स्वयंभुव मनु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

manu jo ek dharmashastrakar the, dharmagranthon ke bad dharmacharan ki shiksha dene ke liye adipurush svaynbhuv manu ne smriti ki rachana ki jo manusmriti ke nam se vikhyat hai. ye brahma ke manas putron men se the jinaka vivah brahma ke dahine bhag se utpann shataroopa se hua tha. uttanapad jisake ghar men dhruv paida hua tha, inhin ka putr tha. manu svaynbhuv ka jyeshth putr priyavrat prithvi ka pratham kshatriy mana jata hai. inake dvara pranit 'svaynbhuv shastr' ke anusar pita ki snpatti men putr aur putri ka saman adhikar hai. inako dharmashastr ka aur prachetas manu arthashastr ka achary mana jata hai. manusmriti ne sanatan dharm ko achar snhita se joda tha.

parichay

apav namak prajapati ke dharm se ayonij kanya shataroopa ka janm hua. apav (jo ki bad men svaynbhuv manu kahalaye) ne praja ki rachana karane ke uparant shataroopa ko apani patni bana liya. usake putr ka nam vir hua. vir ne prajapati kardam ki kanya kamya se vivah kiya tatha do putron ko janm diya- (1) priyavrat tatha (2) uttanapad. manu ki vistrit sntati men hi dhruv, ven ityadi hue. ven se manugan bahut rusht the kyonki vah anachari tha. muniyon ne usake dahine hath ka mnthan kiya, jisase raja prithu ka janm hua. ve rajasooy ygy karane vale rajaon men sarvapratham tha. prajaon ko jivika dene ki ichchha se usane prithvi se ann tatha doodh ka dohan arnbh kiya ja sake. sath-sath rakshas, pitar, devata, apsara, nag ityadi sab is karm men lag gaye. kalantar men usake do putr hue antardhan tatha patin. antardhan se shikhndini ne havirdhan ko janm diya. agni ki putri ghishana se havirdhan ne chhah putron ko janm diya- prachinavarhish, shukr, gay, krishn, braj aur ajin. prachinavarhis ne ghor tap karake samudr-kanya savarna se vivah kiya. usake das putr hue jo ek hi dharm ka palan karate the. ve pracheta nam se vikhyat hue.[1]


brahma chintatur the. 'snbhavat: dev hi nahin chahata ki srishti ka vistar ho, anyatha itane prayatn ke uparant bhi main srishti ka vistar nahin kar pa raha hoon.' unake aisa sochate hi unaka sharir 'k' kahalata hai. at: donon bhag kay (sharir) kahalaye. unamen se ek manu (purush) tha, doosari shataroopa (stri) thi. svaynbhuv manu ne shataroopa se panch sntan prapt kin: do putr- priyavrat, uttanapad tatha tin kanyaen- akooti, devahooti tatha prasooti. manu ne brahma se poochha ki ve praja ke nivas ke lie kaun-sa sthan thik samajhate hain? brahma ne chintan arnbh kiya, at: jal men doobi huee prithvi ko jal ke oopar lane ka kary vishnu (barah) ne kiya.[2]


  • manu ka ullekh rigved kal se hi manav srishti ke adi pravartak aur samast manav jati ke adi-pita ke roop men kiya jata raha hai. inhen 'adipurush' bhi kaha gaya hai. arnbh men manu aur yam ka astitv abhinn tha. bad men manu ko jivit manushyon ka aur yam ko doosare lok men, mrit manushyon ka adipurush mana gaya.
  • shatapath brahman ke anusar ek machhali ne manu se pralay ki bat kahi thi aur bad men inhin se srishti chali. anyatr ye virat ke putr batae ge hain jinase prajapatiyon ki utpatti huee. matsy puran manu ko 'manusmriti' ka rachayita aur ek shastr pravartak manata hai. puranon ke anusar manu chaudah hue hain.
  • vaidik snhitaon men manu ko [3] aitihasik vyakti mana gaya hai. ye sarvapratham manav tha jo manav jati ke pita tatha sabhi kshetron men manav jati ke path pradarshak svikrit hain. vaidik kalin jalaplavan ki katha ke nayak manu hi hai [4]
  • manu ko vivasvan [5] ya vaivasvat [6], vivasvant (soory) ka putr; savarni (savarna ka vnshaj) evn sanvarni [7]snvaran ka vnshaj) kahate hain. pratham nam pauranik hai, jabaki doosare nam aitihasik hain. savarni ko ludvig turvasuon ka raja kahate hain, kintu yah manyata sandehapoorn hai.
  • puranon men manu ko manav jati ka guru tatha pratyek manvantar men sthit kaha gaya hai. ve jati ke karttavyon (dharm) ke gyata hai.
  • bhagavadgita (10.6) bhi manuon ka ullekh karati hai. manu namak anek ullekhon se pratit hota hai ki yah nam n hokar upadhi hai. manu shabd ka mool manh dhatu (manan karana) se bhi yahi pratit hota hai. medhatithi, jo manusmriti ke bhashyakar hain, manu ko us vyakti ki upadhi kahate hain, jisaka nam prajapati hai. ve dharm ke prakrit roop ke gyata the evn manav jati ko usaki shiksha dete the. is prakar yah vidit hota hai ki manu ek upadhi hai.

manurachit 'manav dharmashastr' bharatiy dharmashastr men adim v mukhy grnth mana jata hai. prachin granthon men jahan manav dharmashastr ke avataran aye hain ve sootr roop men hain aur prachalit manusmriti ke shlokon se nahin milate. vah sootragranth 'manav dharmashastr' abhi tak dekhane men nahin aya. vartaman manusmriti ko unhin mool sootron ke adhar par likhi huee karika man sakate hain. vartaman sabhi smritiyon men yah pradhan samajhi jati hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. brahm puran,2.1-33
  2. shrimadh bhagavat, tritiy skndh, 12 . 52-56. 13
  3. rigved 1.80, 16;8.63,1;10.100,5) adi; atharvaved 14.2,41; taitti0snhita 1.5,1,3;7.5,15,3;6,7,1;3,3,2,1;5.4,10,5;6.6,6,1; shatapath brahman 1.1,4,14
  4. kath0 snhita 11.2
  5. rigved 8.52,1
  6. atharvaved 8.10,24
  7. rigved 8.51,1

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