हिन्दी की उपभाषाएँ एवं बोलियाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi vishay soochi


hindi bharatiy ganaraj ki rajakiy aur madhy bharatiy- ary bhasha hai. san 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar, lagabhag 25.79 karod bharatiy hindi ka upayog matribhasha ke roop men karate hain, jabaki lagabhag 42.20 karod log isaki 50 se adhik boliyon men se ek istemal karate hain. san 1998 ke poorv, matribhashiyon ki snkhya ki drishti se vishv men sarvadhik boli jane vali bhashaon ke jo ankade milate the, unamen hindi ko tisara sthan diya jata tha.

  • hindi bhashi kshetr/hindi kshetr/hindi patti— hindi pashchim men ambala (hariyana) se lekar poorv men poorniya (bihar) tak tatha uttar men badrinath–kedaranath (uttarakhnd) se lekar dakshin men khndava (madhy pradesh) tak boli jati hai. ise hindi bhashi kshetr ya hindi kshetr ke nam se jana jata hai. is kshetr ke antargat 9 rajy—uttar pradesh, uttarakhnd, bihar, jharakhnd, madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, rajasthan, hariyana v himachal pradesh—tatha 1 kendr shasit pradesh (rashtriy rajadhani kshetr)—dilli—ate hain. is kshetr men bharat ki kul janasnkhya ke 43% log rahate hain.

upabhashaen v boliyan

hindi ki upabhashaen v boliyan
upabhasha boliyan mukhy kshetr
rajasthani maravadi(pashchimi rajasthani),

jayapuri ya dhundhadi(poorvi rajasthani), mevati (uttari rajasthani), malavi(dakshini rajasthani),

rajasthan
pashchimi hindi (akar bahula)kauravi ya khadi boli,bangaroo ya hariyanavi

(okar bahula)brajabhasha, kannauji, bundeli

hariyana, uttar pradesh
poorvi hindi avadhi, bagheli, chhattisagadhi madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, uttar pradesh
bihari bhojapuri, magahi bihar, uttar pradesh
pahadi pahadi, kumaoonni, gadhavali uttarakhnd, himachal pradesh
  • boli— ek chhote kshetr men boli janevali bhasha boli kahalati hai. boli men sahity rachana nahin hoti hai.
  • upabhasha— agar kisi boli men sahity rachana hone lagati hai aur kshetr ka vikas ho jata hai to vah boli n rahakar upabhasha ban jati hai.
  • bhasha— sahityakar jab us bhasha ko apane sahity ke dvara parinishthit sarvamany roop pradan kar dete hain tatha usaka aur kshetr vistar ho jata hai to vah bhasha kahalane lagati hai.
  • ek bhasha ke antargat kee upabhashaen hoti hain tatha ek upabhasha ke antargat kee boliyan hoti hain.
  • sarvapratham ek angrez prashasanik adhikari jarj abraham griyarsan ne 1927 ee. men apani pustak 'bharatiy bhasha sarvekshan (A Linguistic Survey of India)' men hindi ka upabhashaon v boliyon men vargikaran prastut kiya. chatarji ne pahadi bhashaon ko chhod diya hai. vah inhen bhashaen nahin manate.
  • dhirendr varma ka vargikaran mukhyatah suniti kumar chatarji ke vargikaran par hi adharit hai. keval usamen kuchh hi snshodhan kie ge hain. jaise—usamen pahadi bhashaon ko shamil kiya gaya hai.
  • inake alava kee vidvanon ne apana vargikaran prastut kiya hai. aj is bat ko lekar am sahamati hai ki hindi jis bhasha–samooh ka nam hai, usamen 5 upabhashaen var 17 boliyan hain.

hindi kshetr ki samast boliyon ko 5 vargon men banta gaya hai. in vargon ko upabhasha kaha jata hai. in upabhashaon ke antargat hi hindi ki 17 boliyan ati hain.[1]

boli, vibhasha evn bhasha

  • vibhinn boliyan rajanitik–sanskritik adhar par apana kshetr badha sakati hain aur sahity rachana ke adhar par ve apana sthan 'boli' se uchch karate hue 'vibhasha' tak pahunch sakati hain.
  • vibhasha ka kshetr boli ki apeksha adhik vistrit hoti hai. yah ek prant ya upaprant men prachalit hoti hai. isamen sahityik rachanaen bhi prapt hoti hain. jaise—hindi ki vibhashaen hain—brajabhasha, avadhi, khadi boli, bhojapuri v maithili.
  • vibhasha star par prachalit hone par hi rajanitik, sahityik ya sanskritik gaurav ke karan bhasha ka sthan prapt kar leti hai. jaise—khadi boli merath, bijanaur adi ki vibhasha hote hue bhi rashtriy star par svikrit hone ke karan rashtrabhasha ke pad par adhishthit huee hai.
  • is prakar do baten spasht hoti hain—
  1. boli ka vikas vibhasha men aur vibhasha ka vikas bhasha men hota hai. boli—vibhasha—bhasha
  2. udaharan
  • bhasha— khadi boli hindi
  • vibhasha— hindi kshetr ki pramukh boliyan–brajabhasha, avadhi, khadi boli, bhojapuri v maithili
  • boli — hindi kshetr ki shesh boliyan


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ek bhasha vidvan ke anusar, shuddh bhasha–vaigyanik drishti se hindi ki do mukhy upabhashaen hain—pashchimi hindi v poorvi hindi.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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