गुरु नानक

भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
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guru nanak
poora nam guru nanak dev
any nam guru nanak
janm 15 aprail, 1469
janm bhoomi talavandi, panjab, bharat
mrityu 22 sitanbar, 1539
mrityu sthan bharat
abhibhavak pita- kaloo, mata- tripta
pati/patni sulakkhani
santan shrichand, lakshmidas
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr samaj sudharak
mukhy rachanaean japuji, takhari' rag ke barahamahaan
bhasha farasi, multani, panjabi, siandhi , brajabhasha, kh diboli
prasiddhi sikkhoan ke pratham guru
nagarikata bharatiy
uttaradhikari guru aangad dev
any janakari guru nanak apane vyaktitv mean paigambar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharm-sudharak, samaj-sudharak, kavi, sangitajn, deshabhakt, vishvabandhu adi sabhi ke gun utkrisht matra mean samete hue the.

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guru nanak (aangrezi: Guru Nanak, janm: 15 aprail, 1469, talavandi, panjab; mrityu: 22 sitanbar, 1539, bharat) sikkhoan ke pratham guru (adi guru) the. inake anuyayi inhean 'guru nanak', 'baba nanak' aur 'nanakashah' namoan se sanbodhit karate haian. guru nanak 20 agast, 1507 ko sikkhoan ke pratham guru bane the. ve is pad par 22 sitambar, 1539 tak rahe.

parichay

panjab ke talavandi namak sthan mean 15 aprail, 1469 ko ek kisan ke ghar guru nanak utpann hue. yah sthan lahaur se 30 mil pashchim mean sthit hai. ab yah 'nanakana sahab' kahalata hai. talavandi ka nam age chalakar nanak ke nam par nanakana p d gaya. nanak ke pita ka nam kaloo evan mata ka nam tripta tha. unake pita khatri jati evan bedi vansh ke the. ve krishi aur sadharan vyapar karate the aur gaanv ke patavari bhi the. guru nanak dev ki balyavastha gaanv mean vyatit huee. balyavastha se hi unamean asadharanata aur vichitrata thi. unake sathi jab khel-kood mean apana samay vyatit karate to ve netr band kar atm-chintan mean nimagn ho jate the. inaki is pravritti se unake pita kaloo chintit rahate the.

aranbhik jivan

sat varsh ki ayu mean ve padhane ke lie gopal adhyapak ke pas bheje gaye. ek din jab ve padhaee se virakt ho, antarmukh hokar atm-chintan mean nimagn the, adhyapak ne poochha- padh kyoan nahian rahe ho? guru nanak ka uttar tha- maian sari vidyaean aur ved-shastr janata hooan. guru nanak dev ne kaha- mujhe to saansarik padhaee ki apeksha paramatma ki padhaee adhik anandayini pratit hoti hai, yah kahakar nimnalikhit vani ka uchcharan kiya- moh ko jalakar (use) ghisakar syahi banao, buddhi ko hi shreshth kagaz banao, prem ki qalam banao aur chitt ko lekhak. guru se poochh kar vicharapoorvak likho (ki us paramatma ka) n to ant hai aur n sima hai.[1] is par adhyapak ji ashcharyanvit ho gaye aur unhoanne guru nanak ko pahuancha hua faqir samajhakar kaha- tumhari jo ichchha ho so karo. isake pashchath guru nanak ne skool chho d diya. ve apana adhikaansh samay manan, dhyanasan, dhyan evan satsang mean vyatit karane lage. guru nanak se sambandhit sabhi janm sakhiyaan is bat ki pushti karati haian ki unhoanne vibhinn sampradayoan ke sadhu-mahatmaoan ka satsang kiya tha. unamean se bahut se aise the, jo dharmashastr ke prakand pandit the. ant: sakshy ke adhar par yah bhalibhaanti siddh ho jata hai ki guru nanak ne farasi ka bhi adhyayan kiya tha. 'guru granth sahab' mean guru nanak dvara kuchh pad aise rache gaye haian, jinamean farasi shabdoan ka adhiky hai.

bachapan

guru nanak ki antamuankhi-pravritti tatha virakti-bhavana se unake pita kaloo chintit raha karate the. nanak ko vikshipt samajhakar kaloo ne unhean bhaianse charane ka kam diya. bhaianse charate-charate nanak ji so gaye. bhaiansean ek kisan ke khet mean chali gayian aur unhoanne usaki fasal char dali. kisan ne isaka ulahana diya kintu jab usaka khet dekha gaya, to sabhi ashchary mean p de gaye. fasal ka ek paudha bhi nahian chara gaya tha. 9 varsh ki avastha mean unaka yajnopavit sanskar hua. yajnopavit ke avasar par unhoanne pandit se kaha - daya kapas ho, santosh soot ho, sanyam gaanth ho, (aur) saty us janeu ki pooran ho. yahi jiv ke lie (adhyatmik) janeoo hai. ai pande yadi is prakar ka janeoo tumhare pas ho, to mere gale mean pahana do, yah janeoo n to tootata hai, n isamean mail lagata hai, n yah jalata hai aur n yah khota hi hai.[2]

vivah

chitr:Blockquote-open.gif nanak sache ki sachi kar.
satyasvaroop bhagavan ki kriti sansar bhi saty hai.
chitr:Blockquote-close.gif

- - nanak (japuji, 31)

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yatraean

thumb|250px|guru nanak dev

  • guru nanak ki pahali 'udasi' (vicharan yatra) aktoobar , 1507 ee. mean 1515 ee. tak rahi. is yatra mean unhoanne haridvar, ayodhya, prayag, kashi, gaya, patana, asam, jagannath puri, rameshvar, somanath, dvarika, narmadatat, bikaner, pushkar tirth, dilli, panipat, kurukshetr, multan, lahaur adi sthanoan mean bhraman kiya. unhoanne bahutoan ka hriday parivartan kiya. thagoan ko sadhu banaya, veshyaoan ka ant:karan shuddh kar nam ka dan diya, karmakandiyoan ko bahyadambaroan se nikalakar ragatmikata bhakti mean lagaya, ahankariyoan ka ahankar door kar unhean manavata ka path padhaya. yatra se lautakar ve do varsh tak apane mata-pita ke sath rahe.
  • unaki doosari 'udasi' 1517 ee. se 1518 ee. tak yani ek varsh ki rahi. isamean unhoanne aimanabad, siyalakot, sumer parvat adi ki yatra ki aur ant mean ve karatarapur pahuanche.
  • tisari 'udasi' 1518 ee. se 1521 ee. tak lagabhag tin varsh ki rahi. isamean unhoanne riyasat bahavalapur, sadhubela (sindhu), makka, madina, bagadad, balkh bukhara, qabul, kandhar, aimanabad adi sthanoan ki yatra ki. 1521 ee. mean aimarabad par babar ka akraman guru nanak ne svayan apani aankhoan se dekha tha. apani yatraoan ko samapt kar ve karatarapur mean bas gaye aur 1521 ee. se 1539 ee. tak vahian rahe.

vyaktitv

gurunanak ka vyaktitv asadharan tha. unamean paigambar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharm-sudharak, samaj-sudharak, kavi, sangitajn, deshabhakt, vishvabandhu sabhi ke gun utkrisht matra mean vidyaman the. unamean vichar-shakti aur kriya-shakti ka apoorv samanjasy tha. unhoanne poore desh ki yatra ki. logoan par unake vicharoan ka asadharan prabhav p da. unamean sabhi gun maujood the. paiganbar, darshanik, rajayogi, grihasth, tyagi, dharmasudharak, kavi, sangitajn, deshabhakt, vishvabandhu adi sabhi gun jaise ek vyakti mean simatakar a ge the. unaki rachana 'japuji' ka sikkhoan ke lie vahi mahattv hai jo hianduoan ke lie gita ka hai.

rachanaean aur shikshaean

'shri guru-granth sahab' mean unaki rachanaean 'mahala 1' ke nam se sankalit haian. guru nanak ki shiksha ka mool nicho d yahi hai ki paramatma ek, anant, sarvashaktiman, saty, kartta, nirbhay, nirvar, ayoni, svayanbhoo hai. vah sarvatr vyapt hai. moorti-pooja adi nirarthak hai. bahy sadhanoan se use prapt nahian kiya ja sakata. antarik sadhana hi usaki prapti ka ek matr upay hai. guru-kripa, paramatma kripa evan shubh karmoan ka acharan is sadhana ke aang haian. nam-smaran usaka sarvopari tattv hai, aur 'nam' guru ke dvara hi prapt hota hai. guru nanak ki vani bhakti, jnan aur vairagy se ot-prot hai. unaki vani mean yatr-tatr tatkalin rajanitik, dharmik evan samajik sthiti ki manohar jhaanki milati hai, jisamean unaki asadharan desh-bhakti aur rashtr-prem parilakshit hota hai. unhoanne hianndoooan-musalamanoan donoan ki prachalit roodhiyoan evan kusanskaroan ki tivr bhartsana ki hai aur unhean sachche hindoo athava sachche musalaman banane ki vidhi batayi hai. sant-sahity mean guru nanak hi ek aise vyakti haian; jinhoanne striyoan ki ninda nahian ki, apitu unaki mahatta svikar ki hai. gurunanak dev ji ne apane anu‍yayiyoan ko jivan ki das shikshaean di-

  1. eeshvar ek hai.
  2. sadaiv ek hi eeshvar ki upasana karo.
  3. eeshvar sab jagah aur prani matr mean maujood hai.
  4. eeshvar ki bhakti karane valoan ko kisi ka bhay nahian rahata.
  5. eemanadari se aur mehanat kar ke udarapoorti karani chahie.
  6. bura kary karane ke bare mean n sochean aur n kisi ko sataean.
  7. sadaiv prasann rahana chahie. eeshvar se sada apane lie kshama maangani chahie.
  8. mehanat aur eemanadari ki kamaee mean se zarooratamand ko bhi kuchh dena chahie.
  9. sabhi stri aur purush barabar haian.
  10. bhojan sharir ko zianda rakhane ke lie zaroori hai par lobh-lalach v sangrahavritti buri hai.

bhakt kavi guru nanak

thumb|250px|guru nanak dev panjab mean musalaman bahut dinoan se base the jisase vahaan unake kattar 'ekeshvaravad' ka sanskar dhire - dhire prabal ho raha tha. log bahut se devi devataoan ki upasana ki apeksha ek eeshvar ki upasana ko mahatv aur sabhyata ka chihn samajhane lage the. shastroan ke pathan pathan ka kram musalamanoan ke prabhav se pray: uth gaya tha jisase dharm aur upasana ke goodh tatv ko samajhane ki shakti nahian rah gee thi. at: jahaan bahut se log jabaradasti musalaman banae jate the vahaan kuchh log shauq se bhi musalaman banate the. aisi dasha mean kabir dvara pravartit 'nirgun sant mat' ek b da bhari sahara samajh p da.

nirgun upasana

gurunanak aranbh se hi bhakt the at: unaka aise mat ki or akarshit hona svabhavik tha, jisaki upasana ka svaroop hianduoan aur musalamanoan donoan ko saman roop se grahy ho. unhoanne ghar bar chho d bahut door door ke deshoan mean bhraman kiya jisase upasana ka samany svaroop sthir karane mean unhean b di sahayata mili. aant mean kabiradas ki 'nirgun upasana' ka prachar unhoanne panjab mean aranbh kiya aur ve sikh sanpraday ke adiguru hue. kabiradas ke saman ve bhi kuchh vishesh padhe likhe n the. bhaktibhav se poorn hokar ve jo bhajan gaya karate the unaka sangrah (sanvath 1661) granthasahab mean kiya gaya hai. ye bhajan kuchh to panjabi bhasha mean haian aur kuchh desh ki samany kavy bhasha hindi mean haian. yah hindi kahian to desh ki kavyabhasha ya brajabhasha hai, kahian kh di boli jisamean idhar udhar panjabi ke roop bhi a ge haian, jaise chalya, rahya. bhakt ya vinay ke sidhe sade bhav sidhi sadi bhasha mean kahe ge haian, kabir ke saman ashikshitoan par prabhav dalane ke lie tedhe medhe roopakoan mean nahian. isase inaki prakriti ki saralata aur ahanbhavashoonyata ka parichay milata hai. sansar ki anityata, bhagavadbhakti aur sant svabhav ke sanbandh mean unhoanne kaha haian -

is dam da mainooan kibe bharosa, aya aya, n aya n aya.
yah sansar rain da supana, kahian dekha, kahian nahi dikhaya.
soch vichar kare mat man maian, jisane dhooandha usane paya.
nanak bhaktan de pad parase nisadin ram charan chit laya

jo nar du:kh mean du:kh nahian manai.
sukh saneh aru bhay nahian jake, kanchan mati janai
nahian nianda nahian astuti jake, lobh moh abhimana.
harash sok tean rahai niyaro, nahi man apamana
asa manasa sakal tyagi kai jag tean rahai niras.
kam, krodh jehi parase nahi n tehian ghat brahm nivasa
guru kirapa jehi nar pai kinhian tinh yah juguti pichhani.
nanak lin bhayo gobiand so jyoan pani sang pani.[3]

prakriti chitran

[[chitr:Guru-Nanak-1.jpg|thumb|250px|guru nanak dev, talavandi, panjab]] guru nanak ki kavita mean kahian-kahian prakriti ka b da sundar chitran milata hai. 'takhari' rag ke barahamahaan (barahamasa) mean pratyek mas ka hridayagrahi varnan hai. chaitr mean sara van praphullit ho jata hai, pushpoan par bhramaroan ka guanjan b da hi suhavana lagata hai. vaishakh mean shakhaean anek vesh dharan karati haian. isi prakar jyeshth-ashadh ki tapati dharati, savan-bhadoan ki rimajhim, dadar, mor, koyaloan ki pukarean, damini ki chamak, sarpoan evan machchharoan ke darshan adi ka rochak varnan hai. pratyek rritu ki visheshataoan ki or sanket kiya gaya hai.

panjasahab

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sikkh tirth peshavar jane vale marg par takshashila se ek steshan age tatha hasan abdal se do mil dakshin mean panjasahab sthan sthit hai.

rag aur ras

guru nanak ki vani mean shant evan shrriangar ras ki pradhanata hai. in donoan rasoan ke atirikt, karun, bhayanak, vir, raudr, adbhut, hasy aur vibhats ras bhi milate haian. unaki kavita mean vaise to sabhi prasiddh alankar mil jate haian, kintu upama aur roopak alankaroan ki pradhanata hai. kahian-kahian anyoktiyaan b di sundar ban p di haian. guru nanak ne apani rachana mean nimnalikhit unnis ragoan ke prayog kiye haian- siri, majh, goo di, asa, goojari, badahans, sorathi, dhanasari, tilang, sahi, bilaval, ramakali, maroo, tukhari, bhareu, vasant, sarang, mala, prabhati.

bhasha

bhasha ki drishti se guru nanak ki vani mean farasi, multani, panjabi, siandhi , brajabhasha, kh diboli adi ke prayog hue haian. sanskrit, arabi aur farasi ke anek shabd grahan kiye gaye haian. 1521 tak inhoanne tin yatrachakr poore kie, jinamean bharat, faras aur arab ke mukhy-mukhy sthanoan ka bhraman kiya.

mrityu

guru nanak ki mrityu sanh 1539 ee. mean huee. inhoanne gurugaddi ka bhar guru aangadadev (baba lahana) ko sauanp diya aur svayan karatarapur mean 'jyoti' mean lin ho ge. guru nanak aantarik sadhana ko sarvavyapi paramatma ki prapti ka ekamatr sadhan manate the. ve roodhiyoan ke kattar virodhi the. guru nanak apane vyaktitv mean darshanik, yogi, grihasth, dharmasudharak, samajasudharak, kavi, deshabhakt aur vishvabandhu-sabhi ke gun samete hue the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

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tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. jali moh ghasi masu kari, mati kagadu kari saroo. bhau qalam kari chitu lekhari, guru puchhi likhu bicharoo. likhu nam salah likhu likhu ant n paravaroo".1.6 (shri guru granth, siri ragu, mahala 1,prishth 16
  2. diya kapah santokhu sritu gandhi satu batu, ehu janeoo ji aka hee ta pade dhatu.. na ehu tutai n malu lagai na ehu jale n jae.. (shri guru granth sahib, asa ki var, mahala 1, pri0 471
  3. achary, ramachandr shukl “prakaran 2”, hindi sahity ka itihas (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: kamal prakashan, nee dilli, prishth san. 68.

sahayak granth-

  1. d sikh rilijan : maiks arthar maikaliph (khand 1) klaireandan pres aksaphord, 1909 ee.;
  2. laiph aauf guru nanak dev: karatar sianh, sikh pablishiang haus, amritasar.

sanbandhit lekh

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