अर्थालंकार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jis alnkar men arth ke madhyam se kavy men chamatkar utpann hota hai, vahan arthalnkar hota hai. isake pramukh bhed hain.

upama

jahan ek vastu ya prani ki tulana atynt sadrishy ke karan prasiddh vastu ya prani se ki jae, vahan upama alnkar hota hai. upama alnkar ke char tatv hote hain-

upamey - jisaki upama di jae arthath jisaka varnan ho raha hai.
upaman - jisase upama di jae.
sadharan dharm - upamey tatha upaman men paya jane vala parampar saman gun.
vachak shabd - upamey aur upaman men samanata prakat karane vala shabd jaise- jyon, sam, sa, si, tuly, naee.

udaharan

naval sundar shyam-sharir ki,
sajal nirad-si kal kanti thi.

is udaharan ka vishleshan is prakar hoga. kanti- upamey, nirad- upaman, kal- sadharan dharm, si- vachak shabd

roopak

jahan gun ki atyant samanata ke karan upamey men upaman ka abhed aropan ho, vahan roopak alnkar hota hai.

jaise

maiya main to chndr khilauna laihon.

  • yahan chandrama (upamey) men khilauna (upaman) ka arop hone se roopak alnkar hota hai.

utpreksha

jahan samanata ke karan upamey men snbhavana ya kalpana ki jae vahan utpreksha alnkar hota hai. mano, manu, manahu, jano, janu, janahu adi isake bodhak shabd hain.

jaise

kahati huee yon uttara ke netr jal se bhar ge.
him ke karnon se poorn mano ho ge pnkaj ne॥

  • yahan uttara ke ashrupoorn netron (upamey) men os-kan yukt pnkaj (upaman) ki snbhavana ki gee hai.

upameyopama

upamey aur upaman ko paraspar upaman aur upamey banane ki prakriya ko upameyopama kahate hain.

atishayokti

jahan upamey ka varnan lok sima se badhakar kiya jae vahan atishayokti alnkar hota hai.

jaise

age nadiya padi apar, ghoda kaise utare par.
rana ne socha is par, tab tak chetak tha us par.

  • yahan sochane ki kriya ki poorti hone se pahale hi ghode ka nadi ke par pahunchana lok-sima ka atikraman hai, atah atishayokti alnkar hai.

ullekh

jahan ek vastu ka varnan anek prakar se kiya jae, vahan ullekh alnkar hota hai.

jaise

too roop hai kiran men, saundary hai suman men,
too pran hai kiran men, vistar hai gagan men.

virodhabhas

jahan virodh n hote hue bhi virodh ka abhas diya jae, vahan virodhabhas alnkar hota hai.

jaise

bain suny jabaten madhur,
tabaten sunat n bain.

  • yahan 'bain suny' aur 'sunat n bain' men virodh dikhaee padata hai jabaki donon men vastavik virodh nahin hai.

drishtant

jahan upamey aur upaman tatha unake sadharan dharmon men bimb-pratibimb bhav ho, drishtant alnkar hota hai.

jaise

sukh-dukh ke madhur milan se yah jivan ho paripooran.
phir ghan men ojhal ho shashi, phir shashi men ojhal ho ghan.

  • yahan sukh-dukh aur shashi tatha ghan men bimb-pratibimb bhav hai.
alnkar lakshan\pahachan chihn udaharan\ tippani
upama bhinn padarthon ka sadrishy pratipadan upama ke char ang-

upamey\ prastut- jisaki upama di jay.
upaman\aprastut- jisase upama di jay.
saman dharm (gun)- upamey v upaman men paya janevala ubhayanishth gun
sadrishy vachak shabd- upamey v upaman ki samata batane vala shabd (sa, aisa, jaisa, jyon, sadrish, saman).

udaharan:- naval sundar shyam-sharir ki, sajal nirad-si kal kanti thi.

is udaharan ka vishleshan is prakar hoga. kanti - upamey, nirad - upaman, kal - sadharan dharm, si - vachak shabd
poornopama jisamen upama ke charon ang maujood hon

mukh chandr-sa sundar hai.

mukh - upamey, chandr-upaman, saman dharm- sundarata, sadrishy vachak, shabd - sa
luptopama jisamen upama ke ek, do, ya tin ang lupt (gayab) ho

mukh chandr- sa hai.

saman dharm 'sundarata' ka lop.
pratip upama ka ulta (prasiddh upaman ko upamey bana dena)

mukh- sa chandr hai.

mukh→ upaman, chandr→ upamey
upameyopama pratip + upama

mukh-sa chandr aur chandr- sa mukh hai.

annvay (n anvay) ek hi vastu ko upamey v upaman donon kahana (jab upamey ki samata dene ke lie koee upaman nahin hota aur kaha jata hai usake saman vahi hai. (1) mukh mukh hi sa hai.
(2) ram se ram, siya si siya
sndeh upamey men upaman ka sndeh

yah mukh hai ya chandr hai.

utpreksha upamey men upaman ki snbhavana (bodhak shabd- mano, manu, manahu, jano, janu, janahu)

mukh mano chandr hai.

(mano bodhak shabd)
roopak upamey men upaman ka arop (nishedharahit) mukh chandr hai.
apahnuti upamey men upaman ka arop (nishedhasahit) yah mukh nahin, chandr hai.
atishayokti upamey ko nigalakar upaman ke sath abhinnata pradarshit karana (jahan bahut badha-chadhakar lok sima se bahar ki bat kahi jay) yah chandr hai.
ullekh vishay bhed se ek vastu ka anek prakar se varnan (ullekh). (1) usake mukh ko koee kamal, koee chandr kahata hai.

(2) jaki rahi bhavana jaisi, prabhoo -moorati dekhi tin taisi.
dekhahi bhoop maha ranadhira, manahu vir ras dhare sarira.
dare kutil nrip prabhuhin nihari, manahu bhayanak moorati bhari (tulasidas).

smaran sadrish ya visadrish vastu ke pratyaksh se poorvanubhoot vastu ka smaran chandr ko dekhakar mukh yad ata hai.
bhrantiman\bhram sadrishy ke karan ek vastu ko doosari vastu man lena.
not not: - bhrantiman alnkar men upamey v upaman ke sadrishy ka abhas, saty liya jata hai, parntu sndeh alnkar men duvidha (sndeh) bani rahati hai 'ye hain' ya 'vo hai.

phirat gharan nootan pathik chale chakit chit bhagi.
phoolyo dekhi palas van, samuhen samujhi davagi॥ (biharilal)

yahan videsh gaman karane vale naye pathik pushpit palash van ko dekhakar (palash ke phool bahut lal hote hain) use davagni (jngal ki ag) samajh dar se phir ghar laut ate hain.
tulyayogita anek prastuton ya aprastuton ka ek dharm men snbndh batana

apane tan ke jani kai, joban nripati prabin.
stan, man, nain, nitnb ko bado ijafa kin॥ (biharilal)

dipak prastut v aprastut donon ka ek dharm men snbndh batana. mukh aur chandr shobhate hain.
prativastoopama upamey v upaman vakyon men ek hi sadharan dharm ko vibhinn shabdon se kahana mukh ko dekhakar netr tript ho jate hain (upamey vaky)
chandr darshan se kisaki ankhe nahin judati? (upaman vaky).
drishtant upamey- upaman men bimb- pratibimb bhav ( bhav- samy- ek hi ashay ki do bhinn abhivyakti)

usaka mukh nisarg sundar (prakritik roop se sundar) hai; chandrama ko prasadhan ki kya avashyakata?

mool ashay- sundar vastu ka svabhavik (prakritik) roop se sundar lagana
nidarshana upamey ka gun upaman men athava upaman ka gun upamey men aropit hona

ravi sasi nakhat dipahin ohi joti.
ratan padarath manik moti॥ (jayasi)

yahan padmavati ki dnt jyoti (upamey) se ravi, shashi, nakshatr, ratn, maniky, aur moti (sabhi upaman) ka jyotit hona kaha gaya hai. atah upamey ka gun (dipt hona- chamakana) upaman men aropit hone se nidarshana alnkar hai.
vyatirek upaman ki apeksha upamey ka vyatirek yani utkarsh varnan

chandr sakalnk, mukh nishkalnk; donon men samata kaisi?

sahokti saharthak shabd ke bal se jahan ek shabd se anek arth nikale (saharthak shabd sah, sng, sath, adi)

bhaunhani sng chadhaiyai, kar gahi chap manoj.
nah- neh sng hi badhyau, lochan laj, uroj॥

vinokti yadi koee vastu kisi any vastu ke bina ashobhan ya shobhan batayi jay

 bina putr soona sadan, gat gun sooni deh.
vitt, bina sab shoony hai, priyatam bina saneh॥

yahan putr ke bina ghar, gun ke bina sharir, dhan ke bina sab kuchh aur priyatam bina sneh ki ashobhanata batayi gee hai.
samasokti prastut ke madhyam se aprastut ka varnan

chnp lata sukumar too, dhan tuv bhagy bisal.
tere dhig sohat sukhad, sundar syam tamal॥

yahan kaha ja raha hai prastut champak lata se jo tamal vriksh se lipati hai - ari champak lata. too badi komal hai, too dhany aur badi bhagyashalini hai jo tere samip sukhad, sundar shyam tamal shobh rahe hain. lekin 'champak lata' v 'tamal' ke madhyam se aprastut 'radha' v 'krishn' ka varnan kiya gaya hai.
anyokti\ aprastut prashnsa samasokti ka ulta yani aprastut (pratikon) ke madhyam se prastut ka varnan

nahin parag nahin madhur madhu, nahin vikas ihi kal.
ali kali hi saun vidhyaun, age kaun haval॥ (biharilal)

yahan bhramar aur kali ka prasng aprastut vidhan ke roop men hai, jisake madhyam se raja jayasinh ko sachet kiya gaya hai.
paryayokti sidhe n kahakar ghuma-phirakar kahana

apane kaise kripa ki. isaka arth hai ap kis kam ke lie aye.

vyajastuti (vyaj- ninda) ninda se stuti ya stuti se ninda ki pratiti

udho tum ati chatur sujan
je pahile rng rngi syam rng tinh n chadhai rng an. (sooradas)

yahan uddhav ki prashnsa men ninda chhipi hai.
parikar yadi visheshan sabhipray ho

jano n nek vyatha par ki, balihari too pai sujan kahavat.

parikarakunr yadi visheshy sabhipray ho pyari kahat lajat nahin, pavas chalat vides॥ (biharilal)
akshep kisi vivakshit vastu ko bina kiye bich men hi chhod dena. apase kahana to bahut kuchh tha, par usase labh kya hoga.
virodhabhas virodh n hone par bhi virodh ka abhas mithi lage ankhiyan lunaee.
vibhavana karan ke abhav men kary ki utpatti ka varnan

binu pad chalai, sunai binu kana. kar binu karam karai vidhi nana॥ (tulasidas)

visheshokti karan ke rahate hue bhi kary nainaun se sadaiv jal ki varsha hoti rahati hai, tab ka n hona bhi pyas nahin bujhati.
asngati karan aur kary men sngati ka abhav (karan kahin aur, kary kahin aur)

drig urajhat tootat kutum (biharilal)

yahan ulajhati hai, ankhen atah tootana bhi unhen hi chahie par tootata hai kutumb se snbndh.
visham do bemel padarthon ka snbndh batana

ko kahi sake baden ki, lakhe badi hoo bhool.
dinhen dee gulab ke, in daran ye phool॥ (biharilal)

kahan to gulab ki kntili dar aur kahan aise sukumar phool. in do bemel vastuon ka ekatrikaran vidhata ki bhool ka hi to parinam hai.
karanamala ek ka doosara karan, doosare ka tisara karan batate jana

hot lobh te moh, mohahin te upaje garab.
garab badhave koh, koh kalah kalahahu vyatha.

lobh→ moh→ garv→ krodh→ kalah→ vyatha.
ekavali poorv- poorv vastu ke prati par-par vastu ka visheshan roop se sthanapan ya nishedh

manush vahi jo ho guni, guni jo kobid roop.
kobid jo kavipad lahai, kavi jo ukti anoop॥

yahan 'manush' visheshy aur 'guni' usaka visheshan hai, age chalakar yah 'guni' hi visheshy ho jata hai aur 'kobid' usaka visheshan .
kavyaling (ling- karan) kisi kathan ka karan dena (pahachan chihn- jisamen kyonki isalie, choonki adi ki sahayata se arth kiya ja sake)

kanak-kanak te sau guni, madakata adhikay.
uhi khaye baurat nar, ihi paye bauray॥ (biharilal)

sona dhatoore ki apeksha sau guna adhik madak hota hai 'kyonki' dhatoore ko khane par nasha hota hai, par sona hath men ate hi.
sar vastuon ka uttarottar utkarsh varnan

ati oonche giri, giri se bhi oonche haripad hai. unase bhi oonche sajjan ke hriday vishad hain॥

yahan parvat ki apeksha bhagavan ke charan aur bhagavan ke charan ki apeksha sajjanon ke hriday ka utkarsh varnan hai.
anuman sadhan (pratyaksh) ke dvara sadhy (apratyaksh) ka chamatkarapoorn varnan

mohi karat kat bavari, kiye doorav durai n.
kahe det rng rati ke, rng nichurat se nain॥ biharilal

yahan lal ankhen dekhakar rat ki rati-keli ka anuman ho raha hai. 'rng nichurat se nain' sadhan hai jisake dvara 'rati ke rng' sadhy ka anuman hota hai.
yathasnkhy\kram kuchh padarthon ka ullekh karake usi kram (silasile) se unase snbaddh any padarthon, karyon ya gunon ka varnan karana

mani manik mukata chhabi jaisi.
ahi giri gajasir soh n taisi॥

yahan pratham charan men mani, maniky aur mukta ka jis kram se kathan hai dvitiy charan men usi kram se unako jodana padata hai. mani sarp ke sir par maniky parvat par aur mukta hathi ke mastak par utpann hoti hai.
arthapatti ek bat se doosari bat ka svatah siddh ho jana

athava ek paras men hi jab, taras rahi main itani
hogi vikal n jane tab vah, sada-sngini kitani?

kubja ki ukti hai- krishn ke ek hi sparsh ke bad unase viyukt hokar jab mujhe itani bekali (vyakulata\bechaini) hai to unase bichhudakar sada sath rahane vali bechari radha ki kaisi dasha hogi.(maithilisharan gupt)
parisnkhya ek hi vastu ki anek sthanon men sthiti snbhav hone par bhi anyatr nishedh kar usaka ek sthan men varnan karana. ram ke rajy men vakrata keval sundariyon ke kataksh men thi.
sam paraspar anukool vastuon ka yogy snbndh varnan

chirajivo jori, jurai kyo n saneh gnbhir.
ko ghati ye vrishabhanuja, ve haladhar ke bir॥ (biharilal)

yahan radha aur krishn ki yogy jodi ki prashnsa hai.
tadgun apane gun ko chhodakar utkrisht gun vali doosari vastu ke gun ko grahan karana.

arun kiran-mala se ravi ki,
nirjhar ka chnchal ujjval jal,
ban suvarn, pighale suvarn ki,
dhara-sa bahata hai, aviral.

yahan soory ki lal kiranon ke snpark men ane se nirjhar ka jal apani ujjvalata ko chhodakar soory ki lalima grahan kar sundar varn vala ban gaya hai.
atadgun tadgun ka ulta (doosari vastu ke gunon ko grahan n karana) chandan vish vyapat nahin, lapate rahat bhujng. (rahim)
milit (mil-jana) anuroop vastu ke dvara kisi vastu ka chhip jana

baran bas sukumarata, sab bidh rahi samay.
pnkhuri lagi gulab ki, gal n jani jay॥ (biharilal)

gulab ki pnkhadi nayika ke gal par rng, gndh aur komalata ke atishay sadrishy ke karan us gulab ki pnkhadi ka alag se gyat nahin hota.
unmilit milit ka ulta

dithi n parat saman duti, kanak- kanak se gat.
bhooshan kar karakas lagat, paras pichhane jat॥ (biharilal)

yahan sunahale sharir aur sone ke abhooshanon ka antar nahin dikhata par sparsh men kathorata ke anubhav se abhooshanon aur angon ka parthaky maloom padata hai.
samany sadrish gunon ke karan prastut ka aprastut ke sath abhed pratipadan

yah ujjval prasad, chandani se mil ekakar.

gun samy (sundarata) ke karan prastut (prasad) aprastut (chandani) ne milakar abhinn pratit ho raha hai.
svabhavokti vastu ka yathavat\svabhavik varnan sobhit kar navanit lie, ghutarun chalat renu tanu mndit mukh dadhi lep kie. (sooradas) yahan krishn ki bal- cheshta ka svabhavik varnan hai.
vyajokti (vyaj- chhal\bahana) prakat hue rahasy ko kisi bahane se chhipa lena

kare varanh daravano, kat avat ihi geh.
kai va lakhyau sakhi, lakhe lagain tharathari deh॥ (biharilal)

nayika kisi sakhi ke pas baithi hai. vahin kisi kam se krishn chale ate hain. unhen dekhakar nayika ko alinganechchhajany kampan (tharathari) ho ati hai par use vah yah kah chhipati hai ki is kale vyakti ko dekhakar hi main dar se kanpane lagati hoon.
arthantaranyas samany ka vishesh se ya vishesh ka samany se samarthan karana

je 'rahim' uttam prakriti, ka kari sakat kusng.
chndan vish vyapat nahin, lipate rahat bhujng॥(rahim)

samany ka vishesh se samarthan.
pratham charan- samany bat.
dvitiy charan - vishesh bat.
lokokti prasngavash lokokti ka prayog karana

achhe din pachhe gaye, hari se kiyo n het.
ab pachhatava kya karai, chidiyan chug gee khet॥

udaharan- ek vaky kahakar usake udaharan ke roop men doosara vaky kahana
not- 'drishtant' men donon vakyon men bimb pratibimb bhav rahata hai tatha koee vachak shabd nahin hota; jabaki 'udaharan' men donon vakyon ka sadharan dharm to bhinn rahata hai parntu vachak shabd ke dvara unamen samanata pradarshit ki jati hai.

ve rahim nar dhany hai, par upakari ang.
bantan vare ko lage, jyon menhadi ko rng. (rahim)



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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