वीर रस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shrringar ke sath spardha karane vala vir ras hai. shrringar, raudr tatha vibhats ke sath vir ko bhi bharat muni ne mool rason men pariganit kiya hai. vir ras se hi adabhut ras ki utpatti batalaee gee hai. vir ras ka 'varn' 'svarn' athava 'gaur' tatha devata indr kahe gaye hain. yah uttam prakriti valo se sambaddh hai tatha isaka sthayi bhav ‘utsah’ hai - ‘ath viro nam uttamaprakritirutsahatmak:’.[1] bhanudatt ke anusar, poornataya parisphut ‘utsah’ athava sampoorn indriyon ka praharsh ya utphullata vir ras hai - ‘paripoorn utsah: sarvendriyanan praharsho va vir:.’[2]

  • hindi ke achary somanath ne vir ras ki paribhasha ki hai -

‘jab kavitt men sunat hi vyngy hoy utsah. tahan vir ras samajhiyo chaubidhi ke kavinah.’[3] samanyat: raudr evn vir rason ki pahachan men kathinaee hoti hai. isaka karan yah hai ki donon ke upadan bahudha ek - doosare se milate-julate hain. donon ke alamban shatru tatha uddipan unaki cheshtaen hain. donon ke vyabhichariyon tatha anubhavon men bhi sadrishy hain. kabhi-kabhi raudrata men viratv tatha virata men raudravat ka abhas milata hai. in karanon se kuchh vidvan raudr ka antarbhav vir men aur kuchh vir ka antarbhav raudr men karane ke anumodak hain, lekin raudr ras ke sthayi bhav krodh tatha vir ras ke sthayi bhav utsah men antar spasht hai.

krodh evn utsah men bhed
  • bhojaraj ke anusar pratikool vyaktiyon men tikshnata ka prabodh krodh hai. katha karyarambh men sthirata aur utkat avesh utsah hai-‘pratikooleshu taikshnyasy prabodh: krodh uchyate. karyarambheshu snrambh: stheyanutsah ishyate’.[4]
  • krodh men ‘pramodapratikooly’, arthath pramata ke anand ko vichchhinn karane ki shakti hoti hai, jab ki utsah men ek prakar ka ullas ya praphullata vartaman rahati hai. krodh men shatru vinash evn pratishodh ki bhavana hoti hai, jab ki utsah men dhairy evn udarata vidyaman rahati hai. krodhavisht manushy uchhal-kood adhik karata hai, lekin utsahaprerit vyakti umng sahit kary men anavarat agrasar hota hai. krodh pray: andha hota hai, jab ki utsah paristhitiyon ko samajhate hue un par vijay-labh karane ki kamana se anupranit rahata hai. krodh bahudha vartaman se sambandh rakhata hai, jab ki utsah bhavishy se.

krodh evn utsah ke uparyukt bhedon ko dhyan men rakhane par raudr ras evn vir ras ke bhed ko samajha ja sakata hai. yon to raudr ras men bhi utsah snchari roop men a sakata hai, kyonki utsah vismay ke sath sabhi rason men snkraman kar sakata hai, ‘utsahavismayau sarvaraseshu vyabhicharinau’.[5] vir ras men bhi krodh samavisht ho sakata hai, tathapi raudr men yah utsah atyant kshin hokar dab jata hai aur krodh hi asvady rahata hai tatha vir men ane vala krodh keval ‘amarth’ vyabhichari hota hai aur utsah sthayi hi utkatatapoorvak asvadit hota hai. atev raudr evn vir, donon ki prithak-prithakh satta hai aur ek men doosare ko antarbhoot nahin kiya ja sakata.

  • utsah ko adhunik manovigyaniyon ne pradhan bhavon men grihit nahin kiya hai, kyonki utsah se alamban evn lakshy sphut evn sthir nahin rahate. yadyapi sahityashastriyon ne pratimall, danapatr evn dayapatr ko utsah ka alamban bataya hai, to bhi bhav ke anubhooti kal men in vyaktiyon ki or vaisa dhyan nahin rahata hai, jaisa any bhavon ke pratitikal men unake alambanabhoot vyaktiyon ki or rahata hai. utsah sabhi rason men snchar karata hai. rati men bhi utsah ho sakata hai aur bhay men bhi.
sthayi bhav
  • abhinavagupt ne to utsah ko shant ras ka bhi sthayi mana hai. in karanon se kuchh log utsah ko vir ras ka sthayi bhav nahin manate hain. raudr ke sath vir ko samadrit karane ke prayatn men ve ‘amarsh’ ko vir ka sthayi bhav man lete hain. ninda, akshep, apaman ityadi ke karan utpann chitt ka abhinivesh, arthath svabhiman ka udabodh amarsh hai. lekin vir ras ke katipay svaroopon men[6] amarsh ka lavalesh bhi drishtigat nahin hota. udaharanat: karmavir, pandityavir, satyavir ityadi men amarsh khojane par bhi nahin milata. atev amarsh vir ras ka sthayi bhav nahin mana ja sakata. idhar kuchh logon ne ‘sahas’ ko vir ka sthayi bhav utpann karane ka udyog kiya hai. vastav men utsah men sahas grihit ho sakata hai, kyonki sahas men ek nirbhik virata payi jati hai, jo utsah ka bhi mahattvapoorn ang hai. lekin utsah ko sahas se prithakh karane vala tattv umng ya ullas hai, jo sahas men sadaiv vartaman nahin rah sakata hai. is tathy ko spasht karate hue ramachandr shukl ne kaha hai ki ‘anandapoorn prayatn ya usaki utkantha men hi utsah ka darshan ho sakata hai, keval kasht sahane ke nishchesht sahas men nahin’. vir ras ki nishpatti ke lie vastut: acharyon ne ashray men praharsh athava utphullata ki upasthiti avashyak mani hai. atev utsah ko hi isaka sthayi manana yuktisngat siddh hota hai. yah thik hai ki utsah mool bhavon men grihit nahin kiya ja sakata, lekin ramachandr shukl ke shabdon men - ‘ashray ya patr men usaki vynjana dvara shrota ya darshak ko aisa vivikt rasanubhav hota hai, jo aur rason ke samakaksh hai.' atev ras-prayojanakarta ke vichar se utsah upekshaniy nahin ho sakata.

vir ras ke bhed

yah utsah vastav men vibhinn vastuon ke prati, jivan ke vibhinn gunon athava vyavasay ke prati vikasit ho sakata hai aur is drishti se vir ras ke kee bhed ho sakate hain.

  • adyachary bharatamuni ne vir ras ke tin prakar bataye hain - danavir, dharmavir, yuddhavir.
  • bhojaraj ne ‘sarasvatikanthabharan’ men dharmavir ko n manakar usake badale dayavir ka niroopan kiya hai.
  • bhanudatt ne bhi ‘dharmavir’ ko n manakar yuddhavir, danavir aur dayavir - ye hi tin bhed bataye hain.
  • vishvanath ne ‘sahityadarpan’ men dharmavir ko bhi milakar vir rason ko chaturvidh niroopit kiya hai - ‘s ch danadharmayuddhairdayaya ch samanvitashraturdha syath.'[7]
  • panditaraj ne ‘rasagngadhar’ men in char bhedon ko mana hai, kintu pandityavir, satyavir, balavir, kshamavir ityadi bhedon ki sambhavyata ka bhi nirdesh kiya gaya hai.
  • hindi ke acharyon men dev ne yuddhavir, dayavir tatha danavir - ye tin hi bhed svikrit kiye hain.
  • any acharyon ne pray: ‘sahityadarpan’ ke char prakaron ko svikrit kiya hai. ‘hariaudh’ ne ‘rasakalash’ men karmavir namak panchavan bhed bhi upapadit kiya hai.
  • is prakar yadi utsah athava viratv ke vyapakatv ka vichar kiya jae, to vir ras shrringar ke samakaksh thaharata hai. asvadaniyata ko drishti men rakhate hue ‘sahityadarpan’ ke char prakar hi sarvamany hain. yadyapi katipay vidvan ‘yuddhavir ras’ men hi sachche utsah athava shaury ka prasphutan sambhav manate hain tatha dharmavir, danavir ityadi ko shant, bhakti prabhriti rason men antarbhoot karate hain.
  • vir ras ke upadanon ko samanvit roop se vishvanath ne nirdisht kiya hai - ‘vijit kie jane yogy ityadi vyakti alamban vibhav tatha unaki cheshtaen ityadi uddipan vibhav hain. yuddh ityadi ke sahayak adi ka anveshanadi isake anubhav hain. dhriti, mati, garv, smriti, tark, romanchadi isake snchari bhav hain.'[8]
  • hindi ke achary kulapati ne ‘rasarahasy’ namak granth men vir ras ko jo varnan kiya hai, vah saral evn subodh hai -

‘mili vibhav anubhav aru sncharin ki bhir.
vyngy kiyo utsah jahn soee ras hai vir.
yuddh dan aru daya puni, dharm su chari prakar.
ari bal samar vibhav yah, yuddhavir bistar.
vachan arunata badan ki, aru phoolai sab ang.
yah anubhav bakhaniye, sab biran ke sng’.

yuddhavir

yuddhavir ka alamban shatru, uddipan shatru ke parakram ityadi, anubhav garvasoochak uktiyan, romanch ityadi tatha snchari dhriti, smriti, garv, tark ityadi hote hain. udaharan -

‘nikasat myan tai mayookhai pralai bhanu kaisi, phare tamatom se gayandan ke jal ko.
lagati lapati kanth bairin ke nagin si, rudrahin rijhavai dai dai mundani ke mal ko.
lal chhitipal chhatrasal mahabahu bali, kahan laun bakhan karau teri karabalako.
pratibhat katak katile kete kati kati, kalika-si kilak kaleoo deti kalako.'[9]

  • yahan shatru alamban, shatru ke kary uddipan ityadi vyabhichari bhav hain. inase pariposh prapt kar utsah sthayi asvadit hota hai, jisase yuddhavir ras ki nishpatti huee hai. yuddhavir vahin hota hai, jahan pasina, mukh ya netr ki raktima ityadi anubhav n hon, kyonki ye krodh ke anubhav hain aur inaki upasthiti men raudr ras hoga, vir nahin.
danavir

danavir ke alamban tirth, yachak, parv, danapatr ityadi tatha uddipan any dataon ke dan, danapatr dvara ki gee prashnsa ityadi hote hain. yachak ka adar-satkar, apani datavy-shakti ki prashnsa ityadi anubhav aur harsh, garv, mati ityadi snchari hain. udaharan -

‘jo sampatti siv ravanahin din diye das math.
so sampada vibhishanahin sakuchi dinh raghunath.'[10]

  • yahan vibhishan, alamban shiv ke dan ka smaran uddipan, ram ka dan dena tatha usamen apane gaurav ke anukool tuchchhata ka anubhav karana aur isalie snkoch hona anubhav hai. dhriti, smriti, garv autsuky ityadi vyabhichari hain. inase pusht hokar utsah sthayi danavir ras men parinat ho gaya hai.
dayavir

dayavir ke alamban daya ke patr, uddipan unaki din, dayaniy dasha, anubhav dayapatr se santvana ke vaky kahana aur vyabhichari dhriti, harsh, mati ityadi hote hain. udaharan -

‘papi ajamil par kiyo jehi nam liyo sut hi ko narayan.
tyon padmakar lat lage par viprahu ke pag chaugune chayan.
ko as dinadayal bhayo. dasaratth ke lal se soodhe subhayan.
daure gayand ubaribe ko prabhu bahan chhadi upahane payan.'[11]

  • yahan gayand[12] alamban, gaj ki dasha uddipan, gaj ke uddhar ke lie daud padana anubhav tatha dhriti, aveg, harsh ityadi vyabhichari bhav hain, inase pusht hokar utsah sthayi dayavir ras men parinat ho gaya hai.
dharmavir

dharmavir men ved shastr ke vachanon evn siddhanton par shraddha tatha vishvas alamban, unake upadeshon aur shikshaon ka shravan-manan ityadi uddipan, tadanukool acharan anubhav tatha dhriti, kshama adi dharm ke das lakshan snchari bhav hote hain. dharmadharan evn dharmacharan ke utsah ki pushti is ras men hoti hai. udaharan -

‘rahate hue tum-sa sahayak pran hua poora nahin.
isase mujhe hai jan padata bhagyabal hi sab kahin.
jalakar anal men doosara pran palata hoon main abhi.
achyut yudhishthir adi ka ab bhar hai tum par sabhi.’[13]

  • yahan arjun ka shastrokt bhagyaphal ityadi par vishvas alamban, pran ka poorn n hona uddipan, arjun ka pran-palanarth udyat hona anubhav aur dhriti, mati ityadi snchari hain. inase pusht hokar dharmacharan utsah dharmavir ras men paripakv ho gaya hai.
  • vir ras, yuddhavir ka shrringar ras ke sath snyog kaviyon ko vishesh priy raha hai. keshavadas ke uddhrit kavitt men isi ka chitr hai -

‘gati gajaraj saji deh ki dipati baji, hav rath bhav pati raji chal chal son. laj saj kulakani shoch poch bhav mani, bhaunhen dhanu tani ban lochan bisal son. kesodas mand has asi kuch bhat miren, bhent bhaye pratibhat bhale nakh jal son. prem ko kavach kasi sahas sahayak hai, jiti rati ran aju madanagupal so’. - rasikapriya

  • ‘sahityadarpan’ men vir ko shrringar ras ka virodhi mana gaya hai, kintu ‘rasagngadhar’ men ise shrringar ka avirodhi kaha gaya hai. vishvanath men bhayanak aur shant ke sath vir ka virodh thaharaya hai, kintu panditaraj ne keval bhayanak ke sath. ve vir ke sath raudr ras ka avirodh

manate hain. vastut: vir evn shant ras men virodh tatha vir evn raudr men maitribhav manana yuktisngat pratit hota hai.

vir ras ke kavy
  • hindi sahity men raso granthon ka virakavy ki drishti se atyant mahattv svikar kiya gaya hai. inamen se kuchh muktakiy viragati ke roop men upalabdh hain aur kuchh prabandhakavy ke roop men. ‘visaladevaraso’ tatha ‘alha khand’ pratham koti ki aur ‘khumanaraso’ tatha ‘prithvirajaraso’ dvitiy shreni ki rachanaen hain. inamen ‘alha khand’ to prarambh se hi janapriy kavy raha hai tatha uttar bharat ki gramin janata men isake shravan ke lie paryapt anurag hai.
  • bhaktikal evn ritikal men paristhitiyon ke parivartan ke karan vir ras ki dhara sookhati-si pratit hoti hai. tathapi, keshav ka ‘virasinhadev charit’, man ka ‘rajavilas’, bhooshan ka ‘shivarajabhooshan’, lal ka ‘chhatraprakash’ ityadi granthon men vir ras ka pravah pravahaman hai. ‘ramacharitamanas’ yon to shant ras-pradhan rachana hai to bhi ram - ravan yuddh ke prasng men prachur vir ras ki nishpatti huee hai.
  • bharat men british satta ki sthapana ke anantar jo rashtriyata ki lahar janasamuday men daud gee, usake phalasvaroop ek bar pun: hindi kavy men vir ras ki dhara navajivan sahit bahi hai. maithilisharan gupt, gayaprasad shukl ‘sanehi’, makhanalal chaturvedi, ‘nirala’, ‘navin’, 'subhadra kumari chauhan', anoop sharma, ‘dinakar’, shyamanarayan pandey ityadi ne apani rachanaon men vir ras ka ajasr pravah pravahit kiya hai, jisamen nav-jagrat rashtr ki sakal akankshaen moortimati evn mukhar ho uthi hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. natyashastr, 6:66 g
  2. rasatarngani
  3. rasapiyooshanidhi
  4. sarasvatikanthabharan, 5:140
  5. rasatarngani
  6. yuddhavir ke atirikt any roopon men
  7. sahityadarpan 3:234
  8. sahityadarpan, 3:233,4
  9. bhooshan
  10. ramacharitamanas, 5:49 kh
  11. padmakar
  12. hathi
  13. maithilisharan gupt : jayadrath vadh

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