अलंकार शास्त्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alnkarashastr snskrit alochana ke anek abhidhanon men 'alnkarashastr' hi nitant lokapriy abhidhan hai. isake prachin namon men kriyakalap (kriya kavyagrnth; kalp vidhan) vatsyayan dvara nirdisht 64 kalaon men se anyatam hai. rajashekhar dvara ullikhit 'sahity vidya' namakaran kavy ki bharatiy kalpana ke oopar ashrit hai, parntu ye namakaran prasiddh nahin ho sake. 'alnkarashastr' men alnkar shabd ka prayog vyapak tatha snkirn donon arthon men samajhana chahie.

alnkar ke do arth many hain- (1) alnkriyate anen iti alnkar: (=kavy men shobha ke adhayak upama, roopak adi; snkirn arth); (2) alnkriyate iti alnkar:=kavy ki shobha (vyapak arth). vyapak arth svikar karane par alnkarashastr kavyashobha ke adhaek samast tatvon-gun, riti, ras, vritti dhvani adi--ka vijaek shastr hai jisamen in tatvon ke svaroop tatha mahatv ka ruchir vivaran prastut kiya gaya hai. snkirn arth men grahan karane par yah nam apane aitihasik mahatv ko abhivyakt karata hai. sahityashastr ke arnbhik yug men 'alnkar' (upama, roopak, anupras adi) hi kavy ka sarvasv mana jata tha jisake abhav men kavy ushnatahin agni ke saman nishpran aur nirjiv hota hai. 'alnkar' ke gnbhir vishleshan se ek or 'vakrokti' ka tatv udbhoot hua aur doosari or arth ki samiksha karane par 'dhvani' ke siddhant ka spasht snket mila. isalie ras, dhvani, gun adi kavyatatvon ka pratipadak hone par bhi, alnkar pradhany drishti ke karan hi, alochanashastr ka nam 'alnkarashastr' pada aur vah lokapriy bhi hua.

prachinata

alnkaron ki, visheshat: upama, roopak, svabhavokti tatha atishayokti ki, upalabdhi rigved ke mntron men nishchit roop se hoti hai, parntu vaidik yug men is shastr ke avirbhav ka praman nahin milata. nirukt ke anushilan se 'upama' ka sahityik vishleshan yask se poorvavarti yug ki alochana ki parinat phal pratit hota hai. yask ne kisi prachin garmy achary ke upamalakshan ka nirdesh hi nahin kiya hai, pratyut karmopama, bhootopama, roopopama, siddhopama, arthopama (luptopama) jaise maulik upama-prakaron ka bhi drishtantapur:sar varnan kiya hai.[1] isase spasht hai ki alnkar ka uday yask (saptam shati ee.poo.) se bhi poorv ho chuka tha. kashyap tatha vararuchi, brahmadatt tatha nndisvami ke nam tarunavachaspati ne ady alnkarikon men avashy lie hain parntu inake grnth aur mat ka parichay nahin milata. rajashekhar dvara 'kavyamimansa' men nirdisht brihaspati, upamanyu, suvarnanabh, prachetayan, shesh, pulasty, parashar, utathy adi ashtadash acharyon men se keval bharat ka 'natyashastr' hi ajakal upalabdh hai. any achary keval kalpanik satta dharan karate hain. itana to nishchit hai ki yoonani alochana ke uday shatabdiyon poorv 'alnkarashastr' pramanik shastrapaddhati ke roop men pratishthit ho chuka tha.

snpraday

'alnkarasarvasv' ke tikakar samudrabndh ne is shastr ke anek snpradayon ki vishishtata ki sundar vivaran prastut kiya hai. kavy ke vibhijh angon par mahatv tatha bal dene se vibhijh snpradayon ki vibhijh shatabdiyon men utpatti huee. mukhy snpradayon ki snkhya chhah mani ja sakati hai- (1) ras snpraday, (2) alnkar snpraday, (3) riti ya gun snpraday, (4) vakrokti snpraday, (5) dhvani snpraday tatha (6) auchity snpraday. in snpradayon men apane namanusar tattath‌ kavy ki atm arthath‌ mukhy pranajaek svikrit kie jate hain. (1) ras snpraday ke ke mukhy achary bharat muni hain (dvitiy shatabdi) jinhonne natyaras ka hi mukhyat: vishleshan kiya aur us vivaran ko avantar acharyon ne kavyaras ke lie bhi pramanik mana. (2) alnkar snpraday ke pramukh achary bhamah (chhathi shatabdi ka poorvardh), dndi (satavin shatabdi), udbhat (athavin shatabdi) tatha rudrat (navin shatabdi ka poorvardh) hain. is mat men alnkar hi kavy ki atma mana jata hai. is shastr ke itihas men yahi snpraday prachinatam tatha vyapak prabhavapoorn angikrit kiya jata hai. (3) riti snpraday ke pramukh achary vaman (ashtam shatabdi ka uttarardh) hain jinhonne apane 'kavyalnkarasootr' men riti ko spasht shabdon men kavy ki atma mana hai (ritiratma kavyasy). dndi ne bhi riti ke ubhay prakar-vaidarbhi tatha gaudi-ki apane 'kavyadarsh' men badi marmik samiksha ki thi, parntu unaki drishti men kavy men alnkar ki hi pramukhata rahati hai. (4) vakrokti snpraday ki udbhavana ka shrey achary kuntak ko (10 vin shatabdi ka uttarardh) hai jinhonne apane 'vakrokti jivit' men 'vakrokti' ko kavy ki atma (jivit) svikar kiya hai. (5) dhvani snpraday ka pravarttan anndavardhan (navam shatabdi ka uttarardh) ne apane yugantarakari grnth 'dhvanyalok' men kiya tatha isaka pratishthapan abhinav gupt (10vin shatabdi) ne dhvanyalok ki lochan tika men kiya. mammat (11vin shatabdi ka uttarardh), ruyyak (12vin shatabdi ka poorvardh), hemachndr (12vin shatabdi ka uttarardh), piyooshavarsh jayadev (13vin shatabdi ka uttarardh), vishvanath kaviraj (14vin shatabdi ka poorvardh), pnditaraj jagannath (17vin shatabdi ka madhyakal)-isi snpraday ke pratishthit achary hain. (6) auchity snpraday ke pratishthata kshemendr (11vin shatabdi ka madhyakal) ne bharat, anndavardhan adi prachin acharyon ke mat ko grahan kar kavy men auchity tatv ko pramukh tatv angikar kiya tatha ise svatntr snpraday ke roop men pratishthit kiya. alnkarashastr is prakar lagabhag do sahasr varshon kavyatatvon ki samiksha karata a raha hai.

mahatv

yah shastr atynt prachin kal se kavy ki samiksha aur kavy ki rachana men alochakon tatha kaviyon ka marganirdesh karata aya hai. yah kavy ke antarng aur bahirng donon ka vishleshan badi marmikata se prastut karata hai. samikshasnsar ke lie alnkarashastr ki kavyatatvon ki char atynt mahatvapoorn den hai jinaka sarvang vivechan, antarng parikshan tatha vyavaharik upayog bharatiy sahityik manishiyon ne badi sookshmata se anek grnthon men pratipadit kiya hai.[2]

ye mahaniy kavy tatv hain- auchity, vakrokti, dhvani tatha ras. auchity ka tatv lok vyavahar men aur kavyakala men nitant vyapak siddhant hai. auchity ke adhar par hi rasamimansa ka prasad khada hota hai. anndavardhan ki yah ukti samikshajagath‌ men maulik tathy ka upanyas karati hai ki anauchity ko chhodakar rasabhng ka koee doosara karan nahin hai aur auchity ka upanibndhan ras ka rahasyabhoot upanishath‌ hai-anauchityadrite nanyath‌ rasabhngasy karanam. auchityopanidhabndhastu rasasyopanishath‌ para (dhvanyalok). vakrokti lokatikrant gochar vachan ke vinyas ki sahityik sngya hai. vakrokti ke mahatmy se hi koee bhi ukti kavy ki rasapeshal sookti ke roop men parinat hoti hai. yoorop men kroche dvara nirdisht 'abhivynjanavad' (eksapreshanijm) vakrokti ko bahut kuchh sparsh karanevala kavyatatv hai. dhvani ka tatv snskrit alochana ki tisari mahati den hai. hamare alochakon ka kahana hai ki kavy utana hi nahin prakat karata jitana hamare kanon ko pratit hota hai, pratyut vah nitant goodh arthon ko bhi hamare hriday tak pahunchane ki kshamata rakhata hai. yah sundar manoram arth 'vynjana' namak ek vishisht shabdavyapar ke dvara prakat hota hai aur is prakar vynjak shabdarth ko dhvanikavy ke nam se pukarate hain. saubhagy ki bat hai ki angreeji ke many alochak ebarakranbi tatha richardh‌s ki drishti is tatv ki or abhi-abhi akrisht huee hai. rasatatv ki mimansa bharatiy alochakon ke manovaigyanik samikshapaddhati ke anushilan ka manoram phal hai. kavy alaukik annd ke unmilan men hi charitarth hota hai chahe vah kavy shravy ho ya drishy. hridayapaksh hi kavy ka kalapaksh ki apeksha nitant madhuratar tatha shobhan paksh hai, is tathy par bharatiy alochana ka nitant agrah hai. bharatiy alochana jivan ki samasya ko sulajhane vale darshan kil chhanabin se kathamapi paranh‌mukh nahin hoti aur is prakar yah pashchaty jagath‌ ke tin shastron-'poetiks', 'retariks' tatha 'aisthetiks'-ka pratinidhitv akele hi apane ap karati hai. prachinata, gnbhirata tatha manovaigyanik vishleshan men yah pashchimi alochana se kahin adhik mahatvashali hai; is vishay men do mat nahin ho sakate.[3]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. nirukt 3.13-18
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 246 |
  3. sn.grn.-kane : histri aauv alnkarashastr (bnbee, 1955); es.ke.de. : snskrit poetiks (lndan, 1925); baladev upadhyay : bharatiy sahityashastr (do khnd, kashi, 1950).

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah