याज्ञवल्क्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

yagyvalky ko vaidik mantradrashta rishiyon tatha upadeshta acharyon men sarvopari sthan prapt hai. ye mahanh adhyatmavetta, yogi, gyani, dharmatma tatha shri ram ki katha ke mukhy pravakta the. bhagavan soory ki pratyaksh kripa inhen prapt thi. puranon men inhen brahma ji ka avatar bataya gaya hai. shrimadbhagavat[1] men aya hai ki ye devarat ke putr the. maharshi yagyvalky ke dvara vaidik mantron ko prapt karane ki rochak katha puranon men prapt hoti hai. tadanusar yagyvalky vedachary maharshi vaishampayan ke shishy hue the. inhin se unhen mantr shakti tatha ved adi ka gyan prapt hua tha.

brahma ke avatar

aisi manyata hai ki yagyvalky brahma ji ke avatar the. ygy men patni savitri ki jagah gayatri ko sthan dene par savitri ne krodhavash inhen shrap de diya. is shap ke karan hi ve kalantar men yagyvalky ke roop men charan rishi ke yahan utpann hue. vaishampayan ji se yajurved snhita evn rigaved snhita vashkal muni se padhi. vaishampayan ke rusht ho jane par yajuah shrutiyon ko vaman kar diya, tab suramy mantron ko any rishiyon ne titar banakar grahan kar liya. tatpashchath sooryanarayan bhagavan se vedadhyayan kiya. shri tulasidas ji ne inhen param viveki kaha.[2] inake ved gyan ho jane par log bade utkrisht prashn karate the, tab soory ne kaha, "jo tumase atiprashn tatha vad-vivad karega, usaka sir phat jayega." shakaly rishi ne upahas kiya to unaka sir phat gaya.

guru se vivad

maharshi vaishampayan apane shishy yagyvalky se bahut sneh rakhate the aur inaki bhi guru men anany shraddha evn seva-nishtha thi; kintu daivayog se ek bar guru se inaka kuchh vivad ho gaya, jisase guru rusht ho gaye aur kahane lage- "mainne tumhen yajurved ke jin mantron ka upadesh diya hai, unhen tum ugal do." guru ki agya thi, manana to tha hi. nirash ho yagyvalky ne sari ved mantr vidya moortaroop men ugal di, jinhen vaishampayan ji ke doosare any shishyon ne 'tittir' (titar pakshi) banakar shraddhapoorvak grahan kar liya, arthat ve ved mantr unhen prapt ho gaye. yajurved ki vahi shakha, jo titar banakar grahan ki gayi thi, 'taittiriy shakha' ke nam se prasiddh huee.

soory se gyan prapti

yagyvalky ji ab devgyan se shoony ho gaye the, guru bhi rusht the, ab ve kya karen? tab unhonne pratyaksh dev bhagavan soory ki sharan li aur unase prarthana ki ki 'he bhagavan! he prabho! mujhe aise yajurved ki prapti ho, jo ab tak kisi ko n mili ho.[3] bhagavan soory ne prasann ho unhen darshan diya aur ashvaroop dharan kar yajurved ke un mantron ka upadesh diya, jo abhi tak kisi ko prapt nahin hue the.[4] ashvaroop soory se prapt hone ke karan shukl yajurved ki ek shakha 'vajasaney' aur madhy din ke samay prapt hone se 'madhyandin' shakha ke nam se prasiddh ho gayi. is shukl yajurved-snhita ke mukhy mantradrashta rishi achary yagyvalky hain.

is prakar shukl yajurved hamen maharshi yagyvalky ji ne hi diya hai. is snhita men chalis adhyay hain. aj pray: adhikansh log is ved shakha se hi sambaddh hain aur sabhi pooja anushthanon, snskaron adi men isi snhita ke mantr viniyukt hote hain. 'rudrashtadhyayi' nam se jin mantron dvara bhagavan rudr (sadashiv) ki aradhana hoti hai, ve isi snhita men vidyaman hain. is prakar maharshi yagyvalky ka lok par mahanh upakar hai. is snhita ka jo brahman bhag 'shatapath brahman' ke nam se prasiddh hai aur jo brihadaranyakopanishad' hai, vah bhi maharshi yagyvalky dvara hi hamen prapt hai. gargi, maitreyi aur katyayani adi brahmavadini nariyon se jo inaka gyan-vigyan evn brahmatatv-sambandhi shastrarth hua, vah bhi prasiddh hi hai. videharaj janak jaise adhyatm-tattvavettaon ke ye gurupadbhak rahe hain. inhonne prayag men bharadvaj ji ko shri ramacharitamanas sunaya. sath hi inake dvara ek mahattvapoorn dharmashastr ka pranayan hua hai, jo 'yagyvalkyasmriti' ke nam se prasiddh hai, jis par mitakshara adi praudh snskrit tikaen huee hain.

sarvashreshth darshanik

yah pray: sarvavidit hai ki samast bharatiy darshanon ke mool upanishadon men milate hain. ye upanishad svayn ved ke antim bhag aur tatpary hain. in upanishadon men sabase prachin tatha akar men sabase bada aur gaurav yukt 'brihadaranyak' upanishad hai. is upanishad ke sarvashreshth darshanik yagyvalky hain. isi se anuman lagaya ja sakata hai ki yagyvalky ka sthan bharatiy darshan men kitana ooncha hai. unhonne videharaj janak ke darabar men tatkalin samast mahanh darshanikon se shastrarth karake apane darshan ko sarvochch darshan siddh kiya tha. unaka advait vedant ke roop men aj bhi surakshit hai. yah kahane men atishyokti nahin hai ki yagyvalky samast advait vedantiyon ki mala ke sumeru hain. unhin se advait vedant ka shastriy roop arambh hota hai.

samay kal

yagyvalky ka samay lagabhag 1200 ee.poo. hai. inake vichar mukhyat: brihadaranyak upanishad ke yagyvalkyiy kand men upalabdh hain. isake atirikt vahin madhukand men bhi unake vichar milate hain. ve yajurvedi brahman the, kintu ve rigved, samaved tatha atharvaved bhi padhate the. isalie shnkarachary ne likha hai ki ve charon vedon ke gyata the. isase siddh hota hai ki karmakand, upasanakand aur gyanakand tinon men poorn nishnat the. vishnupuran[5] ke anusar svayn yagyvalky ne shukl yajurved ko soory se prapt kiya tha aur shukl yajurved ki samast shakhaen yagyvalky dvara hi pravartit ki gayi hain. kuchh bhi ho, yagyvalky shukl yajurved ke sarvashreshth rishi hain.

brihadaranyakopanishad[6] se gyat hota hai ki yagyvalky kuru panchal pradesh ke nivasi the. ve vivahit the aur maitreyi tatha katyayani unaki do patniyan thin. maitreyi brahmavadini aur jigyasu thi tatha katyayani ghar-grihasthi men hi ruchi lene vali sadharan mahila thi. maitreyi ka yah vaky aj bhi darshanikon ke lie preranadayi hai-

'yenahn namrita syam kimahn ten kuryamh'

arthath 'jisase main amar nahin ho sakati, use lekar main kya karoongi'? yah bat maitreyi ne yagyvalky ke is kathan ke prati kahi thi ki 'amritatvasy tu nashasti vitten', arthath vitt se amaratv ko nahin prapt kiya ja sakata. phir amaratatv ko kaise prapt kiya ja sakata hai. ek shabd men uttar hai- tyag se.

varnashram dharm ka palan

punashch yagyvalky ne varnashram dharm ka poorn palan kiya tha. brahmachary se grihasth aur phir vanaprasth tatha ant men sannyas ashram men unhonne pravesh kiya tha. unaki patni maitreyi bhi vanaprasth ashram men unake sath hi thi, aur lagata hai ki usane bhi sannyas liya tha. yagyvalky ka sannyas vidvat sannyas tha. ve brahmanishth ya brahmavetta arthath jivanamukt the. sannyas kab lena chahie. is vishay par yagyvalky hi praman hain. ve kahate hain ki samanyat: matririn, pitririn tatha gururin ada karake putraishana, vitaishana tatha lokaishana se mukt hokar sannyas liya jana chahie. isaka tatpary yah hai ki samanyat: grihasthashram ke bad hi sannyas lena chahie. kintu vishesh paristhitiyon men brahmachary ke bad bhi sannyas liya ja sakata hai. kyonki jis kshan vairagy ho jaye, usi kshan sannyas liya ja sakata hai. 'yadaharev virajettadaharev pravrarjeth.' unake is siddhant ne bahut badi kranti ki hai aur anek mahatmaon ko paida kiya, jinhonne vairagy hote hi sannyas liya aur atm sakshatkar kiya. is vairagy se samast bndhan ya kartavy pash apane ap toot jate hain.

darshan ki abhivyakti

brihadaranyak upanishad men maitreyi (2/4, 4/5), ashval (3/1), artamarg (3/2), bhujyu (3/3), ushast (3/4), kahol (3/5), gargi (3/6, 3/8), arooni (3/8, 3/7), shakaly (3/9) aur janak (4/1-4) ke sath yagyvalky ke snvad hain. inhin men unaka darshan abhivyakt hua hai. inake atirikt jabal, brihadjabal, ramottaratapini, paingal, tarak, yagyvalky adi upanishadon men bhi pramukh upadeshak rishi ke roop men yagyvalky ate hain. kintu ye upanishad brihadaranyak se arvachin hai, jo mntrashastr aur bhaktishastr ke anukool hai. tulasidas ke ramacharitamanas men jo yagyvalky aur bharadvaj snvad liya gaya hai, usaka mool ragottar-tapini upanishad hai, jahan yagyvalky ne bharadvaj ko batalaya hai ki ramachandr hi advait paramanand brahm hain. kintu ye sab mat paravarti darshanikon ne yagyvalky ke nam madhe hain. mool roop se yagyvalky ka darshan brihadaranyakopanishad men hi hai. at: usi ke adhar par unake darshan ka vivechan yahan kiya jaega.

yagyvalky ki darshanik pranali

yagyvalky ka darshan upapatti pradhan hai. mukhyat: ve darshanik vad-vivad dvara tatv vivechan karate hain. yahi karan hai ki unhonne apani patni maitreyi, raja janak tatha any vidvanh darshanikon se snvad karake apane tatvgyan ko vikasit kiya aur use unake dvara svikrit bhi karavaya. vidvanh darshanikon ke prashnon ke jo uttar yagyvalky ne die hain, unase unaka shastr gyan tatha arsh-drishti donon siddh hote hain. udaharan ke lie ashval aur shakaly ke sath hue vivad se unaka ygy tatha dev sambandhi shastr gyan siddh hota hai aur bhujyu ke sath hue vivad se unaka arsh gyan aur trikalgyta siddh hote hain. arthath ve bhoot, bhavishy tatha vartaman ki samast vastuon ko hastamalakavath janate the. kintu ve manate the ki kuchh aisa gyan hai, jise jatpanyay se ya vad-vivad se nahin prapt kiya ja sakata tatha usako ekant men hi samajha tatha samajhaya ja sakata hai. isalie artabhag ko ve ekant men le jakar samajhate hain aur usase vah shant ho jata hai. yahi karan hai ki ve gargi ko param saty ke bare men sabha men nahin batalate aur use phatakarate hain. ve kuchh prashnon ko avyakrit manate hain, prashnon ki bhi apani simaen hain.

gyan ke sadhan

gyan ke tin sadhan, shravan, manan aur nididhyasan hain, jinaka pratham vivechan aur prayog yagyvalky ne hi kiya hai. unaka kahana hai ki atma ka shravan karana chahie, manan karana chahie aur nididhyasan karana chahie. atma ke shravan, manan tatha nididhyasan se sab kuchh gyat ho jata hai.

at: spasht hai ki pratyaksh, anuman, shastr tatha pratibhgyan yagyvalky ke lie gyan ke sadhan hain. unaki darshanik pranali poornat: vaidik darshan ki pranali hai. rishirdarshanat ke adhar par ve sachche rishi the. unake pas kuchh alaukik gyan tha. kuchh yog ki siddhiyan bhi thin. is gyan se unhonne gndharv aur bhujyu ke bich hue snvad ko jan liya tha. isi gyan se unhen vakh siddhi bhi prapt huee thi aur ve amodh shap bhi de sakate the. kintu unhonne apane darshan ko yathasnbhav yauktik dharatal par rakha hai. upast, kahoy, maitreyi tatha janak se hue snvad men unhonne apane ko yathasnbhav buddhivadi ke roop men sthapit kiya hai. ve anubhavavad tatha bhautikavad ke alochak hain aur us buddhivad ke samarthak hain, jisaka paryavasan pratibhgyan men hota hai. ve gyanamarg ke shastriy roop ke sarvapratham pravartak hain. unaka mat hai ki mukti bina gyan snbhav hai : rite gyanannamukti.

atma ka darshan

yagyvalky ke snvadon se aj bhi is muktidayak ya tarak gyan ko prapt kiya ja sakata hai. is gyanamarg ki do prakriyaen hain, jo ki sath-sath chalati hain. ek anvay ki prakriya hai aur doosari vyaktirek ki. anvay prakriya ke anusar atma antaryami hai. yahi nahin, vah sab vishayon men bhi nihit hai. is drishti se dekhane par atma ka darshan sarvatr hota hai. jaise vah sabhi vastuon ka ekayan ya parayan hai, vaise vah sabhi gyey vishayon ka prakashak bhi hai. pratyek vishay me atma ka prakash hai. phir vyatirek drishti se atma ko kisi simit vastu se abhinn nahin kiya ja sakata. jab kisi ne atma ko is roop men samajha, tab yagyvalky ne 'neti-neti' kaha. arthath atma ka varnan simit vastuon ke gyan ka nishedh karake kiya jata hai- 's esh neti netyatma'. yagyvalky ne sarvantar ki kalpana tatha neti-neti ki pratikriya dvara atma ka sahi gyan anek jigyasuon ko pradan kiya tha. atma ki ye hi do pranaliyan hain. neti-neti pranali ka hi vikas nagarjun ne shoonyakal men kiya. shnkarachary ne nagarjun ka khndan karate hue yagyvalky ki sarvantar pranali ka sahara liya aur kaha ki neti-neti ki pranali ka ashray antaryami atma ka bodh hai.

atmavad ka niroopan

yagyvalky ne anek drishtanton tatha yuktiyon se atmavad ka niroopan kiya hai. ve atma ke atirikt any kisi vastu ki paramarthik satta ko svikar nahin karate hain. atma ke atirikt jo kuchh hai, vah art, anrit aur mrityuparak hai tatha agyan par adharit hai. at: vah svapnavat hai. ve kahate hain-

  1. atma sarvantar hai aur isake atirikt jo kuchh hai, vah nashavan hai. atma satyamh satyamh hai. vah param saty hai. mahanh aur advitiy hai. vah anu se bhi anutar aur mahanh se bhi mahattar hai.
  2. atma sakshath aparokshath brahma hai. yahi sarv hai. yah sab ka parayan hai arthath jo kuchh hai, usaki pratishtha atma men hi hai. vah atma men hi ot-prot hai. vah svapratishthit hai, svaynjyoti hai.
  3. atma gyata hai. gyata ka viparilop kabhi bhi nahin hota. ghor sushupti ki avastha men bhi rahata hai. sharir ki mrityu ke uparant bhi vah gyata rahata hai. vidya, karm aur poorv prgya mritak manushy ki atma ke sath mrityu ke bad bhi rahate hain.
  4. gyata ko gyey roop men jana nahin ja sakata. 'vigyataramare ken vijaniyath' gyata ko kaise jana ja sakata hai. yagyvalky ka yah mat atma ko avishay siddh karata hai. jo atma sabako janati hai, usako kisake dvara jana sakata hai. arthath kisi ke dvara nahin.
  5. atma sarvatr avibhakt hai. usake atirikt kuchh any (doosara) hai hi nahin, jisako usase vibhakt mana jaye.
  6. jo atma ke atirikt dikh padata hai, vah vastut: any-sa hai, vah any ya itar nahin hai. buddhi poorvak dekhane par gyat hota hai ki drishyaman nanatv ka astitv hai hi nahin. jo is nanatv ko dekhata hai, vah janm maran ke chakr men pada hai, arthath vah bndhan men hai.

manavesanudrashtavyn neh nanasti kinchan.
mrityo: s mrityumapnoti y ih nanev pashyati..

atma n keval param sath aur param gyar hai, apitu vah param mooly bhi hai. atma ke lie hi sab kuchh priy hota hai. 'atmanastu kamay sarv priyn shvati'. jo kuchh priy hai, usaka ashray atma hi hai. vahi paramarth hai. any moolyon ki upalabdhi men jo anand ya sukh hai, vah atmopalabdhi ka hi ansh matr hai. sachcha anand atm-labh hai. atma ek ras tatha anand matr hai.

  1. is prakar atma hi sarv hai- 'idamh sarvatr yadayamatma.' atma brahm hai- 'ayamh atma brahma.'
  2. atma ka gyan advait darshan hai. jab tak dvait-sa dikh padata hai, tab tak ek doosare ko dekhata hai. kintu jab advait darshan ho jata hai, to phir bhed ya dvait snbhav nahin rahata hai. at: bhed-gyan dvait-gyan agyanamoolak hai.

any darshanikon se tulana

uparyukt vicharon se spasht hai ki yagyvalky ka darshan kattar advaitavad hai. pal daauyasan ne isaki tulana paramenidij advaitavad tatha kant ke atmavad se ki hai. adhunik anek vidvanon ne isaki tulana plotinam, spinoja, hegal, grin, braidali adi ke advaitavadon se ki hai. profesar ranade ne yagyvalky ke darshan ki tulana phaiingar ke ivavad se ki hai. isase spasht hai ki yagyvalky vishv ke moordhany advaitavadi darshanikon men se ek hain. unaka advaitavad atmadvaitavad hai. vah dravyadvaitavad, sattadvaitavad ya vigyanadvaitavad nahin hai. at: jin pashchaty darshanikon ke advaitavad ke sath yagyvalky ke darshan ki tulana ki gayi hai, yagyvalky ka advaitavad unake advaitavad se prakarataya bhinn hai. yadi unake atm niroopan ki samiksha ki jaye to pata chalega ki vasvat men unhonne apane atmadvaitavad ke lie sattamoolak, gyanamoolak yuktiyan di hain, jinaki prasngikata shashvat hai. yagyvalky vishv ke adhyatmavadi, pratyayavadi aur paramavadi darshanikon men agrany hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi) |lekhak: pro. sngamalal pandey |prakashak: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 684. |prishth snkhya: 430 |

  1. shrimadbhagavat 12.6.64
  2. jagabalikamuni param viveki
  3. ahamayatayamayaju:kam upasaramiti' (shrimadbhagavat 12.6.72)
  4. evn stut: s bhagavan vajiroopadharo hari:. yajoonshyayatayamani munayeadath prasadit:॥ (shrimadbhagavat 12.6.73)
  5. vishnupuran (315)
  6. brihadaranyakopanishad (3/1/1)

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