विशेषण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sngya athava sarvanam shabdon ki visheshata (gun, dosh, snkhya, pariman adi) batane vale shabd ‘visheshan’ kahalate hain.
jaise - bada, kala, lnba, dayalu, bhari, sundar, kayar, tedha-medha, ek, do adi.

visheshy

jis sngya athava sarvanam shabd ki visheshata bataee jae vah visheshy kahalata hai.

  • yatha- gita sundar hai. isamen ‘sundar’ visheshan hai aur ‘gita’ visheshy hai.
  • visheshan shabd visheshy se poorv bhi ate hain aur usake bad bhi.
  • poorv men, jaise-
  1. thoda-sa jal lao.
  2. ek mitar kapada le ana.
  • bad men, jaise-
  1. yah rasta lnba hai.
  2. khira kadava hai.

visheshan ke bhed

visheshan ke char bhed hain-

  1. gunavachak.
  2. parimanavachak.
  3. snkhyavachak.
  4. snketavachak athava sarvanamik.

gunavachak visheshan

  • jin visheshan shabdon se sngya athava sarvanam shabdon ke gun-dosh ka bodh ho ve gunavachak visheshan kahalate hain. jaise-
kram visheshan sngya athava sarvanam
1- bhav achchha, bura, kayar, vir, darapok adi.
2- rng lal, hara, pila, safed, kala, chamakila, phika adi.
3- dasha patala, mota, sookha, gadha, pighala, bhari, gila, garib, amir, rogi, svasth, palatoo adi.
4- akar gol, sudaul, nukila, saman, pola adi.
5- samay agala, pichhala, dopahar, sndhya, savera adi.
6- sthan bhitari, bahari, pnjabi, japani, purana, taja, agami adi.
7- gun bhala, bura, sundar, mitha, khatta, dani,sach, jhooth, sidha adi.
8- disha uttari, dakshini, poorvi, pashchimi adi.

parimanavachak visheshan

  • jin visheshan shabdon se sngya ya sarvanam ki matra athava nap-tol ka gyan ho ve parimanavachak visheshan kahalate hain.
  • parimanavachak visheshan ke do upabhed hai-
  1. nishchit parimanavachak visheshan- jin visheshan shabdon se vastu ki nishchit matra ka gyan ho. jaise-

(k) mere soot men sadhe tin mitar kapada lagega. (kh) das kilo chini le ao. (g) do litar doodh garam karo.

  1. anishchit parimanavachak visheshan- jin visheshan shabdon se vastu ki anishchit matra ka gyan ho. jaise-

(k) thodi-si namakin vastu le ao. (kh) kuchh am de do. (g) thoda-sa doodh garam kar do.

snkhyavachak visheshan

  • jin visheshan shabdon se sngya ya sarvanam ki snkhya ka bodh ho ve snkhyavachak visheshan kahalate hain. jaise - ek, do, dvitiy, duguna, chauguna, panchon adi.
  • snkhyavachak visheshan ke do upabhed hain-

nishchit snkhyavachak visheshan

jin visheshan shabdon se nishchit snkhya ka bodh ho. jaise - do pustaken mere lie le ana.

nishchit snkhyavachak ke nimnalikhit char bhed hain -

(k) ganavachak - jin shabdon ke dvara ginati ka bodh ho. jaise-

(1) ek ladaka skool ja raha hai.
(2) pachchis rupaye dijie.
(3) kal mere yahan do mitr aenge.
(4) char am lao.

(kh) kramavachak - jin shabdon ke dvara snkhya ke kram ka bodh ho. jaise-

(1) pahala ladaka yahan ae.
(2) doosara ladaka vahan baithe.
(3) ram kaksha men pratham raha.
(4) shyam dvitiy shreni men pas hua hai.

(g) avrittivachak - jin shabdon ke dvara keval avritti ka bodh ho. jaise-
(1) mohan tumase chauguna kam karata hai.
(2) gopal tumase duguna mota hai.

(gh) samudayavachak - jin shabdon ke dvara keval samoohik snkhya ka bodh ho. jaise-
(1) tum tinon ko jana padega.
(2) yahan se charon chale jao.

anishchit snkhyavachak visheshan

  • jin visheshan shabdon se nishchit snkhya ka bodh n ho. jaise-kuchh bachche park men khel rahe hain.

snketavachak visheshan

  • jo sarvanam snket dvara sngya ya sarvanam ki visheshata batalate hain ve snketavachak visheshan kahalate hain.

vishesh - kyonki snketavachak visheshan sarvanam shabdon se banate hain, atah ye sarvanamik visheshan kahalate hain. inhen nirdeshak bhi kahate hain.

parimanavachak aur snkhyavachak visheshan men antar

  • jin vastuon ki nap-tol ki ja sake unake vachak shabd parimanavachak visheshan kahalate hain. jaise-‘kuchh doodh lao’. isamen ‘kuchh’ shabd tol ke lie aya hai. isalie yah parimanavachak visheshan hai.
  • jin vastuon ki ginati ki ja sake unake vachak shabd snkhyavachak visheshan kahalate hain. jaise-kuchh bachche idhar ao. yahan par ‘kuchh’ bachchon ki ginati ke lie aya hai. isalie yah snkhyavachak visheshan hai. parimanavachak visheshanon ke bad dravy athava padarthavachak sngyaen aengi jabaki snkhyavachak visheshanon ke bad jativachak sngyaen ati hain.

sarvanam aur sarvanamik visheshan men antar

jis shabd ka prayog sngya shabd ke sthan par ho use sarvanam kahate hain. jaise-vah munbee gaya. is vaky men vah sarvanam hai. jis shabd ka prayog sngya se poorv athava bad men visheshan ke roop men kiya gaya ho use sarvanamik visheshan kahate hain. jaise-vah rath a raha hai. isamen vah shabd rath ka visheshan hai. atah yah sarvanamik visheshan hai.

visheshan ki avasthaen

visheshan shabd kisi sngya ya sarvanam ki visheshata batalate hain. visheshata bataee jane vali vastuon ke gun-dosh kam-zyada hote hain. gun-doshon ke is kam-zyada hone ko tulanatmak dhng se hi jana ja sakata hai. tulana ki drishti se visheshanon ki nimnalikhit tin avasthaen hoti hain-

  1. moolavastha
  2. uttaravastha
  3. uttamavastha

moolavastha
moolavastha men visheshan ka tulanatmak roop nahin hota hai. vah keval samany visheshata hi prakat karata hai. jaise-

  1. savitri sundar ladaki hai.
  2. suresh achchha ladaka hai.
  3. soory tejasvi hai.

uttaravastha
jab do vyaktiyon ya vastuon ke gun-doshon ki tulana ki jati hai tab visheshan uttaravastha men prayukt hota hai. jaise-

  1. ravindr chetan se adhik buddhiman hai.
  2. savita rama ki apeksha adhik sundar hai.

uttamavastha
uttamavastha men do se adhik vyaktiyon evn vastuon ki tulana karake kisi ek ko sabase adhik athava sabase kam bataya gaya hai. jaise-

  1. pnjab men adhikatam ann hota hai.
  2. sndip nikrishtatam balak hai.

vishesh - keval gunavachak evn anishchit snkhyavachak tatha nishchit parimanavachak visheshanon ki hi ye tulanatmak avasthaen hoti hain, any visheshanon ki nahin.

avasthaon ke roop

  • adhik aur sabase adhik shabdon ka prayog karake uttaravastha aur uttamavastha ke roop banae ja sakate hain. jaise-
moolavastha uttaravastha uttamavastha
achchhi adhik achchhi sabase achchhi
chatur adhik chatur sabase adhik chatur
buddhiman adhik buddhiman sabase adhik buddhiman
balavan adhik balavan sabase adhik balavan

isi prakar doosare visheshan shabdon ke roop bhi banae ja sakate hain.

  • tatsam shabdon men moolavastha men visheshan ka mool roop, uttaravastha men ‘tar’ aur uttamavastha men ‘tam’ ka prayog hota hai. jaise-
moolavastha uttaravastha uttamavastha
uchch uchchatar uchchatam
kathor kathoratar kathoratam
guru gurutar gurutam
mahan mahanatar,mahattar mahanatam,mahattam
nyoon nyoonatar nyanootam
laghu laghutar laghutam
tivr tivratar tivratam
vishal vishalatar vishalatam
utkrisht utkrishtar utkritatam
sundar sundaratar sundaratam
madhur madhuratar madhutaratam

visheshanon ki rachana

  • kuchh shabd moolaroop men hi visheshan hote hain, kintu kuchh visheshan shabdon ki rachana sngya, sarvanam evn kriya shabdon se ki jati hai-
(1) sngya se visheshan banana
pratyay sngya visheshan
k ansh anshik
dharm dharmik
alnkar alnkarik
niti naitik
arth arthik
din dainik
itihas aitihasik
dev daivik
it ank ankit
kusum kusumit
surabhi surabhit
dhvani dhvanit
kshudha kshudhit
tarng tarngit
il jata jatil
pnk pnkil
phen phenil
urmi urmil
im svarn svarnim
rakt raktim
ee rog rogi
bhog bhogi
een kul kulin
pratyay sngya visheshan
een gram gramin
eey atma atmiy
jati jatiy
alu shraddha shraddhalu
eershya eershyalu
vi manas manasvi
tapas tapasvi
may sukh sukhamay
dukh dukhamay
van roop roopavan
gun gunavan
vati(stri) gun gunavati
putr putravati
man buddhi buddhiman
shri shriman
mati (stri) shri shrimati
buddhi buddhimati
rat dharm dharmarat
karm karmarat
sth samip samipasth
deh dehasth
nishth dharm dharmanishth
karm karmanishth
(2) sarvanam se visheshan banana
sarvanam visheshan
vah vaisa
yah aisa
alnkar alnkarik
(3) kriya se visheshan banana
kriya visheshan
pat patit
pooj poojaniy
path pathit
vnd vndaniy
bhagana bhagane vala
palana palane vala

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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