देवता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

koee bhi paralaukik shakti ka patr, jo amar aur paraprakritik hai aur isaliye poojaniy hai, use hi 'devata' ya 'dev' kaha jata hai. hindoo dharm men devataon ko ya to parameshvar (brahm) ka laukik roop ya phir unhen eeshvar ka sagun roop mana jata hai.

'dev' shabd men 'talh' pratyay lagakar 'devata' shabd ki vyutpatti hoti hai. at: donon men arth-samy hai. nirooktakar ne isaki vyakhya karate hue kaha, 'jo kuchh deta hai vahi devata hai arthath dev svayn dyutiman hain- shaktisnpann hain- kintu apane gun ve svayn apane men samahit kiye rahate hain jabaki devata apani shakti, dyuti adi snpark men aye vyaktiyon ko bhi pradan karate hain. devata devon se adhik virat hain kyonki unaki pravritti apani shakti, dyuti, gun adi ka vitaran karane ki hoti hai. jab koee dev doosare ko apana sahabhagi bana leta hai, vah devata kahalane lagata hai.

  • panini donon shabdon ko paryayavachi manate hain:

devo danadva dipanadva dyotanadva dyusthano bhavatiti va.
yo dev: sa devata iti.[1] jab dev ved-mantr ka vishay ban jata hai, tab vah devata kahalane lagata hai jisase kisi shakti athava padarth ko prapt karane ki prarthana ki jay aur vah ji kholakar dena anrabh kare, tab vah devata kahalata hai.[2] vedamantr vishesh men, jisake prati yachana hai, us mantr ka vahi devata mana jata hai

  • yajurved ke anusar mukhy devataon ki snkhya barah hain.

agnidevata vato devata sooryo devata chandrama devata
vasavo devata, rudra devata, aditya devata maruto devata.
vishvedeva devata brihaspatirdaivatendro devata varunon devata.

  1. agni- svayn agrasar hota hai, doosaron ko bhi karata hai.
  2. soory- utpadan karane vala tatha utpadan hetu sabako prerit karane vala.
  3. chndr- ahladamay- doosaron men ahlad ka vitaran karane vala.
  4. vat- gatimay- doosaron ko gati pradan karane vala.
  5. vasav- svayn sthirata se rahata hai- doosari ko avas pradan karata hai.
  6. rudr- upadesh, sukh, karmanusar dnd dekar roola deta hai, svayn vaisi hi paristhiti men vichalit nahin hota.
  7. adity- prakritik avayavon ko grahan tatha vitaran karane men samarth.
  8. maroot- priy ke nimitt atmotsarg ke lie tatpar tatha vaise hi mitron se ghira hua.
  9. vishvadev- danashil tatha prakashit karane vala.
  10. indr- aishvaryashali devataon ka adhipati.
  11. brihaspati- virat vicharon ka adhipati tatha vitarak.
  12. varun- shubh tatha saty ko grahan kar asaty ashubh ko tyag karane vala tatha doosare logon se bhi vaisa hi vyavahar karavane vala.
  • shruti, anushruti, puran adi grnthon ke parayan se spasht hai ki moolat: devatray ki kalpana sarvadhik many rahi hai. ve brahma, vishnu, mahesh nam se vikhyat hain.
  • brahma srishti ka nirman karate hain,
  • vishnu palan tatha
  • shiv snhar karate hain. tinon devataon ke sath shaktiroopa nari ka ankan bhi milata hai. parashakti ne brahma, vishnu, mahesh ko kramash: sarasvati, lakshmi tatha gauri pradan kin tabhi ve srishti-kary-nirvah men samarth hue. jab halahal namak daityon ne trailoky ko gher liya tha, vishnu aur mahesh ne yuddh men apani shaktiyon se unaka hanan kiya tha. vijay ke uparant adidevatray atmastuti karane lage to unaka mithyabhiman nasht karane ke lie unaki shaktiyan antardhan ho gayin, phalat: ve vikshipt ho, kary karane men asamarth ho gaye. manu tatha sanakadi ke tap se prasann hokar parashakti ne unhen svasthy tatha shaktiroopa lakshmi tatha gauri pun: pradan ki unake jivan phalak par drishti dalana param avashyak jan padata hai.


devataon ke svaroopatmak pratik

  • sanskritik drishti se pray: har desh ke many devataon ka svaroop pratikatmak hota hai- is or dhyan den to jan padata hai ki 'devata' ki sthiti manushy aur paramatma ke madhyavarti hain. manushy sngharshamay jivan se joojhate hue nirasha ke kshanon men jab kisi ka anapekshit sahara prapt karata hai tab apane kary ki siddhi ke lie use devata athava avatar manane lagata hai. aise sahayog use jivan ke har mod par milate hain aur dhire-dhire desh ki snskriti men anek devataon ki pratishtha ho jati hai. devataon ka kary-kshetr ek-doosare se alag manate hue bhaktagan unake svaroop men alag-alag prakar ki shakti tatha gunon ki sthiti ke darshan karate hain jo pratyek devata ke svaroop ke pratikon ko doosare devataon se alag roop pradan karate hain. is prakar unake svaroop bhinn-bhinn prakar ki shakti, svabhav, kary-kshetr ke lie roodh ho jate hain. vichitr bat to yah hai ki pratyek devata ka vahan tak doosare devata se bhinn hai tatha vahan bhi kisi-n-kisi bhavana ka pratik banakar prakat hota hai.

ganesh

ganesh sabaki badhaon ko harane vale devata mane gaye hain. unaka svaroop adbhut hai. hathi ka mukh, chhoti-chhoti ankhen, soond aur bade-bade kanon se yukt hone ke karan hi ve gajanan mana jata hai. isi se donon ke svaroop men samanata hai.

  • chauda mastak ganesh ki buddhimatta ka pratik hai.
  • hathi ke saman bade-bade kan is bat ki or snket karate hain ki ganesh chhoti se chhoti pukar ko, jara-si ahat ko sunane-samajhane men samarth hain.
  • hathi ki ankhen bahut door tak dekh sakati hai, so ganesh bhi dooradarshi hain.
  • hathi ki soond ki yah visheshata prasiddh hai ki jis sahajata se vah badi-badi chizen ukhadati hai, utani hi saralata se vah suee uthane men samarth rahati hai. sadharanat: ek sashakt pahalavan chhoti vastu ko uthane ki sookshmakarmi vritti se vnchit ho jata hain. soond-lnbi nak-buddhi ka pratik hai. sath hi vah 'nad brahm' ka pratik bhi hai.
  • ganesh ki char banhen unaki charon dishaon ki pahunch ki or snket karati hain.
  • deh ka dahina bhag buddhi tatha aham se yukt rahata hai
  • jabaki bayin or hridayapaksh ki sthiti mani gayi hai.
  • ganesh ke dahine oopar ke hath ka ankush is bat ka pratik hai ki ve sansarik vighnon ka nash karane vale devata hai.
  • dahini or ka doosara hath sabako ashirvad deta dikhayi padata hai.
  • bayin or ek hath men rassi hai jo ki prem (rag) ka pash hai jisamen bndhakar ganesh bhakton ko siddhi ke annd tak pahuncha dete hain.
  • annd ka pratik modak (laddoo) hai jo ki unake doosare bayen hath men rahata hai.
  • rassi ko ichchha aur ankush ko gyan ka pratik bhi mana gaya hai.
  • unaka bada pet is bat ka pratik hai ki ve sabake rahasy pacha lete hain unaki idhar-se-udhar bat karane ki pravritti nahin hai.
  • unaka ek hi dant hai. vahi hathi ke dant jaisa dant samast vighn-badhaon ko nasht karane men samarth hai. mukh men ek hi dant ka rah jane ka karan is prakar vikhyat hai: ek bar shiv-parvati kndara men so rahe the. ganesh dvar-raksha ka kary kar rahe the. parashuram shiv se milane vahan pahunche. ganesh ke mana karane par unhonne prahar kar unaka ek dant tod diya; kintu ve gufa men phir bhi nahin ja paye. ganesh prahar ka uttar dena anuchit samajhate the kyonki prahar karane vale vriddh brahman the. yah is tathy ka pratik hai ki ve siddhant aur karttavy ki siddhi ke lie har prakar ka kasht uthane ke lie taiyar rahate hain.
  • unaka shvet varn sattvik bhav ka pratik hai.

isi prakar any sabhi devataon ki svaroopagat pratikatmakata mithak sahity ki abhootapoorv nidhi hai. un sabaka savistar varnan yahan snbhav nahin hai.

brahma

bahut snkshep men kaha ja sakata hai ki brahma ke charon sir char vedon ke udbhav sthal hain to panchavan gadhe ka sir unhonne matr jhooth bolane ke lie dharan kiya tha. is prakar mote taur par unaka svaroop jagat janak ka pratik bhi hai aur anaitikata ka ansh bhi abhivyakt karata hai.

vishnu

shesh shayya (amit kal) par asin vishnu ki char banhen dharm, arth, kam aur mokshasvaroop hain. unake svaroop ki vistrit vyakhya n karen to bhi dharm, arth, kam aur moksh men samast sansarikata vyapt hai. vishnu in hathon se is sansarikata ka palan karate hain.

shiv

shiv ka kary dhvns karana hai. unake svaroop men sarp, tritiy netr, knth men sthit vish, trishool tatha dhvnsatmak nrity, tandav, ki mudra isi or snket karate hain.

lakshmi

  • lakshmi ka svaroop aishvary ki or ingit karata hai to
  • vina aur pustakadharini sarasvati kala aur vidya ki devi hain.
  • durga raksha karati hain to
  • mahakali naramund ki mala pahane kal ki pratik hain. mithak kathaon men devata aur deviyon ki kriyakalapagat pratikatmakata bhi vicharaniy hai.
  • brahma srishti ko janm dene vale devata hain-
  • unake sath unaki shakti ke roop men putri sarasvati rahati hain. sarasvati kala aur vidya ki devi hain jo srishti ke janm ke sath judi huee vastuen hain.
  • vishnu palan karane vale devata hain to
  • unaki shakti lakshmi (dhan aur aishvary) palan men sahayata pradan karati hain.
  • shiv ke dhvnsatmak roop ke sath
  • mahakali ka dhvnsatmak roop bana rahata hai. is prakar pratyek devata ka svaroop kisi-n-kisi bhav ke pratik roop men darshaniy hai. devi-devataon ki snkhya annt hai- svaroop aur gun bhi annt hain.

asuri shakti

mithak sahity men hin pravrittiyon ko prastut karane ke nimitt rakshas-charitron ki yojana ki gayi hai. daiviy shakti manushy ki raksha aur palan karati hai to asuri shaktiyan usake marg ki badha banati hain. ve shaktiyan kam, krodh, lobh aur moh se prerit hin bhavanaon ka pratinidhitv karati dikhayi gayi hai. rakshason ke svaroop bhay, kroorata, anaitikata aur dnbh ke pratik hain. achchhaee aur buraee ka samavesh to sabhi men rahata hai- chahe vah dev ho ya danav. antar keval anupat ka hai- devataon men achchhaee adhik rahati he, rakshason men buraee. rakshason men sarvadhik prasiddh charit ravan ka hai. das siron se yukt hone ke karan lnkesh ravan dashanan nam se vikhyat hua. ravan ka jivan sundar dhng se prarnbh hua. pita vishrava se usane char ved tatha chhah vedangon ki shiksha li. jitani nipunata ek vyakti ek mastak se ek jivan men prapt karata hai., usase dasaguni nipunata dason grnthon men ravan ko prapt thi; at: usake das sir usaki das guna buddhi aur gyan ke pratik hain. keval buddhi ka vikas vyaktitv ka adhoora vikas hota hai- vah hridayapaksh se achhoota hi rahane ke karan atmakendrit ho jata hai. at: ravan ke das sar dason dishaon men phaile usake atnk ke pratik bhi mane gaye hain. us atnk ke mool men atmasukh kendrit rakshasi vritti thi jo das roopon men vikasit huee:

  1. sukh
  2. snpatti,
  3. sut,
  4. sainy,
  5. sahay (prabhutv ke lie sngathan),
  6. jay,
  7. pratap,
  8. shakti,
  9. buddhi,
  10. badaee- in sabake pratik dashamukhi ravan (dashanan) ke das sir the. ram ne usaki pratyek vritti ko ek-ek sir ke roop men nasht kiya.

dashanan ne anek saphal tap kiye then vah yog siddh tha. ravan ke svaroop men yog siddhiyon ka pratik usaki amrit kundi nabhi hai. nabhi sharir ka kendr mani jati hai. valmiki ramayan ka pratyek patr kisi-n-kisi bhav ka pratinidhitv kar raha hai. ramakatha snbndhi pratikatmakata is prakar hai:

katha ke patr

pratik

katha ke patr

pratik

ram

shuddh brahmansh (atma),(maya se asnprikt)

ravan

ahnkar

 

sumitra

shil

ayodhya

deh

janak

ved

dasharath

karm

janakapatni

upanishad

kaushalya

prarabdh

vaidehi (sita)

atm vidya

lakshman

yatitv

agni pariksha

gyanagni

bharat

snyam

ahalya

jad vritti

shatrughn

niyam

gautam

sthirata

vishvamitr

tap

sugriv

vivek

ygy

ekagrata

hanuman

prem

marich

kapat

jamavnt

vichar

subahu

krodh

angad

dhairy

tadaka

kalah

nal-nil

sam-dam

mithila

satsng

bali

pramad

parashuram

chitt

snpati

nishkam

kaikeyi

dvait bhav

meghanad

kam

mndodari

chatury

vasishth

vigyan

rakshasi sena

asuri vritti

sutikshn

dharana

vanar sena

daivi vritti

agasty

yog

van

vairagy

shoorpanakha

eershya

kharadooshan

lobh

kunbhakarn

moh

jatayu

upakar

angad ka panv

dridhata

vibhishan

shuddhachar

narad

bhajanannd

  • daau. manamohan sahagal ne harisinhakrit atmaramayan men pratikatmakata ki khoj ki hai, unamen se kuchh tathy samast ram-sahity men jyon-ke-tyon milate hain.

mithak sahity men svabhav ki visheshataon ke adhar par pashu-pakshiyon ko bhi vibhinn vrittiyon ka pratik mana gaya hai. udaharan ke lie kuchh pashu-pakshiyon ka ullekh nimnalikhit hai:

hns

shvet varn ka nishkalnk pakshi 'hns nir-kshir-viveki kahalata hai. usamen doodh aur pani alag karane ki kshamata hai arthath vah sar tattv grahan karake ni:sar vastu chhodane men samarth hai. is drishti se usaka nam 'hns' bhi sarthak hai. adhyatmik drishti manushy ke ni:shvas men 'hn' aur shvas men 's' dhvani sunayi padati hai. manushy ka jivan kram hi 'hns' hai kyonki usamen gyan ka arjan snbhav hai. at: hns 'gyan' vivek, kala ko devi sarasvati ka vahan hai.

bail

shiv ka vahan nndi namak bail hai. bail ki visheshata shakti-snpannata ke sath-sath karmathata mani gayi hai. un donon tattvon ka pratik nndi hai. aisi anek kathaen hain jo in gunon par prakash dalati hain. ek bar nndi paharedar ka kam kar raha tha. shiv parvati ke sath vihar kar rahe the. bhrigu unake darshan karane aye- kintu nndi ne unhen gufa ke andar nahin jane diya. bhrigu ne shap diye, par nndi nirvikar roop se marg roke raha. aisi hi shiv-parvati ki agya thi. ek bar ravan ne apane hath par kailas parvat utha liya tha. nndi ne kruddh hokar apane panv se aisa dabav dala ki ravan ka hath hi dab gaya. jab tak usane shiv ki aradhana nahin ki tatha nndi se kshama nahin mangi, nndi ne use chhoda hi nahin. shiv kalyanakari bhavon ke pratik hain to nndi karmathata aur shakti ka. in donon ke madhyam se hi kalyan ka phailav snbhav hai.

nag

mithak sahity men sarp anek tattvon ka pratinidhitv karata hai. mani se susajjit hone ke karan vah dhan ka pratik hai. 'jahan sarp kundali marakar baitha ho, vahan prithvi men dhan gada hai'- aisa mana jata hai. sarp ki tedhi-tirachhi chal use rajanitik nipunata ka pratik bhi bana deti hai- kintu sarvadhik many roop 'kal' ke pratik men milata hai. sarp ki gati jal, sthal, vayu sabhi sthanon men hai. udanevale sarp, prithvi men bil banakar rahanevale sarp tatha jal men nivas karanevale nag is bat ke pratik hain ki 'kal' sarvavyapi hai. jagath ki utpatti se poorv keval jal men nag shesh tha- isi se sheshanag kaha gaya. usaki kundali ki shayya par vishnu ne nivas kiya tatha usake ek sahastr phan vishnu ke mastak par chhatr ki bhanti vidyaman the. is chitr ke madhyam se spasht hua ki rajanitik nipunata par asin vishnu 'kal-rakshit' the, arthath usako gherakar kal shatruon se unhen poorn suraksha pradan kar raha tha.

kutta

vafadari ka sarvasvikrit pratik hai. 'sarama' ki katha is tathy ki sakshi hai.

kabootar

ketu ka vahan hone ke nate ashubh vinash ka dyotan karata hai to

sinh

sinh shakti ka pratik hai.

kokil

kokil sngit ka binb hai.

mrig

mrig sngit premiyon ka pratik hai.

kaue

atithi-agaman ke soochak hain aur

gay

mata svaroopini hain- sab ichchhaen poorn karane vali. sabaka palan karane vali kamadhenu hai.

devataon ke nam

  • devataon ke 26 nam hain-

(amarakosh ke anusar)

  1. amar
  2. nirjar
  3. dev
  4. tridash
  5. vibudh
  6. sur
  7. suparvan
  8. sumanas
  9. tridivesh
  10. divaukas
  11. aditey
  12. divishad
  13. lekh
  14. aditinandan
  15. adity
  16. ribhu
  17. asvapn
  18. amarty
  19. amritandhas
  20. barhirmukh
  21. kratubhuj
  22. girvan
  23. danavari
  24. vrindarak
  25. daivat
  26. devata.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. nirookt 7-15
  2. rigved 9.1.23

snbndhit lekh

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