मैथिलीशरण गुप्त  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maithilisharan gupt
Maithilisharan-Gupt.jpg
poora nam maithilisharan gupt
janm 3 agast, 1886
janm bhoomi chiraganv, jhansi, uttar pradesh
mrityu 12 disnbar, 1964
mrityu sthan chiraganv, jhansi
abhibhavak seth ramacharan, kashibaee
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr natakakar, lekhak, kavi
mukhy rachanaen pnchavati, saket, jayadrath vadh, yashodhara, dvapar, jhnkar, jayabharat.
bhasha brajabhasha
vidyalay rajakiy vidyalay
puraskar-upadhi padmabhooshan, hindustani akadami puraskar, mngala prasad paritoshik, sahity vachaspati, di.lith. ki upadhi.
nagarikata bharatiy
pad rashtrakavi, sansad
any janakari 1952 men gupt ji rajy sabha ke sadasy manonit hue aur 1954 men unhen 'padmabhooshan' alnkar se sammanit kiya gaya.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

maithilisharan gupt (angrezi: Maithili Sharan Gupt, janm- 3 agast, 1886, jhansi; mrityu- 12 disnbar, 1964, jhansi) khadi boli ke pratham mahatvapoorn kavi the. mahavir prasad dvivedi ki prerana se apane khadi boli ko apani rachanaon ka madhyam banaya aur apani kavita ke dvara khadi boli ko ek kavy-bhasha ke roop men nirmit karane men athak prayas kiya. is tarah brajabhasha jaisi samriddh kavy bhasha ko chhodakar samay aur sndarbhon ke anukool hone ke karan naye kaviyon ne ise hi apani kavy-abhivyakti ka madhyam banaya. hindi kavita ke itihas men gupt ji ka yah sabase bada yogadan hai.[1]

jivan parichay

maithilisharan gupt ji ka janm 3 agast 1886 chiraganv, jhansi, uttar pradesh men hua tha. snbhrant vaishy parivar men janme maithilisharan gupt ke pita ka nam 'seth ramacharan' aur mata ka nam 'shrimati kashibaee' tha. pita ramacharan ek nishthavanh prasiddh ram bhakt the.[2] inake pita 'kanakalata' up nam se kavita kiya karate the aur ram ke vishnutv men atal astha rakhate the. gupt ji ko kavitv pratibha aur ram bhakti paitrik den men mili thi. ve balyakal men hi kavy rachana karane lage. pita ne inake ek chhnd ko padhakar ashirvad diya ki "too age chalakar hamase hazar guni achchhi kavita karega" aur yah ashirvad aksharashah saty hua.[3] munshi ajameri ke sahachary ne unake kavy-snskaron ko vikasit kiya. unake vyaktitv men prachin snskaron tatha adhunik vicharadhara donon ka samanvay tha. maithilisharan gupt ji ko sahity jagath men 'dadda' nam se sambodhit kiya jata tha.

shiksha

maithilisharan gupt ki prarambhik shiksha chiraganv, jhansi ke rajakiy vidyalay men huee. prarnbhik shiksha samapt karane ke uparant gupt ji jhansi ke mekadaaunal haeeskool men angrezi padhane ke lie bheje ge, par vahan inaka man n laga aur do varsh pashchath hi ghar par inaki shiksha ka prabndh kiya. lekin padhane ki apeksha inhen chakee phirana aur patng udana adhik pasnd tha. phir bhi inhonne ghar par hi snskrit, hindi tatha bangla sahity ka vyapak adhyayan kiya. inhen 'alha' padhane men bhi bahut annd ata tha.

kavy pratibha

isi bich guptaji munshi ajameri ke snpark men aye aur unake prabhav se inaki kavy-pratibha ko protsahan prapt hua. atah ab ye dohe, chhappayon men kavy rachana karane lage, jo kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) men prakashit hone vale 'vaishyopakarak' patr men prakashit huee. achary mahavir prasad dvivedi jab jhansi ke relave aauphis men chif klark the, tab guptaji apane bade bhaee ke sath unase milane ge aur kalantar men unhin ki chhatrachhaya men maithilisharan ji ki kavy pratibha pallavit v pushpit huee. ve dvivedi ji ko apana kavy guru manate the aur unhin ke bataye marg par chalate rahe tatha jivan ke ant tak sahity sadhana men rat rahe. unhonne rashtriy andalanon men bhi bhag liya aur jel yatra bhi ki.[3]

lokasngrahi kavi

maithilisharan gupt ji svabhav se hi lokasngrahi kavi the aur apane yug ki samasyaon ke prati vishesh roop se snvedanashil rahe. unaka kavy ek or vaishnav bhavana se pariposhit tha, to sath hi jagaran v sudhar yug ki rashtriy naitik chetana se anupranit bhi tha. lala lajapataray, bal gngadhar tilak, vipinachndr pal, ganesh shnkar vidyarthi aur madanamohan malaviy unake adarsh rahe. mahatma gandhi ke bharatiy rajanitik jivan men ane se poorv hi gupt ka yuva man garam dal aur tatkalin krantikari vicharadhara se prabhavit ho chuka tha. 'anagh' se poorv ki rachanaon men, visheshakar jayadrath vadh aur bharat bharati men kavi ka krantikari svar sunaee padata hai. bad men mahatma gandhi, rajendr prasad, javahar lal neharoo aur vinoba bhave ke sampark men ane ke karan vah gandhivad ke vyavaharik paksh aur sudharavadi andolanon ke samarthak bane. 1936 men gandhi ne hi unhen maithili kavy–man granth bhent karate hue rashtrakavi ka sambodhan diya. mahavir prasad dvivedi ke snsarg se guptaji ki kavy–kala men nikhar aya aur unaki rachanaen 'sarasvati' men nirantar prakashit hoti rahin. 1909 men unaka pahala kavy jayadrath-vadh aya. jayadrath-vadh ki lokapriyata ne unhen lekhan aur prakashan ki prerana di. 59 varshon men gupt ji ne gady, pady, natak, maulik tatha anoodit sab milakar, hindi ko lagabhag 74 rachanaen pradan ki hain. jinamen do mahakavy, 20 khnd kavy, 17 gitikavy, char natak aur gitinaty hain.

desh prem

kavy ke kshetr men apani lekhani se snpoorn desh men rashtrabhakti ki bhavana bhar di thi. rashtraprem ki is ajasr dhara ka pravah bundelakhnd kshetr ke chiraganv se kavita ke madhyam se ho raha tha. bad men is rashtraprem ki is dhara ko desh bhar men pravahit kiya tha, rashtrakavi maithilisharan gupt ne.
maithilisharan gupt

jo bhara nahin hai bhavon se jisamen bahati rasadhar nahin.
vah hriday nahin hai patthar hai, jisamen svadesh ka pyar nahin.

pitaji ke ashirvad se vah rashtrakavi ke sopan tak padasin hue. mahatma gandhi ne unhen rashtrakavi kahe jane ka gaurav pradan kiya. bharat sarakar ne unaki sevaon ko dekhate hue unhen do bar rajyasabha ki sadasyata pradan ki. hindi men maithilisharan gupt ki kavy-sadhana sadaiv smaraniy rahegi. bundelakhnd men janm lene ke karan gupt ji bolachal men bundelakhndi bhasha ka hi prayog karate the. dhoti aur bndi pahanakar mathe par tilak lagakar snt ke roop men apani haveli men baithe raha karate the. unhonne apani sahityik sadhana se hindi ko samriddh kiya. maithilisharan gupt ke jivan men rashtriyata ke bhav koot-koot kar bhar ge the. isi karan unaki sabhi rachanaen rashtriy vicharadhara se ot prot hai. ve bharatiy snskriti evn itihas ke param bhakt the. parantu andhavishvason aur thothe adarshon men unaka vishvas nahin tha. ve bharatiy snskriti ki navinatam roop ki kamana karate the.

mahakavy

maithilisharan gupt ko kavy kshetr ka shiromani kaha jata hai. maithilisharan ji ki prasiddhi ka mooladhar bharat–bharati hai. bharat–bharati un dinon rashtriy svatntrata sngram ka ghoshanapatr ban gee thi. saket aur jayabharat, donon mahakavy hain. saket ramakatha par adharit hai, kintu isake kendr men lakshman ki patni urmila hai. saket men kavi ne urmila aur lakshman ke dampaty jivan ke hridayasparshi prasng tatha urmila ki virah dasha ka atyant marmik chitran kiya hai, sath hi kaikeyi ke pashchattap ko darshakar usake charitr ka manovaigyanik evn ujjval paksh prastut kiya hai. yashodhara men gautam buddh ki manini patni yashodhara kendr men hai. yashodhara ki manahsthitiyon ka marmik ankan is kavy men hua hai. vishnupriya men chaitany mahaprabhu ki patni kendr men hai. vastutah gupt ji ne rabindranath thakur dvara bangla bhasha men rachit 'kavyer upekshit narya' shirshak lekh se prerana prapt kar apane prabandh kavyon men upekshit, kintu mahimamayi nariyon ki vyatha–katha ko chitrit kiya aur sath hi usamen adhunik chetana ke ayam bhi jode.

vividh dharmon, sampradayon, mat–matantaron aur vibhinn snskritiyon ke prati sahishnuta v samanvay ki bhavana gupt ji ke kavy ka vaishishty hai. pnchavati kavy men sahaj vany–jivan ke prati gahara anurag aur prakriti ke manohari chitr hain, to nahush pauranik katha ke adhar ke madhyam se karm aur asha ka sndesh hai. jhnkar vaishnav bhavana se otaprot gitikavy hai, to gurukul aur kaba–karbala men kavi ke udar dharm–darshan ka praman milata hai. khadi boli ke svaroop nirdharan aur vikas men gupt ji ka anyatam yogadan raha.

bharat-bharati

'bharat-bharati', maithilisharan guptaji dvara svadesh prem ko darshate hue vartaman aur bhavi durdasha se ubarane ke lie samadhan khojane ka ek saphal prayog hai. bharatavarsh ke snkshipt darshan ki kavyatmak prastuti 'bharat-bharati' nishchit roop se kisi shodh kary se kam nahin hai. guptaji ki srijanata ki dakshata ka parichay dene vali yah pustak kee samajik ayamon par vichar karane ko vivash karati hai. yah samagri tin bhagon men banti gayi hai.

saket ka avaran prishth

atit-khnd
bharat–bharati
yah bhag bharatavarsh ke itihas par garv karane ko poornat: vivash karata hai. us samay ke darshan, dharm-kal, prakritik snpada, kala-kaushal, gyan-vigyan, samajik-vyavastha jaise tattvon ko snkshipt roop se smaran karavaya gaya hai. atishayokti se door isaki samagri snlagn di gayi tika-tippaniyon ke praman ke karan saralata se grahy ho jati hain. megasthanij se lekar ar. si. datt. tak ke kathanon ko prasngik dhng se pathakon ke samaksh rakhana ek kushal niyojan ka soochak hai. nirapekshata ka dhyan rakhate hue ninda aur prashnsa ke pradarshan hue hai, jaise mugal kal ke kuchh kroor shasakon ki ninda huee hai to akabar jaise mugal shasak ka bakhan bhi hua hai. angrezon ki unake vishkar aur adhunikikaran ke prachar ke karan prashnsa bhi huee hai.

bharatavarsh ke darshan par ve kahate hain-
paye pratham jinase jagath ne darshanik snvad hain-
gautam, kapil, jaimini, patnjali, vyas aur kanad hai.
niti par unake dvipad aise hain-
samany niti samet aise rajanitik granth hain-
snsar ke hit jo pratham punyacharan ke pnth hain.
sootragrnth ke sandarbh men rishiyon ke vidvatta par ve likhate hain-
un rishi-ganon ne sookshmata se kam kitana hai liya,
ashchary hai, ghat men unhonne sindhu ko hai bhar diya.

vartaman-khnd
daridry, naitik patan, avyavastha aur apasi bhedabhav se joojhate us samay ke desh ki durdasha ko darshate hue, samajik nootanata ki mang rakhi gayi hai.

apani huee atm-vismriti par ve kahate hain-
ham aj kya se kya hue, bhoole hue hain ham ise,
hai dhyan apane man ka, hamamen batao ab kise!
poorvaj hamare kaun the, hamako nahin yah gyan bhi,
hai bhar unake nam par do anjali jal-dan bhi.

naitik aur dharmik patan ke lie guptaji ne upadeshakon, snt-mahnton aur brahmanon ki nishkriyata aur mithya-vyavahar ko doshi man shabd ban chalaye hain. is tarah kavivar ki lekhani samajik durdasha ke mukhy karanon ko khoj unake sudhar ki mang karati hai. hamare samajik uttaradayitv ki nishkriyata ko ujagar karate hue bhi 'vartaman khnd' asha ki ganth ko bandhe rakhati hai.

bhavishyath-khnd

apane gyan, vivek aur vicharon ki sima ko chhoote hue rashtrakavi ne samasya samadhan ke hal khojane aur logon se usake ke lie avahan karane ka bharasak prayas kiya hai.

ary vnshaj hinduon ko desh punarsthapana ke lie prerit karate hue ve kahate hain-
ham hinduon ke samane adarsh jaise prapt hain-
snsar men kis jati ko, kis thaur vaise prapt hain,
bhav-sindhu men nij poorvajon ke riti se hi ham taren,
yadi ho saken vaise n ham to anukaran to bhi karen.

pustak ki ant ki do rachanaen 'shubhakamana' aur 'vinay' kavivar ki deshabhakti ki parichayak hai. tan men desh sadbhavana ki oorja ka snchar karane vali yah do rachanaen kisi prarthana se kam nahin lagati.

vah amar lekhani eeshvar se prarthana karati hai-
is desh ko he dinabandho!ap phir apanaie,
bhagavanh! bharatavarsh ko phir puny-bhoomi banaiye,
jad-tuly jivan aj isaka vighn-badha poorn hai,
heramb! ab avalnb dekar vighnahar kahalaie.[4]

rashtrakavi

apane sahityik guru mahavir prasad dvivedi ki prerana se gupt ji ne 'bharat-bharati' ki rachana ki. 'bharat-bharati' ke prakashan se hi gupt ji prakash men aye. usi samay se apako 'rashtrakavi' ke nam se abhinndit kiya gaya. unaki sahity sadhana sanh 1921 se sanh 1964 tak nirntar age badhati rahi. gupt ji yug-pratinidhi rashtriy kavi the. is ardh-shatabdi ki samast samajik, rajanaitik, sanskritik aur sahityik halachalon ka pratinidhitv inaki rachanaon men mil jata hai. inake kavy men rashtr ki vani mukhar ho uthi hai. desh ke samaksh sabase pramukh samasya dasata se mukti thi. gupt ji ne 'bharat-bharati' tatha apani any rachanaon ke madhyam se is disha men prerana pradan ki. inhonne atit gaurav ka bhav jagakar vartaman ko sudharane ki prerana di. apani abhilasha abhivyakt karate hue ve kahate hain-

"manav-bhavan men aryajan, jisaki utaren arati.
bhagavanh bharatavarsh men, goonje hamari bharati."

is yug ki pramukh samasya hindoo-muslim ekata thi. gupt ji ne apani anek rachanaon men donon ki ekata par bal diya. 'kaba aur karbala' men unhonne musalamanon ki sahanubhooti prapt karane ka prayas kiya hai. is prakar gupt ji ne samast samasyaon ka rashtriy drishti se samadhan prastut kiya hai.

kavy saundary

maithilisharan gupt apani bhav rashmiyon se hindi sahity ko prakashit karane vale yug kavi the. 40 varsh tak nirntar inaki rachanaon men yug svar goonjata raha. inhonne gauravapoorn atit ko prastut karane ke sath-sath bhavishy ka bhi bhavy roop prastut kiya-

"main atit nahin bhavishyath bhi hoon aj tumhara."
  • gupt ji manavatavad ke poshak aur samarthak the. inaki bhagavat bhavana mahanh thi. inake kavy men nirgun narayan hi prithvi ko svarg banane ke lie bhootal par ate hain.

'bhav men nav vaibhav vyapt karane aya,
nar ko eeshvarata prapt karane aya.
sandesh yahan main nahin svarg ka laya,
is bhootal hi ko svarg banane aya.

  • gupt ji ka kavy manas ki prerana aur pravritti ka srot hai. adhunik kal ka yah samanvit roop hai. manaviy charitr ki jitani bhi snbhavanaen snbhav hain, us sabaki srishti ram ka charitr hai.[3]

bhasha-shaili

shailiyon ke nirvachan men maithilisharan gupt ne vividhata dikhaee, kintu pradhanata prabndhatmak itivrittamay shaili ki hai. unake adhikansh kavy isi shaili men hain- 'rng men bhng', 'jayadrath vadh', 'nahush', 'siddharaj', 'tripathak', 'saket' adi prabndh shaili men hain. yah shaili do prakar ki hai- 'khnd kavyatmak' tatha 'mahakavyatmak'. saket mahakavy hai tatha shesh sabhi kavy khnd kavy ke antargat ate hain.

  • gupt ji ki ek shaili vivaran shaili bhi hai. 'bharat-bharati' aur 'hindoo' is shaili men ate hain.
  • tisari shaili git shaili hai. isamen gupt ji ne natakiy pranali ka anugaman kiya hai. 'anagh' isaka udaharan hai.
  • atmodgar pranali gupt ji ki ek aur shaili hai, jisamen 'dvapar' ki rachana huee hai.
  • natak, git, prabndh, pady aur gady sabhi ke mishran ek mishrit shaili hai, jisamen 'yashodhara' ki rachana huee hai.

in sabhi shailiyon men gupt ji ko saman roop se saphalata nahin mili. unaki shaili ki sabase badi visheshata yah hai ki usamen inaka vyaktitv jhalakata hai. poorn pravah hai. bhavon ki abhivyakti men sahayak hokar upasthit huee hain. maithilisharan gupt ki kavy bhasha khadi boli hai. is par unaka poorn adhikar hai. bhavon ko abhivyakt karane ke lie gupt ji ke pas atynt vyapak shabdavali hai. unaki prarnbhik rachanaon ki bhasha tatsam hai. isamen sahityik saundary kala nahin hai. 'bharat-bharati' ki bhasha men khadi boli ki khadakhadahat hai, kintu gupt ji ki bhasha kramashah vikas karati huee saras hoti gayi. snskrit ke shabd bhndar se hi unhonne apani bhasha ka bhandar bhara hai, lekin 'priyapravas' ki bhasha men snskrit bahula nahin hone payi. isamen prakrit roop sarvatha ubhara hua hai. bhav vynjana ko spasht aur prabhavapoorn banane ke lie snskrit ka sahara liya gaya hai. snskrit ke sath gupt ji ki bhasha par prantiyata ka bhi prabhav hai. unaka kavy bhav tatha kala paksh donon ki drishti se saphal hai.[3]

kavyagat visheshataen

inake kavy ki visheshataen is prakar ullekhit ki ja sakati hain -

  1. rashtriyata aur gandhivad ki pradhanata
  2. gauravamay atit ke itihas aur bharatiy snskriti ki mahatta
  3. parivarik jivan ko bhi yathochit mahatta
  4. nari matr ko vishesh mahatv
  5. prabndh aur muktak donon men lekhan
  6. shabd shaktiyon tatha alnkaron ke saksham prayog ke sath muhavaron ka bhi prayog

pativiyukta nari ka varnan

svatntr bharat ke pratham rashtrakavi ke asndi par aroodh maithilisharan gupt ji ne apane sath varshiy kavy sadhana, kala men lagabhag sattar kritiyon ki rachana karake n keval hindi sahity ki apitu sampoorn bharatiy samaj ki amooly seva ki hai. unhonne apane kavy men ek or bharatiy rashtravad, snskriti, samaj tatha rajaniti ke vishay men naye pratimanon ko pratishthit kiya, vahin doosari or vyakti, parivar, samaj aur rashtr ke ant:sambndhon ke adhar par inhen navin arth bhi pradan kiya hai. guptaji dvivedi yug ke pramukh kavi the. vah yug jatiy jagaran aur rashtriy unmesh ka kal tha. ve apane yug aur usaki samasyaon ke prati atynt snvedanashil the. unaka snvedanashil aur jagarook kavi hriday desh ki vartaman dasha se kshubdh tha. ve dharmik aur samajik kuritiyon ko is durdasha ka mool karan manate the. at: unake rashtravad ki pratham jagriti dharmik aur samajik sudharavad ke roop men dikhaee deti hai. nariyon ki duravastha tatha du:khiyon dinon aur asahayon ki pida ne usake hriday men karuna ke bhav bhar diye the. yahi vajah hai ki unake anek kavy grnthon men nariyon ki punarpratishtha evn pidit ke prati sahanubhooti jhalakati hai. nariyon ki dasha ko vyakt karati unaki ye pnktiyan pathakon ke hriday men karuna utpann karati hai-

abala jivan hay tumhari yahi kahani.
anchal men hai doodh aur ankhon men pani.

ek samunnat, sugathit aur sashakt rashtriy naitikata se yukt adarsh samaj, maryadit evn snehasikt parivar aur udatt charitr vale nar - nari ke nirman ki disha men unhonne prachin akhyanon ko apane kavy ka varny vishay banakar unake sabhi patron ko ek naya abhipray diya hai. jayadrathavadh, saket, pnchavati, sairandhri, bak snhar, yashodhara, dvapar, nahush, jayabharat, hidimba, vishnupriya evn ratnavali adi rachanaen isake udaharan hain. gupt ji maryada premi bharatiy kavi hain. unake grnthon ke supatr varik vyakti hain. unhonne snyukt parivar ko sarvopari mahatv diya hai tatha naitikata aur maryada se yukt sahaj saral parivarik vyakti ko shreshth mana hai. aise hi vyakti men udatt gunon ka pradurbhav ho sakata hai. is sndarbh men daau. hazari prasad dvivedi ji ka kathan drashtavy hai- maithilisharan gupt ne sampoorn bharatiy parivarik vatavaran men udatt charitron ka nirman kiya hai. unake kavy shuroo se ant tak prerana dene vale hain. unamen vyaktitv ka svat: samuchchhit uchchhvas nahin hai, parivarik vyaktitv ka aur snyat jivan ka vilas hai. vastut: guptaji parivarik jivan ke kathakar hai. parivar ka astitv nari ke bina asnbhav hai. isilie ve nari ko jivan ka mahatvapoorn ang manate hain. nari ke prati unaki drishti romani n hokar maryadavadi aur sanskritik rahi hai. ve apane nari patron men unhin gunon ki pratishtha karate hain, jo bharatiy kulavadhoo ke adarsh mane gaye hain. unaki drishti men nari bhogy matr nahin apitu purush ka poorak ang hai. isilie unake kavy men nari ke svatntr vyaktitv svabhiman, darp aur svavalamban ka samuchit chitran hua hai. unake kavy men nari, adhikaron ke prati sajag, shilavati, medhavini, samajasevika, sahasavati, tyagashilata aur tapasvini ke roop men upasthit huee. is anupam srishti, isake sarjak aur isake mahatvapoorn ghatak nar - nari ke prati guptaji ki poorn astha hai. is astha ke darshan unake kavy men hote hain. astha ka vikhndan guptaji ke lie asahaniy hai. nari ke prati purush ka anuchit acharan unhen asvikar hai. isilie 'dvapar' men vidhrita ke madhyam se in pnktiyon ko prastut karate hain-

nar ke bante kya nari ki nagn moorti hi aee.
man beti ya bahin hay, kya sng nahin laee॥

achary mahavir prasad dvivedi guptaji ke kavy - guru the. dvivedi ji ke kaviyon ki urmila vishayak udasinata ke vimarsh ne gupt ji ko saket mahakavy likhane ke lie prerit kiya. bharat varsh men goonje hamari bharati ki prarthana karane vale kavi kalantar men, virahini nariyon ke du:kh se dravit ho jate hain. parivar men rahati huee pativiyukta nari ki pida ko jis shiddat ke sath guptaji anubhav karate hain aur use jo banagi dete hain, vah adhunik sahity men durlabh hai. unaki viyogini nari patron men urmila (saket mahakavy), yashodhara (kavy) aur vishnupriya khandakavy pramukh hai. unaka karoon vipralambh tinon patron men sarvadhik marmasparshi ban pada hai. unake jivan sngharsh, udatt vichar aur acharan ki pavitrata adi manaviy jijivisha aur sodeshyata ko pramanit karate hain. guptaji ki tinon virahini nayikaen virah tap men tapati huee bhi apane tan - man ko bhasm nahin hone deti varanh kundan ki tarah ujjval varni ho jati hain. saket ki urmila ramayan aur ramacharitamanas ki sarvadhik upekshit patr hai. is virahini nari ke jivan vritt aur pida ki anubhootiyon ka vishad varnan akhyanakaron ne nahin kiya hai. urmila lakshman ki patni hai aur apani charon bahanon men vahi ek matr aisi nari hai, jisake hisse men chaudah varshon ke lie pativiyukta honee ka du:kh mila hai. unaki any tinon bahanon men sita, ram ke sath, mandavi bharat ke sannidhy men tatha shrutikirti shatrughn ke sng jivan yapan karati hain. urmila ka jivan vritt aur usaki virah - vedana sarvapratham maithilisharan gupt ji ki lekhani se sakar huee hain. daau. jaginachand sahagal likhate hain - saket maithilisharan gupt ka nij kavi dhan hai. yah unaka jivan kary hai. daau. sahagal kavi ke lakshy ki or ingit karate hue age likhate hain saket ke kavi ka lakshy ramakatha ke upekshit patron ko prakash men lana tatha usake devatv gunayukt patron ko manav roop men upasthit karana hai. guptaji ne apane kavy ka pradhan patr ram aur sita ko n banakar lakshman, urmila aur bharat ko banaya hai. guptaji ne saket men urmila ke charitr ko jo vistar diya hai, vah apratim hai. kavi ne use moortimati usha, suvarn ki sajiv pratima kanak latika, kalpashilpi ki kala adi kahakar usake sharirik saundary ki anupam jhanki prastut ki hai. urmila prem evn vinod se paripoorn has - parihas mayi ramani hai. usaka has-parihas buddhimattapoorn hai- lakshman jab urmila ki mnjari si anguliyon men yah kala dekhakar apana sudhabudh bhool jate hain aur matt gaj sa jhoom kar urmila se anunay karate hain -

kar kamal lao tumhara choom loon.

isake pratyuttar men urmila apana kamal sa hath pati ki or badhati huee muskarati hai aur vinod bhare shabdon men kahati haiai-

matt gaj banakar, vivek n chhodana.
kar kamal kah, kar n mera todana.

ek or usaka dampaty jivan atyant alhad evn umngon se bhara hua hai to doosari or usamen tyag, dhairy evn balidan ki bhavana atyadhik matra men vidyaman hai. lakshman ke van gaman ka samachar sunakar usake hriday men bhi sita ki bhanti van - gaman ki ichchha hoti hai, parantu lakshman ki vivashata dekhakar vah apane priy ke sath chalana uchit nahin samajhati. vah apane hriday men dhairy dharan karake apane man ko yah kah kar samajha leti hai-

too priy-path ka vighn n ban
aj svarth hai tyag dhara.
ho anurag virag bhara.
too vikar se poorn n ho
shok bhar se choorn n ho॥

kintu urmila atyant bholi - bhali sukumar evn komal hridayavali bhi hai. rajasukhon men pali huee vah navayauvana viyog ka du:kh kya hota hai, use nahin janati. isilie apane priyatam pati lakshman ke bichhudate hi vah apane dhairy ko samhal nahin pati aur ek mugdhanari ki bhanti hay kahakar dhadam se dharati par gir jati hai. usaka moorchhit hona svabhavik hai kintu sachet hone par usaki bauddhikata pun: jagrit ho jati hai aur apani moorchchha ko vah nari sulabh durbalata manakar apane pati ke bare men yahi kamana karati hai-

karana n soch mera isase. vrat men kuchh vighn pade jisase॥

urmila ke chaudah varshon ka virahakal vyatit karana asan nahin hai. usake pas lakshman ke sath bitaye hue sukhamay jivan ki smritiyon ke sivay kuchh bhi nahin hai. ek - ek pal parvat sa pratit hota hai, kintu virah ke is vrihat kal ko to gujarana hi hoga. yah nishchay karake urmila seva ka marg apana leti hai. vah apani sason ki seva karati hai, rasoee banati hai, kisanon ki dasha poochhati rahati hai-

poochhi thi sukaladasha mainne aj devar se

itana hi nahin. vah nagar ki jitani proshit patikaen hain, unaki sudh-budh leti hai. unake hal chal janane ke lie atur rahati hai. is tarah ek virah - vidagdha sarv suvidha sampann raj vadhu ko ek lok sevika ke roop men roopantarit karake rashtrakavi maithilisharan gupt ne nari ko ek disha di hai. jivan ke prati atoot astha sthapit ki hai.

yashodhara khandakavy

guptaji ki yashodhara khandakavy men rajakumar siddharth ki patni yashodhara ke manobhavon ka bakhoobi chitran hua hai. yashodhara bhi ek viyogini nari hai. siddharth ke dvara ratri men use soti huee chhodakar rajaprasad se chupachap snnyas hetu nikal jane se usaka man ahat ho jata hai. yashodhara ko isi bat ka du:kh tha ki usake pati samajhate the ki vah unake marg ki badha banegi isilie use bina bataen ghar chhodakar chale gaye. yahi pida isalie aur adhik gahari ho jati hai ki jo patni sahadharmini thi, jo usake har kam men sahayog deti thi, us par siddharth ne avishvas kiya. yashodhara ka kahana hai ki yadi ve us par vishvas karate aur grihatyag ki bat bata dete to vah unhen poora sahayog deti. usane apane ahat abhiman ki vynjana - sakhi ve mujhase kahakar jate. git men karati hai, vah ga uthati hai-

siddhi hetu svami gaye yah gaurav ki bat.
par chori chori gaye yah badi aghat॥
sakhi ve mujhase kahakar jate.

virahini yashodhara ki ankhon ka pani kabhi nahin sookhata, rahul ke prati kartavy bhar ko vahan karate hue jal-jalakar kaya ko jivit rakhati hai. ek to vah pida ka svagat karati hai. vedana too bhi bhali bani to doosari vah mrityu ka varanh sundar ban ayari. guptaji ke nari patr ghor snkat or visham paristhitiyon men bhi dhirata, karmanyata aur kartavy bhavana ka parityag nahin karate. ve kartavyanishtha, tyagashil aur sahishnu nari hai. yashodhara apane shvasur shuddhodan se bhi adhik dhairyavan, sahishnu hai aur vah svanirmit maryada men tallin rahati hai. gautam dvara unaka parityag kar dene par bhi yashodhara yahi kamana karati hai-

vyarth n divy deh vah tap-varsha-him-vat sahe.
usaki sahishnuta ka yah roop hai ki vah virahini ke asahay du:kh ko bhi apane lie moolyavan manati hai.
hota sukh ka kya mooly, jo n du:kh rahata.
priy hriday saday ho tapastap kyon sahata.
mere nayanon se nir n yadi yah bahata.
to shushk prem ki bat kaun phir kahata.
rah du:kh prem paramarth daya main laoon.
kah mukti bhala kisalie tumhen main paoon.

vishnupriya khandakavy

guptaji ki vishnupriya bhi urmila aur yashodhara ke saman hi ek pativiyukta nari hain. pashchim bngal ke prasiddh snt mahaprabhu chaitany ki patni ke roop men vah pratishthit hai. mahaprabhu chaitany ke sath unaka vivah matr 12 varsh ki ayu men hua aur pati ke snnyasi ban jane ke karan vah 26 varshon tak pativiyukta ban kar virahagni men jalati rahi. vah samany madhyam parivar ki nari hai aur ni:sntan hai. guptaji ne vishnupriya khandakavy men bhi ek bharatiy nari ki vivashata ko darshaya hai. shri chaitany ke snnyas lene ke prasng men vishnupriya ke kathan - ro ro kar marana nari likha layi hai. isaka praman hai. isi tarah anek pnktiyan ek samany nari ke roop men vishnupriya ki vivashata ko prakat karati hain. yatha - dev ne likhaya sukh phir bhi diya nahin, meri mati aur gati keval tumhin - tumhin adi. yashodhara ki tarah usake hriday ko bhi yah sochakar thes lagati hai - hay main chhali gayi hoon, chhipakar bhage ve. chaitany ke snnyas grahan karane hetu chale jane par vishnupriya pati viyog ke santap ko sahati huee jivikoparjan, sas ki seva aur pati - chintan ke sahare samay vyatit karati hai. is tarah gupt ji ne vishnupriya men prem, pida aur kartavy bhavana ka samanvay kiya hai. svapn darshan ke madhyam se usake atmabal ko abhivyakt kiya hai aur parvotsavon ke madhyam se usaki karunamayi samajik chetana, vedana tatha udar bhavana ko prakat kiya hai. pati aur sas ke svargarohan ke bad vishnupriya nitant akeli rah jati hai. vah hatash hokar is duniya ko chhod dena chahati hai kintu vah mar nahin pati kyonki vah pati - smaran chhod nahin pati thi. use chaitany ki moorti men vilin hone ka svapn ata hai. vah sati bhi nahin ho sakati kyonki svapn men chaitany ka adesh tha - ayu shesh rahate maran atmaghat hai, meri ek moorti rakho nij grih kaksh men. is adesh ke anusar vishnupriya ne ek mndir banavaya - mndir banaya nij geh us devi ne. is tarah virahini vishnupriya ekantavasini hokar jitane mntr, shlok japati thi, utane hi dhany - kanon ka bhojan karati huee pati, aur sas ka chintan karati hai. is tarah guptaji ki vishnupriya pativiyukta virahini hokar bhi bharatiy madhyamavargiy parivar ki sahanashila, sevabhavi, patiparayana, aur sada grihasth nari ke roop men chitrit huee hai.[5]

pramukh kritiyan

'bharat–bharati' pustak ka avaran prishth

maithilisharan ke natakon men 'anagh' jatak katha se sambaddh bodhisatv ki katha par adharit pady men likha gaya natak hai.

pramukh kritiyan [6]
nam prakashit varsh
jayadrath vadh 1910
bharat–bharati 1912
pnchavati 1925
saket 1933
yashodhara 1932
vishnupriya 1957
jhnkar 1929
jayabharat 1952
dvapar 1936
kunal git
ajit
arjan aur visarjan
pramukh natak[6]
maulik natak bhas natak
anagh svapnavasavadatta
charanadas pratima
tilottama abhishek
nishkriy pratirodh avimarak
visarjan

gupt ji ki 52 se bhi adhik kavy rachanaen prakashit ho chuki hain, jinamen se kuchh anoodit bhi hain. unhonne 'madhup' upanam se 'virahani brajangan', 'plasi ka yuddh' aur 'meghanad vadh' namak bngala kavy kritiyon ka anuvad kiya hai tatha kuchh snskrit natakon ke anuvad bhi kiye. isi prakar 'rubaiyat umarakhayyam' bhi umar khayam ki rubaiyon ka hindi roopantar hai. inaki ullekhaniy maulik rachanaon ki talika men- rng men bhng, jayadrath vadh, pady prabndh, bharat bharati, shakuntala, tilottama, chndrahas, patravali, vaitalika, kisan, anagh, pnchavati, svadesh sngit, hindoo, vipathaga, shakti vikatabhat, gurukul, jhnkar, saket, yashodhara, siddharaj, dvapar, mngalaghat, nahush, kunalagit , kaba aur karbala, pradakshina, jayabharat, vishnupriya adi ate hain.[3]

puraskar v samman

maithilisharan gupt hindi ke prasiddh rashtriy kavi kahe jate hain. san 1936 men inhen kaki men abhinandan granth bhent kiya gaya tha. inaki sahity sevaon ke upalakshy men agara vishvavidyalay tatha ilahabad vishvavidyalay ne inhen di. lit. ki upadhi se vibhooshit bhi kiya. 1952 men gupt ji rajy sabha ke sadasy manonit hue aur 1954 men unhen 'padmabhooshan' alnkar se sammanit kiya gaya. isake atirikt unhen hindustani akadami puraskar, 'saket' par 'mngala prasad paritoshik' tatha 'sahity vachaspati' ki upadhi se bhi alnkrit kiya gaya. 'hindi kavita' ke itihas men gupt ji ka yah sabase bada yogadan hai. 'saket' unaki rachana ka sarvochch shikhar hai.

mrityu

maithilisharan gupt ji ka dehavasan 12 disnbar, 1964 ko chiraganv men hi hua. inake svargavas se hindi sahity ko jo kshati pahunchi, usaki poorti snbhav nahin hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. maithilisharan gupt ki rachanaen (hihndi) (pi ech pi) kavita kosh. abhigaman tithi: 25 julaee, 2010.
  2. tivari, nishoo. rashtraprem ki bhavana (hihndi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi sahity mnch. abhigaman tithi: 25 julaee, 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 maithilisharan gupt (hindi) rajabhasha hindi. abhigaman tithi: 04 joon, 2015.
  4. es. tivari, avanish. maithilisharan gupt aur bharat-bharati (hihndi) srijanagatha. abhigaman tithi: 25 julaee, 2010.
  5. 'pharahad', dadoolal joshi. maithilisharan gupt ke kavy men : pativiyukta nari (hindi) vichar vithi. abhigaman tithi: 9 joon, 2015.
  6. 6.0 6.1 maithilisharan gupt (hindi) kavyanchal. abhigaman tithi: 25 julaee, 2010.

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