dharm ke anusar koee badha n thi, parantu mahatma lokapavad se darate the. log kahenge- muhammad ne apani patohoo ghar men rakh li, kintu islam ke pravarttak ki yah nirbalata bahut hanikar hoti yadi vah us shiksha ko lokapavad se darakar chhod dete jisake ki vah svayn pracharak the. phir to unake anuyayi kyon n barhirmukh ho jate. isilie quran ne adesh diya.

mahatma muhammad ki patniyan
'bhagavan se dar, too jo kuchh apane bhitar chhipana chahata tha, bhagavan use prakashit karana chahata hai. too manushyon se darata hai, kintu parameshvar se darana hi sarvottam hai.
jab 'jaid' ki usase ichchha poorn ho gee to ham (eeshvar) ne jainab ko tujhe byah diya. yah isalie ki musalamanon par apane maukhik putron ki striyon se byah karane men haraj n ho.'[5]

madina pravas se pahale mahatma ne ek hi byah kiya tha. yah tha shrimati 'khadija' ke sath. vah pravas se 3 varsh poorv hi svargavasini ho gee thin. baki vivah, jo madina men ane par 53 varsh ke bad hue, unaki snkhya 9 se adhik batalayi jati hai. pradhan striyon ke nam hain—

  • shrimati 'ayasha' dvitiy khalifa 'aboobakar ki putri'.
  • shrimati 'hafasa' tritiy khalifa 'umar' ki putri.
  • shrimati 'sauda'.
  • shrimati 'umm salma'.
  • shrimati 'jainab'.
  • shrimati 'umm habibi'.
  • shrimati 'javeriya'.
  • shrimati 'maimoona'.
  • shrimati 'safiya'.

inamen se pahali chhah quraish vnsh ki thin. atmaraksha ke lie sab tarah se harakar musalamanon ne talavar ki sharan li. unhen islam ke shatruon- quraish aur unake sathi yahoodiyon se anek ladaiyan ladani padin. jinamen anek musalaman viragati ko prapt hue. unaki striyan vidhava ho geen. ab unake palan-poshan ka saval utha. musalamanon ki snkhya kam thi aur utane hi men prabandh karana tha. is chhoti-si biradari ke sath sambandh ki anivaryata ne mahatma muhammad ko aur bhi mazaboot kiya ki vah un vidhavaon aur unake sambandhiyon ko santusht karane ke lie aur bhi shadiyan karen. aisi hi kathinaiyon men 'khunais' ki vidhava 'hafasa', 'abdulla' ki vidhava 'jainab' aur 'aboosalma' ki vidhava 'umm salma' se vivah karana, 'ubaidulla' ki vidhava 'umm habiba', se bhi uparyukt karanon se byah hua. jo tin vivah quraish- bhinn vnshon men hue, vah bhi ladakoo saradaron ko byah- sambandh se shant rakhane ke lie hue the. shri 'aboobakar' ke agrah ne 'ayasha' se byah karane par majaboor kiya. in sab baton se yah bhali prakar pata chal sakata hai ki mahatma ne yah anek byah vishay-bhog ke lie nahin, kintu any hi kinhin sadichchhaon se prerit hokar kiya. prerit muhammad ke apane byah ke vishay men quran ki nimn prakar ki agya hai.

tatkalin moortiyan

‘hubl’, ‘lath’, ‘manath’ ‘ujj’ adi bhinn-bhinn anek dev-pratimaen us samay arab ke pratyek qabile men logon ki isht thin. bahut purane samay men vahan moortipooja n thi. ‘amaroo’ namak kaba ke ek pradhan pujari ne ‘sham’ desh men suna ki isaki aradhana se dushkal se raksha aur shatru par vijay prapt hoti hai. usi ne pahale-pahal ‘sham’ se lakar kuchh moortiyan kaba ke mandir men sthapit kin. dekha-dekhi isaka prachar itana badha ki sara desh moortipooja men nimagn ho gaya. akele ‘kaba’ mandir men 360 devamoortiyan thin, jinamen hubl-jo chhat par sthapit tha- kuresh-vnshiyon ka isht tha. ‘jay[6] hubl’ unaka jatiy ghosh tha. log manate the ki ye moortiyan eeshvar ko prapt karati hain, isilie ve unhen poojate the. arabi men ‘ilah’ shabd devata aur unaki moortiyon ke lie prayukt hota hai; kintu ‘alah’ shabd ‘islam’ kal se pahale us samay bhi ek hi eeshvar ke lie prayukt hota tha.

shrimati ‘khadija’ aur unake bhaee ‘naufal’ moortipooja- virodhi yahoodi dharm ke anuyayi the. anek shisht mahatmaon ke satsng evn logon ke pakhand ne unhen moortipooja se vimukh bana diya. vah eesaee bhikshuon ki bhanti bahudha ‘hira’ ki gufa men ekant-sevan aur eeshvar- pranidhan ke lie jaya karate the. ‘ikra bi-ismi rabbik’ (padh apane prabhu ke nam ke sath) yah pratham quran vaky pahale vahin par devadoot ‘jibrail’ dvara mahatma muhammad ke hriday men utara gaya. us samay devadoot ke bhaynkar sharir ko dekhakar kshan bhar ke lie vah moorchchhit ho gaye the. jab unhonne is vrittant ko shrimati ‘khadija’ aur ‘naufal’ ko sunaya to unhonne kaha- avashy vah devadoot tha jo is bhagavatvaky ko lekar tumhare pas aya tha. is samay mahatma muhammad ki ayu 40 varsh ki thi. yahin se unaki paigambari (bhagavatata) ka samay prarambh hota hai.

islam ka prachar aur kasht

eeshvar ke divy adesh ko prapt kar unhonne makka ke dambhik aur samagat yatriyon ko quran ka upadesh sunana arambh kiya. mela ke khas dinon (‘ihram’ ke mahinon) men door se ayen hue tirth-yatriyon ke samooh ko chhal-pakhandayukt lokachar aur anek devataon ki upasana ka khandan karake, vah ek eeshvar (allah) ki upasana aur shuddh tatha saral dharm ke anushthan ka upadesh karate the. ‘quraishi’ log apane isht, achar aur amadani ki is prakar ninda aur us par is prakar ka kutharaghat dekhakar bhi ‘hashim’- parivar ki chirashatruta ke bhay se unhen marane ki himman n kar sakate the. kintu is navin dharm-anuyayi, das-dasiyon ko tapt baloo par litate, kode marate tatha bahut kasht dete the; to bhi dharm ke matavale pranapan se apane dharm ko n chhodane ke lie taiyar the. is amanushik asahy atyachar ko din par din badhate dekh kar ant men mahatma ne anuyaniyon ko ‘aphrika’ khand ke ‘habs’ namak rajy men- jahan ka raja bada nyayaparayan tha- chale jane ki anumati de di. jaise-jaise musalamanon ki snkhya badhati jati thi, ‘quraishi’ ka dvesh bhi vaise-vaise badhata jata tha, kintu ‘abootalib’ ke jivan-paryant khulakar upadrav karane ki unaki himmat n hoti thi. jab ‘abootalib’ ka dehant ho gaya to unhonne khule taur par virodh karane par kamar bandhi.

Blockquote-open.gif mahatma muhammad shantipriy the, eeshvar bhakt the. unamen aur bahut se sadagun the; yon to manushy hone ke karan yah nahin kaha ja sakata ki vah sarvatha nirdosh the. unhonne manushy jati par bada upakar kiya. aganit atmaon ko unake prakash ne marg dikhalaya. aganit praniyon ne unake upadesh se shanti payi. is chhote nibandh men quran ka sar nichodane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai. yatharth islam dharm bhi vahi hai jise 'quran' ke apane shabd pratipadit karate hain. Blockquote-close.gif

madina pravas

ab mahatma muhammad ki avastha 53 varsh ki thi. unaki stri shrimati ‘khadija’ ka dehant ho chuka tha. ek din ‘quraishiyon’ ne hatya ke abhipray se unake ghar ko charon or se gher liya, kintu mahatma ko isaka pata pahale se hi mil chuka tha. unhonne poorv hi vahan se ‘yasrib’ (madina) nagar ko prasthan kar diya tha. vahan ke shishy-varg ne ati shraddha se guru sushrusha karane ki prarthana ki thi. pahunchane par unhonne mahatma ke bhojan, vasagrih adi ka prabandh kar diya. jab se unaka nivas ‘yasrib’ men hua, tab se nagar ka nam ‘maditunnabi’ ya nabi ka nagar prakhyat hua. usi ko chhota karake ajakal keval ‘madina’ kahate hain. ‘quran’ men tis khand hain aur vah 114 ‘sooraton’ (adhyayon) men bhi vibhakt hai.[7] nivas-kram se pratyek soorat ‘makki’ ya ‘madni’ nam se pukari jati hai, arthat makka men utari ‘sooraten’ ‘makki’ aur madina men utari ‘madni’ kahi jati hai.

mahatma muhammad aur unake sambandhi

quran men anek vaky mahatma muhammad ke parivar, islam dharm men unaki sthiti adi ke sambandh men bhi kahe ge hain. apane dharm pravarttakon ko allah ya usaka avatar bana dalana dharmanuyayiyon ka svabhav hai. isilie quran men (muhammad) prerit ke atirikt kuchh nahin[8] vaky bar–bar duharaya gaya hai.

mahatma muhammad ke prabhu–prerit hone ke vishay men nimnalikhit quran ke udagar hain—

"jisake pas 'taurat'[9] aur 'injil'[10] men se uddharan hai, jisaka upadesh puny karm ke lie hai aur nishedh pap karm ke lie. jo pavitr (vastu) ko bhakshy (halal) aur apavitr ko abhakshy (haram) karata hai. jo un (dharmanuyayiyon) se unake oopar bhar aur phandon ko alag karata hai, us nirakshar prerit rishi ke jo anuyayi, vishvasi tatha sahayak hain, aur usake sath utare prakash (quran) ka anusaran karate hain, vahi puny ke bhagi hain." (7:19:6)

mahatma ka samman

  • main muhammad tumhare sab ke pas us allah ka bheja hua (prerit) hoon, jisaka shasan prithvi aur akash donon men hai.[11]
  • kah, main naya prerit nahin hoon...jo kuchh allah mere pas bhejata hai, main usi ka anusaran karata hoon. mngal aur amngal ka sunane vala chhod main kuchh nahin hoon.[12]

islam men yadyapi mahatma muhammad allah ke avatar nahin mane ge, kintu isaka yah arth nahin hai ki unaki pratishtha aur samman kam hai. kaha hai—

"tere (muhammad ke) sath–sath hath milane vale allah ke sath hath milate hain. (muhammad ka hath nahin) allah ka hath unake hathon men hain."[13]

injil men muhammad lie bhavishyavani

"he vishvasiyon (musalamanon!) prerit muhammad ke svar se tum ooncha n chillao aur usake sath us prakar se batachit n karo, jaise tum apas men ek–doosare ke sath bolate ho."[14]
"parameshvar aur devadoot, prerit ke pas ashirvad bhejate hain. he vishvasiyo! tum bhi usake lie ashirvad aur shanti ki kamana karo."[15]

musalamanon ka yah bhi vishvas hai ki yahoodiyon ki bhanti eesaeeyon ke bhi dharm–granth men mahatma muhammad ke prerit hokar ane ki bhavishyavani hai; kintu duragrahavash vah ise svikar nahin karate. quran men yah bhav nimn prakar se pradarshit kiya gaya hai—

"jab mariyam ke putr eesa ne kaha hai—he israil ki santanon! (yahoodiyon) main prabhu–prerit hokar tumhare pas aya hoon; pahali pustak 'tarat' adi ko pramanit manata hoon aur ek prerit ka shubh samachar deta hoon ki jo mere bad ayega, usaka nam muhammad hai. phir jab muhammad unake pas pramanon ke sath aya, to kahate hain—"yah saf jadoo (dhokha) hai."[16]
 

mahatma muhammad ki pradhanata

  • mahatma muhammad ke pas eeshvariy sandesh ane ka koee samay nishchit n tha. vah sote–baithate kisi samay par bhi a jata tha. ek samay jab mahatma razaee odhe soye the, usi samay yah sandesh aya—

"he lihaf (odhana) men lipate, uth aur bhay suna."[17]

  • nimnalikhit vaky bhi islam men mahatma muhammad ki pradhanata ko pradarshit karate hain—

"he vishvasiyon! eeshvar aur prerit ki agya manon."[18]

"vishvasi (musalaman) vah hai jo eeshvar aur prerit par vishvas laye hain aur shnka nahin karate."[19]

mahatma muhammad ke chamatkar

mahatma muhammad ne yadyapi chamatkar dikhalane men adhikatar apani asammati prakat ki; kintu to bhi quran ke kuchh vaky unake kuchh chamatkaron ko prakat karate hain. niche unhen snkshep men diya jata hai—

  • "jab phenka, to toone nahin phenka, kintu paramatma ne phenka."[20]

hazarat ne badar ke yuddh ke samay ek mutthi mitti shatruon ki or phenki thi, pichhe shatru ki parajay huee. yahan usi bat ka snket hai.

  • "prabhu ne apane nabi aur musalamanon ke pas shanti aur sena bheji, jisako tumane nahin dekha."[21]

yahan par ek ladaee men eeshvar ne farishton ki sena bhej kar mahatma ki madad ki- isaki or snket hai.

  • "vah (eeshvar) pavitr hai, jo apane das (muhammad) ko rat men pavitr masjid se antim masjid (svarg), jo charon or pavitr aishvary se poorn hai- ko le gaya ki usako apane praman dikhaven."[22] "aur usako doosare utar men, antim ber (vriksh) ke pas dikhaya, usake pas vasodyan (svarg) hain....nissandeh us (muhammad) ne apane prabhu ke sabase bade praman dekhe."[23]

yahan par mahatma muhammad ki sajiv svargayatra ka varnan hai, jise 'miaraj' kahate hain. eeshvar ne unhen svarg men le jakar apane aishvary dikhalae.

  • "jab hamane jinnon[24] men se kitano ko teri or akrisht kiya. jinhonne 'quran' suna aur jab vah vahan aye, to (apas men) bole—chup raho. phir jab (padhana) samapt hua, to apani jati ki or (eeshvar ka) bhay sunane vale hokar laut ge."[25]

'jinn agni se utpann ek devayoni hai. yahan par bataya gaya hai ki unamen se kitane hi mahatma se 'quran' sunakar musalaman ho ge aur ve apani jati men bhi jakar isaka prachar karane lage.

yah mahatma ke sabase prasiddh 'shaqakulaqamr' namak chamatkar ka varnan hai. mahatma ne apani daivi shakti dikhane ke lie ek bar anguli chandrama ki or ki, is par usake do tukade ho ge, jisako kitane hi unake anuyayiyon ne apani ankhon se dekha, yahi isaka sanrash hai.

'quran' men ek eeshvar vishvas par bahut bal diya gaya hai. ek–do nahin, saikadon bar kaha gaya hai ki vah parameshvar ek hi hai, usake siva doosara koee poojy nahin. yahan eeshvar ko sarvavyapak aur sarvgy mana gaya hai. avataravad ka mahatma eesa ke varnan ke samay bade zor se khandan kiya gaya hai. 'quran' ne khule shabdon men kaha hai ki paramatma tumako poorvajon ke marg par chalana chahata hai.[27] mahatma muhammad ne kisi naye dharm ki ninv rakhane ka dava nahin kiya, kintu usi 'din–ibrahim' ya 'ibrahim' ke pnth ka punah prachar karata hai jo mahatma muhammad se hazaron varsh poorv vidyaman tha. mahatma muhammad un vishesh vyaktiyon men se the, jinaka sthan apane asapas ke dharatal se ooncha hota hai. jis prakar prakriti kahin–kahin niche khaddon ke pas uttung parvat utpann kar deti hai, vaise hi apani janmabhoomi men aisi mahanh atmaon ki sthiti hai. yadyapi 'momin' aur 'muslim' shabdon ke arth 'saty–priy' aur 'shanti–priy' hain, to bhi anek sthanon par inaka bada snkuchit arth liya gaya aur isi bhranti ke karan snsar men islam ke nam par anek anuchit kary hue hain. vidvanon ne is bat ko mana hai ki lachar hokar atmaraksha ke lie shastr grahan kiya tha; kintu pichhe kitane hi logon ne usaka ulta arth lagaya. unhonne yuddh ko dharm phailane ka madhyam mal liya. vastav men mahatma muhammad shant prakriti ke the, unhonne bina avashyakata ke kabhi rakt bahana achchha nahin samajha.

"allahu la–muhibbulafasadh."[28]
(eeshvar kalah nahin pasand karata)
yah vaky bhi ukt arth ko spasht pratipadit karata hai.
'lakumh din–kumh v li dini'.

'tumhare lie tumhara dharm aur mere lie mera dharm'- is vaky ne bhi dharmik sahishnuta ka achchha path padhaya hai. 'islam' ko samajhane ke lie hamen uparokt quran ke vakyon par vichar karana chahie. katipay musalamanon ke acharan se islam par faisala dena anyay hai.

mahatma muhammad shantipriy the, eeshvar bhakt the. unamen aur bahut se sadagun the; yon to manushy hone ke karan yah nahin kaha ja sakata ki vah sarvatha nirdosh the. unhonne manushy jati par bada upakar kiya. aganit atmaon ko unake prakash ne marg dikhalaya. aganit praniyon ne unake upadesh se shanti payi. is chhote nibandh men quran ka sar nichodane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai. yatharth islam dharm bhi vahi hai jise 'quran' ke apane shabd pratipadit karate hain.

muhammad antim paigambar

"jo koee parameshvar aur usake prerit ki agya n mane, usako sarvada ke lie narak ki agni hai."[29] mahatma muhammad ke acharan ko adarsh manakar use doosaron ke lie anukaraniy kaha gaya hai. "tumhare lie prabhu–prerit ka sundar acharan anukaraniy hai."[30] yah kaha gaya hai ki arab ke log us samay ekadam asabhy the. unhen chhote–chhote se lekar bade–bade achar aur sabhyata-sambandhi vyavaharon ko bhi batalana padata tha. unako guru-shishy, pita-putr, bade-chhote ke sambandh ka bhi vishesh vichar nahin tha. mahatma muhammad ko guru aur prerit svikar karane par unaka yahi mukhy sambandh musalamanon ke sath hai, n ki bhaeebandi, chacha-bhatija vala pahala sambandh; yatha- "muhammad tum purushon men se kisi ka bap nahin, vah prabhu-prerit aur sab preriton par muhar (antim) hai."[31] 'musalamanon ka us (muhammad) ke sath pran se bhi adhik sambandh hai aur usaki striyan tumhari (musalamanon) ki mataen hain.'

bidat

bidat islam men koee aisi navinata hai, jisaka muslim samuday se parnparik rasmo-rivaj (sunna) men mool n ho. islam ka sabase adhik kattaravadi qanooni vicharadhara hanabila (aur isaka adhunik uttarajivi soodi arab ka vah mat) ne bidat ko poori tarah thukara diya hai aur dalil di hai ki muslim ka farz paigambar muhammad dvara nirdharit udaharan (sunna) ka palan karana hai, n ki usamen sudhar lane ki koshish karana.

mrityu

madina men vah adhik din tak shantipoorvak vishram n kar sake the ki vahan bhi quraish unhen kasht pahunchane lage. ant men atmaraksha ka koee any upay n dekh quraish aur unaki kumntrana men pade hue ‘madina'- nivasi yahoodiyon ke sath unhen anek yuddh karane pade, jinaki samapti ‘makka-vijay’ aur ‘kaba’ ko moortirahit karane ke sath huee. janm nagari ke vijay karane par bhi madina-nivasiyon ke snehapash men baddh ho mahatma ne apane shesh jivan ko madina men hi vyatit kiya. unake jivan men hi sara arab ek rashtr aur ek dharm ke sootr men abaddh ho islam-dharm men pravisht ho gaya. 632 ee., madina men 63 varsh ki avastha men is prakar mahatma muhammad apane mahanh jivanoddeshy ko poorn kar shishy janon ko apane viyog se duahkhasagar men magn karate mrityu ko prapt hue. ‘quran’ ke bhav samajhane men pad-pad par us samay ki paristhiti aur ghatana apekshit hai. use spasht karane ke lie tatkalin aur prachin arab ki dasha ke sath mahatma ki snkshipt jivani bhi avashyak hai, jaisa ki agale prishthon se pata lagega. isalie yahan isake vishay se kuchh karana pada. 40ven varsh men ‘ikra bi ismi rabbik’ se lekar marane ke 17 din (kisi-kisi ke mat se 12 din) poorv ‘rabbikalh akram’ (prabhu too ati mahanh hai) das vaky ke utarane tak, jo kuchh divyopadesh mahatma muhammad dvara pracharit hua, usi ka sngrah quran ke nam se prasiddh, musalamani dharm ka svatah praman granth hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. islam ka itihas (hindi) islam dharm. abhigaman tithi: 2 disnbar, 2010.
  2. pauranik kosh |lekhak: rana prasad sharma |prakashak: gyanamandal limited, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 563, parishisht 'gh' |
  3. 49:2:7
  4. 33:1:4
  5. 33:5:6
  6. ‘alalh-hubl’
  7. pratyek adhyay men anek ‘rakooa’ aur pratyek ‘rakooa’ men anek ‘ayate’ hoti hain.
  8. 3:15:1
  9. moosa ko diya gaya eeshvariy granth, yahoodiyon ki dharm pustak.
  10. eesa ko diya gaya eeshvariy granth, eesaeeyon ki dharm pustak.
  11. 7:20:1
  12. 46:1:9
  13. 48:1:10
  14. 49:1:2
  15. 33:7:4
  16. 61:1:6
  17. 74:1:1:2
  18. 4:8:9
  19. 49:2:5
  20. 2:2:6
  21. 9:42
  22. 17:1:1
  23. 53:1:13-15,18
  24. ek prakar ke devata
  25. 46:4:3
  26. 54:1:1
  27. 4:4:1
  28. 2:25:9
  29. 72:2:4
  30. 33:3:1
  31. 33:5:6

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