खड़ी बोली  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi vishay soochi

hindi bharatiy ganaraj ki rajakiy aur madhy bharatiy- ary bhasha hai. san 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar, lagabhag 25.79 karod bharatiy hindi ka upayog matribhasha ke roop men karate hain, jabaki lagabhag 42.20 karod log isaki 50 se adhik boliyon men se ek istemal karate hain. san 1998 ke poorv, matribhashiyon ki snkhya ki drishti se vishv men sarvadhik boli jane vali bhashaon ke jo ankade milate the, unamen hindi ko tisara sthan diya jata tha

bhashashastr ki drishti se khadi boli shabd ka prayog dilli - merath ke samipasth gramin samuday ki gramin boli ke lie hota hai. griyarsan ne ise 'varnakyoolar hindustani' tatha sunitikumar chatarji ne 'janapadiy hindustani' kaha hai. khadi boli nagari lipi men hi likhi jati hai. hindi ki rooparekha janane ke lie khadi boli ka gyan ati avashyak hai. bhasha vaigyanik drishti se khadi boli hi staindard hindi, urdoo tatha hindustani ki mooladhar boli hai. sahityak sandarbh men kabhi-kabhi avadhi, braj adi boliyon ke sahity se alagav karane ke lie adhunik hindi sahity ko 'khadi boli sahity' se abhihit kiya jata hai aur is prasng men khadi boli shabd 'staindard hindi' ka samanarthak ho jata hai. pratham ko ham 'khadi boli' shabd ka vishisht arth aur dvitiy ko samany arth kah sakate hain. kintu 'khadi boli' shabd ke arambhik arth tatha namakaran aur usake roop, arth, prayog ke vikas ke sambandh men vidvanon men matavaibhinny dikhaee padata hai. 'khadi boli' nam ki vyakhya bhinn-bhinn vidvanon ne bhinn-bhinn roop se ki hai. un vidvanon ki vichar-dharaon ko nimnalikhit vargon men bant sakate hain-

  1. kuchh vidvanh 'khadi boli' nam ko brajabhasha-sapekshy manate hain aur yah pratipadan karate hain ki lalloo lalaji (1803 ee.) se bahut poorv yah nam brajabhasha ki madhur mithas ki tulana men us boli ko diya gaya tha, jisase kalantar men staindard hindi aur urdoo ka vikas hua. ye vidvanh 'khadi' shabd se karkashata, katuta, kharapan, khadapan adi arth lete hain.[1]
  2. kuchh log ise urdoo - sapekshy manakar usaki apeksha ise prakrit, 'shuddh', gramin thethaboli manate hain[2].
  3. kuchh khadi ka arth 'susthir, suprachalit, susnskrit, 'parishkrit ya paripakv se manate hain. [3]
  4. kuchh log uttari bharat ki okarant braj adi boliyon ko 'padi boli' aur usake virodh men ise 'khadi boli' manate hain.[4]
  5. jab ki kuchh log rekhata shaili ko 'padi' aur ise 'khadi' manate hain.

khadi boli ka itihas

bharatendu poorv yug

khadi boli gady ke arambhik rachanakaron men fort viliyam kaaulej ke bahar do rachanakaron— sadasukh lal 'niyaj' (sukhasagar) v insha alla khan (rani ketaki ki kahani) tatha fort viliyam kaaulej, kalakatta ke do bhasha munshiyon— lalloo lalaji (prem sagar) v sadal mishr (nasiketopakhyan) ke nam ullekhaniy hain. bharatendu poorv yug men mukhy sngharsh hindi ki svikriti aur pratishtha ko lekar tha. is yug ke do prasiddh lekhakon— raja shiv prasad 'sitare hind' v raja lakshman sinh ne hindi ke svaroop nirdharan ke saval par do simanton ka anugaman kiya. raja shiv prasad ne hindi ka gnvarupan door kar use urdoo–e–mualla bana diya to raja lakshman sinh ne vishuddh snskritanishth hindi ka samarthan kiya.

bharatendu yug

(1850 ee.–1900 ee.) in donon ke bich sarvamany hindi gady ki pratishtha kar gady sahity ki vividh vidhaon ka aitihasik kary bharatendu yug men hua. hindi sahi mayane men bharatendu ke kal men 'nee chal men dhali' aur unake samay men hi hindi ke gady ke bahumukhi roop ka sootrapat hua. unhonne n keval svayn rachana ki balki apana ek lekhak mndal bhi taiyar kiya, jise 'bharatendu mndal' kaha gaya. bharatendu yug ki mahattvapoorn upalabdhi yah rahi ki gady rachana ke lie khadi boli ko madhyam ke roop men apanakar yuganuroop svasth drishtikon ka parichay diya. lekin pady rachana ke masale men brajabhasha ya khadi boli ko apanane ke saval par vivad bana raha, jisaka ant dvivedi ke yug men jakar hua.

dvivedi yug

(1900 ee.–1920 ee.) khadi boli aur hindi sahity ke saubhagy se 1903 ee. men achary mahavir prasad dvivedi ne 'sarasvati' patrika ke sampadan ka bhar sambhala. ve saral aur shuddh bhasha ke prayog ke himayati the. ve lekhakon ki vartani athava trutiyon ka snshodhan svayn karate chalate the. unhonne hindi ke parishkar ka bida uthaya aur use bakhoobi anjam diya. gady to bharatendu yug se hi saphalatapoorvak khadi boli men likha ja raha tha, ab pady ki vyavaharik bhasha bhi ekamatr khadi boli pratishthit honi lagi. is prakar brajabhasha, jisake sath men 'bhasha' shabd juda hua hai, apane kshetr men simit ho gee arthath 'boli' ban gee. isake muqabale men khadi boli, jisake sath 'boli' shabd laga hai, 'bhasha ban gee', aur isaka sahi nam hindi ho gaya. ab khadi boli dilli ke asapas ki merath–janapadiy boli nahin rah gee, apitu yah samast uttari bharat ke sahity ka madhyam ban gee. dvivedi yug men sahity rachana ki vividh vidhaen vikasit huee.. mahavir prasad dvivedi, shyam sundar das, padm sinh sharma, madhav prasad mishr, poornasinh, chandradhar sharma guleri adi ke avadan visheshatah ullekhaniy hain.
isi dauran varsh 1918 men indaur men gandhi ji ki adhyakshata men 'hindi sahity sammelan' ayojit hua aur usi men parit ek prastav ke dvara hindi rashtrabhasha mani gayi. is prastav ke svikrit hone ke bad dakshin bharat men hindi ke prachar prasar ke liye dakshin bharat hindi prachar sabha ki bhi sthapana huee jisaka mukhyalay madras men tha.[5]

chhayavad yug

(1920 ee.–1936 ee. evn usake bad) sahityik khadi boli ke vikas men chhayavad yug ka yogadan kafi mahattvapoorn hai. prasad, pnt, nirala, mahadevi varma aur ram kumar adi ne mahati yogadan kiya. inaki rachanaon ko dekhate hue yah koee nahin kah sakata ki khadi boli sookshm bhavon ko abhivyakt karane men brajabhasha se kam samarth hai. hindi men anek bhashayi gunon ka samavesh hua. abhivyajnna ki vividhata, binbon ki lakshanikata, rasatmak lality chhayavad yug ki bhasha ki anyatam visheshataen hain. hindi kavy men chhayavad yug ke bad pragativad yug (1936 ee.–1946 ee.) prayogavad yug (1943) adi ae. is daur men khadi boli ka kavy bhasha ke roop men uttarottar vikas hota gaya.

pady ke hi nahin, gady ke sandarbh men bhi chhayavad yug sahityik khadi boli ke vikas ka svarn yug tha. katha sahity (upanyas v kahani) men premachnd, natak men jayashnkar prasad, alochana men achary ramachndr shukl ne jo bhasha–shailiyan aur maryadaen sthapit kin, unaka anusaran aj bhi kiya ja raha hai. gady sahity ke kshetr men inake mahattv ka andaza isi bat se lagaya ja sakata hai ki gady–sahity ke vibhinn vidhaon ke itihas men kalon ka namakaran inake nam ko kendr men rakhakar hi kiya gaya hai. jaise upanyas ke itihas men premachnd– poorv yug, premachnd yug, premachndottar yug; natak ke itihas men prasad– poorv yug, prasad yug, prasadottar yug; alochana ke itihas men shukl– poorv yug, shukl yug, shuklottar yug.

khadi boli hi kyon

vastav men 'khadiboli' men prayukt 'khadi' shabd gunbodhak visheshan hai aur kisi bhasha ke namakaran men gun-avagun-pradhan drishtikon adhikansh: any bhasha-sapekshy hoti hai. apabhrnsh aur urdoo adi isi shreni ke nam hain, atev 'khadi' shabd any bhasha sapekshy avashy hai, kintu isaka mool khadi hai athava khari? aur isaka pratham mool arth kya hai? isake lie shabd ke itihas ki khoj avashyak hai. boli ke arth men is nam ka ullekh hamen madhyamakal men kahin nahin milata hai. nishrvit roop se is shabd ka prayog 19vin shati ke pratham dashabd men lallooji lal ne 2 bar, sadal mishr ne 2 bar, gilakaist ne 6 bar kiya hai.

lalloolal ji aur sadal mishr ne 'premasagar' tatha 'nasiketopakhyan' aur 'ramacharitr' nagari lipi men likha tha. in grnthon men khadi boli hi shabd milata hai, jisaka uchcharan nishchay hi khadi raha hoga. is prakar hindoo lekhakon men khadiboli shabd hi prachalit raha hoga, kintu romanalipi men 'premasagar' ke mukhaprishth par khari (kharee) hi mudrit hai. romanalipi men hindi ke dh‌ ya dah ko r ya R se prakat karate hain. isi se hindi 'khadi' ko khari likha gaya hai. sambhavat: videshi angrezon men 'khari' shabd hi adhik prachalit hua. aj ka samany angrez 'khadi' shabd ka uchcharan khari ke asapas hi karega. bharatiy dhvani vikas men bhi r aur dh‌ dhvani men paraspar vinimay hota raha hai. sambhavat: uchcharan ki drishti se 'khadi' aur 'khari' us samay bahut hi nikat ke shabd the. is shabd ke vastavik arth gyan ke lie hamen lalloolal ji, sadal mishr aur gilakraist ke uddharanon par pun: gambhirata poorvak vichar karana chahie. in uddharanon se kisi bhi prakar yah siddh nahin hota ki brajabhasha ki apeksha adhik 'karkash', 'katu' hone ke karan is boli ko yah nam diya gaya. yadi unnisavin shati se bahut poorv hi brajabhasha ke virodh men yah nam prachalit raha hota to staindard urdoo, hindi, hindustani sabake lie yah shabd prayukt hota, kyonki bhashavaigyanik drishti se tinon ki mooladhar boli yahi hai aur 'premasagar' tatha 'bago bahar' donon ko khadi boli ka grnth kaha jata hai, kintu aisa kahin bhi nahin kaha gaya. svayn lalloolal ji ne 'lal chndrika' ki bhoomika men apane grnthon ki bhasha ke tin bhed kiye hain-

  1. braj
  2. khadi boli
  3. rekhate ki boli (urdoo)

yadi khadi boli ko brajabhasha sapekshy samajhate to lalloolal ji apane grnthon ki bhasha ke do hi bhag karate. vastav men khadi boli ke lie karkash, katu adi arth bharatendu yug ki den hai, jabaki hindi kavita ke lie brajabhasha aur khadi boli donon men pratiyogita ho rahi thi. sambhavat: brajabhasha pakshavalon ne usi yug men 'khadiboli' ka is prakar arth kiya hoga. beli mahoday ke anusar 'khadi' hi mool shabd hai, 'khari' nahin, jo khada ka striling roop hai. 'khadi' shabd ka arth hai 'uthi' aur jab yah shabd kisi bhasha ke lie prayukt hota hoga, to tab isaka arth 'prachalit' raha hoga. is prakar isake anusar 'khadi' ka arth hai 'paripakv', 'prachalit' ya susthir. jayashnkar prasad ne apani kavy bhasha men khadi boli ka vyapak roop se prayog kiya hai.

chndrabali pande ne apane lekh 'khadi boli ki nirukti' men boli le paripakv, prachalit arth ka khndan karate hue yah pratipadan karane ka prayatn kiya hai ki khadi boli sadal mishr ki niji ya unake yahan ki prachalit boli nahin hai. kintu unaka khndan many nahin, kyonki is boli ka prachalan hindavi roop men ant:prantiy vyavahar ke lie bahut pahale se tha, anyatha sindh, gujarat ke svami prananath (kulajam svaroop) aur laladas (vitak), patiyala ke ramaprasad nirnjani (yogavashishth), rajasthan ke daulataram (padmapuran) aur bihar ke sadal mishr is boli men rachana nahin kar sakate. atev 'khadi' shabd ka arth paripakv, prachalit man lene men koee apatti nahin honi chahie. sath hi is boli ko 'khadi' (staindard keval vacharth lekar) isalie manana ki isaki tulana men uttar pradesh ki 'brajabhasha' adi any boliyan 'padi' boliyan thin, bhi nyayasngat nahin hai. kintu beli ka arth bhi poorn nahin hai. khadi shabd ka arth keval 'staindard', 'karent' arth lene se urdoo se usaka spasht alagav siddh nahin hota hai, kyonki hindi samany arth ki urdoo shaili dilli, agara men bhali bhanti prachalit aur susthir thi, kintu urdoo ka jhukav 'yamini' bhasha arthath farasi aur arabi ki or adhik tha, atev mool roop se hindi ya hindustani hone par bhi gilakraist ke poorv helahedane is hindustani ko 'mishrit hindustani' kaha tha, jab ki usake anusar hindustani ki hindavi shaili shuddh hindustani thi athava shuddh hindi thi. 'premasagar' ke pratham tin snskaranon ke mukhaprishth par mudrit pure Hindee language or Kharee Bolee (1805ee.), pun: isake snskaran men Hinduwee(1811ee.) aur tisare snskaran men Hindee(1842ee.) shabd isi tathy ki or snket karate hain.

sarvapratham prayog

khadi boli nam sarvapratham hindi ya hindustani ki us shaili ke lie diya gaya jo urdoo ki apeksha adhik shuddh hindi (bharatiy) thi aur jisaka prayog snskrit parampara athava bharatiy parampara se sambndhit log adhik karate the. adhikanshat: vah nagarilipi men likhi jati thi. 1805ee. se hindi, hindustani aur urdoo shabd gilakraistake anusar samanarthak the, atev inase alagav siddh karane ke lie 'shuddh' (pure) visheshan jodane ki avashyakata padi tatha khadiboli nam sarthak hua. is prakar khadiboli ka vastavik arthahoga shuddh, parishkrit ya parinishthit prachalit bhasha. urdoo bhi dilli agara ki bhasha thi, kintu vah yamini mishrit thi, atev vah dilli agara ki khadi aur prachalit boli nahin thi. khadi boli shabd ka arth 1823 ee. ke bad hindi hua. yahi karan hai ki "premasagar' ke 1842 ee. ke snskaran men hindi shabd hi mukhaprishth par mudrit hai.

khadi boli shabd ka prayog arambh men usi bhasha shaili ke lie hua, jise 1823 ee. ke bad 'hindi' kaha gaya. kintu jab prachin ya prachalit shabd ne 'khadi boli' ka sthan le liya to khadi boli shabd us shaili ke lie bahut kam prayukt hua, keval sahityik sndarbh men kabhi kabhi prayukt hota hai. isi prakar jab yah mat prasiddh ho gaya ki hindi, urdoo aur hindustani ki mooladhar boli brajabhasha nahin varanh dilli aur merath ki janapadiy boli hai, tab us boli ka any upayukt nam prachalit na hone ke karan use 'khadi boli' hi kaha jane laga. is prakar khadi boli ka prastut bhashashastriy prayog vikasit hua. prachen kuru janapad se sambndh jodakar kuchh log ab ise 'kauravi boli' bhi kahane lage hain, kintu jab tak poornaroop se yah siddh na ho jae ki is boli ka vikas us janapad men prachalit apabhrnsh se hi hua hai tab tak ise kauravi kahana vaigyanik drishti se yuktiyukt nahin.

khadi boli bahul kshetr

khadi boli nimn likhit sthanon ke gramin kshetron men boli jati hai- merath, bijanaur, muzaffaranagar, saharanapur, deharadoon ke maidani bhag, ambala, kalasiya aur patiyala ke poorvi bhag, ramapur aur muradabad. bangaroo, jataki ya hariyanavi ek prakar se pnjabi aur rajasthani mishrit khadi boli hi hain jo dilli, karanal, rohatak, hisar aur patiyala, nabha, jhind ke gramin kshetron men boli jati hai. khadi boli kshetr ke poorv men brajabhasha, dakshin poorv men mevati, dakshin pashchim men pashchimi rajasthani, pashchim men poorvi pnjabi aur uttar men pahadi boliyon ka kshetr hai. boli ke pradhanat: do roop milate hain-

  1. poorvi ya poorvi khadi boli
  2. pashchimi ya pashchimi khadi boli.

sahity ke kshetr men khadi boli ke adi prayog 'gorakhavani' tatha baba farid shararagnj ki baniyon men milate hain. musalamanon ne is boli ko apanakar ise ant:prantiy roop diya. nirgun snton ne bhi isake prachar men sahayog diya. dhire dhire is boli men vyakaran ke kshetr men tatha shabd kosh men any bhashaon ka mishran hone laga, jisase hindi (adhunik arth), urdoo aur hindustani ka vikas hua. aj is boli ke kuchh lokagit bhi milate hain, jo prakashit bhi hue hain.




panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. vnshidhar vidyalnkar: urdoo, bhag 14, prishth 471, 1934 tatha dhirendr varma: 'hindibhasha ka itihas', tritiy snskaran, bhoomika prishth 34
  2. tasi (1839-1870 ee.): 'histri d la hinduee end hindustani', pratham snskaran, bhag 1 prishth 307 tatha chandrabali pande: 'khadiboli ki niyukti, urdoo ka rahasy'
  3. ti.graihamabeli:'d histri aauv urdoo literachar' prishth 4,je.ar.e.1936,aktoobar,prishth 71
  4. sunitikumar chaitraji:o. di.bi.el.,prishth 11 tatha 'bharatiy aryabhasha aur hindi', prishth 165
  5. gandhiji ki adhyakshata men hindi sahity sammalen ka 8van adhiveshan san 1918 men (hindi) sarv seva sngh prakashan vashri madhyabharat hindi sahity samiti, indaur. abhigaman tithi: 4 joon, 2015.

dhirendr, varma “bhag- 1 par adharit”, hindi sahity kosh (hindi), 214-215.

bahari kadiyan

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