शब्द (व्याकरण)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

prakar

shabd do prakar ke hote hain

sarthak shabd

  • sarthak shabd ve shabd hote hain, jo kisi nishchit arth ka bodh karate hain.

nirarthak shabd

  • nirarthak shabd ve shabd hote hain jo kisi arth ka bodh nahin karate hain.
  • bhasha pray: sarthak shabdon ka samooh hi hoti hai. isi karan vyakaran men sarthak shabdon ka hi vivechan kiya jata hai, nirarthak shabdon ka nahin.

shabdon ke bhed

itihas ya srot ke adhar par shabdon ko char vargon men banta ja sakata hai.

1.)tatsam
  • jo shabd aparivartit roop men snskrit se lie ge hain, tatsam hain.
  • jaise- pushp, pustak, balak, kanya adi.
2.)tadbhav
  • snskrit ke jo shabd prakrit, apabhrnsh, purani hindi adi se guzarane ke karan aj parivartit roop men mil rahe hain, tadbhav hain.
  • jaise- sat, sanp, kan, munh adi.
3.)deshi ya deshaj shabd
  • yah ve shabd hain, jinaka srot snskrit nahin hai, kintu ve bharat men gramy kshetron athava janajatiyon men boli jane vali, snskrit se bhinn bhasha parivaron ke hain.
  • jaise- jhadoo, pagadi, lota, jhola, tang, theth adi.
4.)videshi shabd
  • yah shabd arabi, farasi ya angrezi se pramukhataya ae hain.
  • arabi- pharasi- bazar, saza, bag, barf, kagaz, qanoon, garib, zila, daroga, fakir, begam, qatl, qaidi, zamindar adi.
  • angrezi- daauktar, taiksi, dayari, afasar, tikat, digri, parti, kaaulej, motar, gais, hait, pulis, phis, kaauloni, skool, staaup, desk, tost, injan, tim, phutabaaul, kaaupi, nars, mashin, mil adi.
  • purtagali- almari, istari, kanastar, kaptan, godam, nilam, padari, sntara, balti, sabun adi.
  • fransisi- kajoo, qaratoos, angrez adi.
  • japani- riksha.
  • chini- chay, lichi.

rachana ke adhar par

  • rachana ke adhar par shabd tin prakar ke hote hain.
1.)roodh
  • jin shabdon ke sarthak khand n ho saken aur jo any shabdon ke mel se n bane hon. jaise- din, ghar, kitab.
2.)yaugik
  • ve shabd jinamen roodh shabd ke atirikt ek shabdansh (upasarg, pratyay) ya ek roodh shabd avashy hota hai.
  • jaise- namakin ('namak' roodh aur 'een' pratyay); pustakalay ('pustak' roodh aur 'alay' roodh)
3.)yogaroodh
  • jin yaugik shabdon ka ek roodh arth men prayog hone laga hai.
  • jaise- pnkaj (pnk +j) arthat 'kichad men janm lene vala' kintu isaka prayog keval 'kamal' ke arth men hota hai.

vyakaranik vivechan ki drishti se

vyakaranik vivechan ki drishti se shabd do prakar ke hote hain.

vikari shabd

  • ve shabd jinamen ling, vachan adi ke adhar par moolashabd ka roopantaran hota hai.
  • jaise- ladaka→ ladake→ ladakon.

avikari shabd

  • jin shabdon ka prayog mool roop men hota hai aur ling, vachan adi ke adhar par unamen koee parivartan nahin ata hai.
  • jaise- aj, yahan, aur, athava.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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