हिन्दी की अखिल भारतीयता का इतिहास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hindi vishay soochi

hindi bharatiy ganaraj ki rajakiy aur madhy bharatiy- ary bhasha hai. san 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar, lagabhag 25.79 karod bharatiy hindi ka upayog matribhasha ke roop men karate hain, jabaki lagabhag 42.20 karod log isaki 50 se adhik boliyon men se ek istemal karate hain. san 1998 ke poorv, matribhashiyon ki snkhya ki drishti se vishv men sarvadhik boli jane vali bhashaon ke jo ankade milate the, unamen hindi ko tisara sthan diya jata tha

hindi 'shabd' ka prayog hariyana se lekar bihar tak prachalit bangaru, kauravi, brajabhasha, kanauji, rajasthani, avadhi, bhojapuri, maithili adi kee bhashaon ke lie kiya jata hai, kintu vartaman shatabdi men vyavahar ki drishti se isaka arth khadiboli ho gaya hai. hindi ke roop men yahi khadiboli bharatiy snvidhan dvara svikrit snpark bhasha hai tatha hindi bhashi rajyon men rajabhasha hai. bhaugolik drishti se vichar karane par yah dilli, hariyana tatha uttar pradesh ke muradabad, bijanaur, merath adi thode se zilon tak simit bhasha hai, jo shatabdiyon tak brajabhasha aur avadhi ki tulana men upekshitapray rahi hai aur aitihasik karanon ke prasad se hi yah n keval adhunik yug men bharat se bahar ke kee deshon men phail gee hai, varanh sudoor atit se hi antarrashtriy yatra karati rahi hai. profesar mahavir saran jain ne apane " hindi evn urdoo ka advait " shirshak alekh men hindi ki vyutpatti par vichar karate hue kaha hai ki eeran ki prachin bhasha avesta men 'sh' dhvani nahin boli jati thi. 'sh' ko 'hh' roop men bola jata tha. jaise snskrit ke 'asur' shabd ko vahan 'ahur' kaha jata tha. afganistan ke bad sindhu nadi ke is par hindustan ke poore ilake ko prachin farasi sahity men bhi 'hind', 'hindush' ke namon se pukara gaya hai tatha yahan ki kisi bhi vastu, bhasha, vichar ko 'edajektiv' ke roop men 'hindik' kaha gaya hai jisaka matalab hai 'hind ka'. yahi 'hindik' shabd arabi se hota hua grik men 'indike', 'indika', laitin men 'indiya' tatha angrezi men 'indiya' ban gaya. arabi evn farasi sahity men hindi men boli jane vali bhashaon ke lie 'zaban-e-hindi', pad ka upayog hua hai. bharat ane ke bad musalamanon ne 'zaban-e-hindi', 'hindi juban' athava 'hindi' ka prayog dilli-agara ke charon or boli jane vali bhasha ke arth men kiya. bharat ke gair-muslim log to is kshetr men bole jane vale bhasha-roop ko 'bhakha' nam se pukarate the, 'hindi' nam se nahin. prophesar jain ka manana hai ki hindi bhasha-kshetr men bole jane vale samast kshetragat, vargagat, shailigat adi samast bhashik roopon ki samashti ki amoortata ka nam hindi hai. vyavahar men jise samany vyakti hindi kahata evn samajhata hai, vah hindi bhasha ka manak roop hai jisaka mooladhar khadi boli hai. keval khadi boli hi hindi nahin hai. khadi boli hindi bhasha-kshetr ka usi prakar ek kshetriy bhed hai jis prakar hindi ke any kshetriy bhed hain. snsar ki pratyek bhasha ka bhasha-kshetr hota hai jisamen anek kshetragat bhed hote hain jinhen us bhasha ki kshetriy boliyon athava kshetriy upabhashaon ke nam se jana jata hai. in kshetragat bhinn bhashik roopon ke atirikt pratyek bhasha ka us bhasha-kshetr ki kisi boli ke adhar par vikasit manak bhasha roop bhi hota hai jisaka us bhasha ke shikshit vyakti aupacharik avasaron par prayog karate hain.

itihas

prachin kal men is kshetr se samay-samay par pashchim ki or janasamudayon ka avrajan hua hai, jinake do sabase bade sakshy aj bhi maujood hain. ve hain yoorop ke romani ya jipsi tatha soviyat sngh ke inki ya industani, jo tazikastan aur uzabekistan ke simavarti kshetr men nivas karate hain.

Blockquote-open.gif hindi ke roop men khadiboli bharatiy snvidhan dvara svikrit snpark bhasha hai tatha hindi bhashi rajyon men rajabhasha. Blockquote-close.gif

jipsi ya romani bhasha ke adhyayan se yah snket milata hai ki ise bolane vale samuday snbhavatah hariyana se ge honge. pichhali shatabdi se sar laaures grup ne apane 'jipsi fokatels' (1899 ee.) namak grnth ki bhoomika men is bhasha ke jo namoone die hain, ve aj ki khadi boli ke bahut samip hain. jaise:- 'ja, dik, kon chhal vel vudar' (jao, dekhon to, kaun ladaka udhar hai) aur 'ja dekh kon chhal aya dvar ko' (jaon, dekho kaun ladaka daravaze par aya hai). unhonne yah snbhavana vyakt ki hai ki jipsi-bhashi eesavi sanh ki dasavin sadi se bahut pahale bharat se bahar ge honge. inki ya industani namak bhasha ki khoj daau. bholanath tivari ne ki hai. vah ise 'tajuzbeki' kahate hain. 'tajuzbeki' (1970 ee.) men unhonne yah spasht kiya hai ki yah bhasha jisamen ek, do, tin (tin), men (main), ham, tum, o, (vah) jaise shabdon ka prayog hota hai tatha jisaki vyakaranik snrachana khadiboli ke bahut samip hai, moolatah hindi hai. is prakar yah kaha ja sakata hai ki avrajanon ke karan hindi adhunik yug men deshantaravyapi huee, to aj se bahut pahale bhi inhin karanon se isaka antarrashtriy prasar hua hai.

prasar

hindi ke bharatavyapi prasar ka itihas kam rochak nahin hai. yadyapi prayah sabhi bhashavaigyanikon ne khadiboli ka snbndh shauraseni apabhrnsh se mana hai, kintu 'hindi shabdanushasan' (1958 ee.) men kishoridas vajapeyi ne is vichar-parnpara ka sapraman khndan kiya hai. unhonne apekshit sakshy prastut kar yah batalaya hai ki prachin kuru janapad ki is bhasha ki poorvavarti apabhrnsh arthath doosari prakrit ke udaharan prapt nahin hai.

prakrit

'prakrit' ki doosari tisari avastha men koee n koee roop aisa hoga, jo hamare samane nahin hai. jis prakrit ka vikas hindi hai, usaka sahityik roop hamare samane nahin hai. kintu yadi is prakrit ka roop prapt nahin hota, to isaka arth yah nahin ki usaka astitv nahin hoga. jaise aj bhi bahut-si bhashaon men sahity-rachana nahin hoti, vaise pahale bhi bahut-si prakrit-apabhrnsh bhashaon men sahity nahin likha gaya. kuru janapad ki prakrit aisi hi thi. vajapeyi ji is prakrit ya apabhrnsh ko 'kauravi' kahate hain. nishchay hi prachin kauravi se vikasit adhunik bharatiya kauravi ya khadiboli dasavin shatabdi se pahale ki hai. yah bat bhi dhyan dene yogy hai ki pados ki brajabhasha aur rajasthani ke bad hi isamen sahity-lekhan prarnbh hua aur vah bhi us samay, jab dilli men muslim samrajy ki sthapana huee. isake arnbhik sahityik namoone ya to musalaman kaviyon aur lekhakon ki rachanaon men ya desh ke vibhinn bhagon ke sadhu-sannyasiyon dvara rachit vaniyon men milate hain.

pauranik matavalnbi

pauranik matavalnbi bhakt kaviyon ne sahityik abhivyakti ke madhyam ke roop men ise mahattv nahin diya. isake karanon ki pariksha ke lie hamen us dharmik paridrishy par vichar karana hoga, jisaka nirman puranon par adharit sagun bhakti dvara hua tha. chaubis avataron men kramashah das avataron ko adhik mahattv mila, jisaka ek udaharan kshemendrakrit dashavatar-charit hai. kintu in das avataron men bhi ram aur krishn adhik mahattv prapt karate ge aur antatah samast uttar bharat ki daivat bhavana inhin men kendribhoot ho gee. hindibhashi kshetr men ram ka avalnban lene vale kavy ki rachana mukhyatah avadhi men huee aur krishn se snbndhit kavy mukhyatah brajabhasha men likha gaya. avadh ke sath ram aur braj ke sath krishn ke snbndh ke karan hi kramashah avadhi aur brajabhasha ko itana mahattv mila, yadyapi avadh ke soophi kaviyon ne bhi avadhi ka prayog kiya. apane vishisht dharmik asngon ke karan hi hindi pradesh men ye bhashaen itani mahattvapoorn ho geen ki inake samane is kshetr ki any bhashaen upekshitapray rahin. inhen bhi dekhen: avadhi bhasha evn brajabhasha

khadiboli

khadiboli aisi hi upekshitapray bhasha thi, jisake vyavahar ka koee auchity ya prerakata tatkalin pauranik matavalnbi hindoo kaviyon ke lie nahin thi. kintu, jis samay uttar bharat men vibhinn bhakti- snpradayon ka pravesh hua tha, usase poorv hi dilli men muslim samrajy ki sthapana ho chuki thi. is samrajy ki sthapana ke samay dilli men jo musalaman akar bas ge, unamen sabase badi snkhya avibhajit pnjab ke nav- muslimon ki thin, jinaki boli ka rajadhani aur usake as-pas ki boli par prabhav padana svabhavik tha. rajadhani aur usake as-pas ki janabhasha se parichay dilli ke svadeshi aur videshi muslim prashasakon aur sainikon ke lie n keval svabhavik tha, varanh avashyak bhi. sthaniy striyon se vivah tatha prashasanik avashyakataon ke karan sthaniy bhasha se parichay ki vivashata in do baton ke prabhav-svaroop do-tin pidhiyon men hi dilli ke shasakon ke ghar ki boli khadiboli ho gee aur shasak jati ke sahityakaron ne farasi ke atirikt khadiboli men bhi kavy-rachana ki. amir khusaro (1255-1324) ne hindavi (hindi) ko apani matribhasha kaha aur isamen n keval kavita ki, varanh isake madhury aur gnbhirata par garv bhi prakat kiya. amir khusaro dvara prayukt hone ke bad khadiboli mukhyat musalaman kaviyon aur lekhakon dvara hi sahityik abhivyakti ke lie prayukt hoti rahi.

khadiboli ka prachar

khadiboli ke bharatavyapi prachar men dilli ke muslim samrajy ki rajadhani hone ki bhoomika bahut mahattvapoorn rahi hai, kyonki bharat men muslim samrajy ke vistar ke sath isaka bhi prasar hua hai. khilazi vnsh ke rajatv kal men uttar bharat ke bngal tak ka kshetr is samrajy ka ang ban gaya aur uttar bharatiy nagaron aur kasbon ki, sainik chhavaniyon aur chhote-bade prashasan kendron ki, snpark bhasha khadiboli ho gee. in kendron men dilli aur usake asapas ke khadiboli-bhashi muslim aur hindoo rajakarmachari, sainik aur vyapari bas ge. unake avagaman ka kram kee shatabdiyon tak chalata raha. isase uttar bharatiy nagaron aur kasbon ki shisht snpark bhasha ke roop men hindi ki jade mazaboot hoti chali geen.

muslim samrajy

muslim samrajy ke dakshin bharat men vistar ke sath hindi ka prasar andhr, karnatak adi pradeshon men bhi hua. alauddin ne 1296 ee. men dakshin bharat ke devagiri par akraman kiya. bad ke akramanon dvara usake rajatv kal men vindhya parvat kshetr se lekar dakshin ke samudr tat tak ki bhoomi dilli samrajy ke adhin ho gee. muhammad tugalaq ke samay dakshin ka adhikansh bhag is samrajy ke adhin ho gaya, jise usane panch bhagon men vibhajit kiya. usane devagiri ya daulatabad men apani rajadhani banaee, jo madhyakalin itihas ki bahucharchit ghatanaon men hai. yadyapi usane paristhitiyon ke dabav ke karan punah dilli ko rajadhani banaya, kintu usake sath bahut badi snkhya men dilli ke musalamanon aur hinduon ka avrajan dakshin bharat men hua. unaka ek bada samuday dakshin men sthayi roop men bas gaya, kintu unake avrajan se poorv hi, alauddin khilazi ke rajatvakal men khadiboli bolane vale hindoo aur muslim rajakarmachariyon, sainikon aur vyapariyon ke dal dakshin bharat men phail chuke the. bad men ahamadanagar, bijapur, golakunda aur bidar men nizamashahi, qutubashahi aur baridashahi vnshon ne svatntr rajyon ki sthapana ki, jinamen baridashahi vnsh ka astitv shighr hi samapt ho gaya. dakshin ke sath mugalon ke yug men bhi dilli ki rajanitik pratiyogitaen chalati rahin tatha akamanon ka kram atoot jaisa raha. parinam yah hua ki dakshin men khadiboli n keval jad pakadati gee, balki yah vahan ke sahityik evn sanskritik paridrishy ka svabhavik ang ban gee. vahan dakani ya dakkhini ke nam se khadiboli ka vipul sahity racha gaya. isamen n sirf sahity lekhan ka kary hua, varanh bijapur, golakunda adi muslim riyasaton men rajakaj ki bhasha ke roop men ise pratishtha mili. ullekhy hai ki jis khadiboli ko bharatiy snvidhan dvara svatntrata ke bad prashasanik mahattv mila hai, use lagabhag pray chhah sau varsh poorv hi dakshin men yah mahattv prapt ho chuka tha.

dakkhini hindi

dakani ya dakkhini hindi ke rachanakaron ki snkhya bahut badi hai. khadiboli gady ki pahali prapy pustak khvaja bndenavaz gesoodaraz ki 'mirajul ashikin' hai, jo soofi vicharadhara se snbndhit hai. isaki rachana pndrahavin shatabdi ke arnbh men huee hai. gesoodaraz ki any kee gady rachanaon ka bhi ullekh milata hai. mulla vajahi ki 'sabaras' (1636 ee.) shayad dakkhini gady parnpara ki sarvottam rachana hai. dakkhini men miranji, nizami, muhammadakuli qutubashah adi ne utkrisht koti ki kavita ki hai. dakkhini koee kritrim bhasha nahin thi, balki yah vahan avrajan kar bas ge samudayon ki sahaj, svabhavik matribhasha thi. isaka praman miranji ya shah miran ki nimnalikhit pnktiyon men maujood hai.

hamin bol arabi kare,
aur pharasi bahutere,
yon hindavi bole tab,
is arth bhave sab.
yah bhakha bhale so bole,
pun isaka bhav khole,
vo arabi bol n jane,
n pharasi pachhane॥

in pnktiyon se yah spasht hai ki arabi aur farasi in logon ke lie paraee bhasha jaisi thi. hindavi (hindi) bolakar hi inhen apana ashay samajhaya ja sakata tha.

mahattv
aj ki khadiboli ke itihas aur isake vartaman svaroop ke adhyayan ke lie dakkhini ka bahut mahattv hai. vyakaranik snrachana ki drishti se yah bangaroo ke bahut samip hai. bangaroo ki tarah isamen bhi akarant pulling aur striling sngya shabdon ka bahuvachan roop an lagakar banaya jata hai, jaise:- ghar se gharan, kitab se kitaban adi. isamen aur ke lie hor ka prayog hota hai tatha ne ka prayog karta karak ke hi prasng men nahin, varanh karm aur snpradan karakon ke prasng men bhi hota hai. ye pravrittiyan bangaroo (aur pnjabi) men aj bhi jivit hain. isamen ke lie soon, syon aur syaun, ko ke badale koon, kabhi ke lie kabhoo adi roop milate hain, jaise:-
(1) are oodhau sunau yah du:kh haman soon. kahau tuk jay paradesi sajan soon.
(2) akl achchhe to apas koon hor doosare koon pachhane.
uttar bharat men satrahavin-atharahavin shatabdi men khadiboli gady ki jo rachanaen prastut hueen, unamen bhi ye bhashik visheshataen milati hain, jaise:- qutubashatak (1613 ee.) ganesh gosath (1658 ee.), bhogalupuran (1705 ee.) adi men dakkhini ke prasng men yah bat vishesh roop se rekhankit karane yogy hai ki uttar bharat men likhit in gady rachanaon ki tarah pnjabi, rajasthani, braj aur kanauji adi ke prabhavon se yukt hone ke bavazood isaka gady aj ke khadiboli gady se jitani samipata rakhata hai, utani samipata in rachanaon ke gady ki bhi nahin. karan yah hai ki inaki bhasha par brajabhasha ka bahut gahara prabhav hai.
dakkhini ka sahity

yadyapi dakkhini ka sahity arabi-farasi lipi men likha gaya hai ki isamen arabi aur farasi ke shabdon ki snkhya bahut hai, phir bhi isamen snskrit ki shabd -snkhya kam vistrit nahin hai. dakshin men bas ge hinduon aur musalamanon ki sammilit janabhasha hone ke karan dakkhini aj ki hindi aur urdoo ka sammilit poorv roop hai. kintu, milajula kar dekhane par aisa pratit hota hai ki isaki shabdavali adhunik hindi ki shabdavali se adhik samipata rakhati hai. nizami ke akhyan kavy 'masanavi kadamarav vo padamarav' ki pnktiyan hain.

akas ooncha, patal dharati dhee.
jahan kuchh n koee, vahan hai tuhin॥

golakunda ke badashah muhammadakuli qutubashah ki pnktiyan hain.

bikhare hai kuntal peshani oopar.
ke badal pade phat pani oopar॥

kuli qutubashah ki rachanaon men romavali, nayan, jal, ratan adi sainkadon shabdon ka bade mukt roop se prayog hua hai. isalie yah sochana svabhavik hai ki yadi uttar bharat men urdoo aur hindi ke nam se khadiboli ki do bhinn shailiyon ka vikas nahin hota, to ek samasik bhasha ke roop men isaka svaroop bahut kuchh dakkhini-jaisa hota.

prasar ka doosara madhyam

khadiboli ke akhil bharatiy prasar ka doosara madhyam vibhinn madhyakalin snt snpradayon ka pracharak samuday hai. uttar aur dakshin ke vibhinn bhashabhashi sadhu-sannyasiyon ki snpark bhasha ke roop men hindi ki pratishtha ho chuki thi. inaki hindi n keval hindi pradesh ki vibhinn boliyon, balki hinditar kshetr ki boliyon ke rngon se indradhanushit khadiboli thi, jise 'sadhukkadi' bhi kaha gaya hai. kabir ki rachanaon men is sadhukkadi ka prachur prayog hua hai. lekin, kabir se bahut pahale, lagabhag dilli men gulam vnsh ki sthapana ke samantar, maharashtr ke mahanubhav pnth ke kaviyon dvara isake prayog ke udaharan milane lag jate hain. mahanubhav pnth ke damodar pndit (barahavin shatabdi) aur kavayitri mahadayisa (terahavin-chaudahavin shatabdi) ki kuchh rachanaon ki bhasha hindi hai. is pnth ke chakrapani nilnbakar ne dakkhini men 'tisa' sahity racha, jo devanagari lipi men upalabdh hua hai. nathapnth se snbndhit varakari snpraday ke namadev (1271-1351 ee.) ekanath (1528-1599 ee.) adi marathi kaviyon ki hindi rachanaen to prasiddh hain hi. ekanath ki hindi gady rachanaen khadiboli gady ke sabase purane aur saf suthare udaharanon men hain. maharashtr uttar aur dakshin ka sndhi-pradesh hai aur isane hindi ke akhil bharatiy prasar men mahattvapoorn bhoomika snpann ki hai. daau. vinayamohan sharma ne 'hindi ko marathi snton ki den' namak grnth men sabase pahale marathi snton ki hindi rachanaon ka parichay diya tha aur hal men daau. yoo. m.pathan ne 'maharashtr ke mahanubhav sahityakaron ka hindi sahity ko yogadan' men in vishay se snbndhit prabhoot nee samagri di hai. bharat ke any pradeshon men bhi aise bhakt kavi hue hain, jinhonne sadhusamaj men prachalit mishrit khadiboli ya brajabhasha men kuchh- n kuchh kavita ki hai.

tirthayatriyon ki bhoomika

vibhinn snpradayon ke pracharak snt aur bhakt kaviyon ki tarah hi khadiboli ke prasar men desh ke tirthayatriyon ki bhoomika bhi ullekhy rahi hai. uttar ke tirthayatri dakshin tatha dakshin ke tirthayatri uttar ke vibhinn dhamon aur tirthon ki yatra shatabdiyon se karate rahe hain. pichhali shatabdi ke arnbhik dashakon tak tirthayatraen paidal hi snpann hoti thin aur desh ke vibhinn bhagon ke dharmapran logon ko kashi, prayag, ayodhya, vrindavan aur badarikashram vale hindi kshetr men bahut lnbe samay tak, kee mahine yatra karate hue rahana padata tha. phalatah unaka snpark hindi se ho jata tha aur jaise-jaise muslim samrajy ke dridhikaran ke sath uttar bharatiy nagaron ki snpark bhasha khadiboli hoti gee, hindi ke roop men ve uttar bharat ke yatra kshetr ke vibhinn nagaron aur kasbon men barnbar khadiboli hi sunane lage tatha usaka ek vyavaharik roop lekar apane-apane pradesh lautane lage.

Blockquote-open.gif hindi se kisi bhi bharatiy bhasha ko bhay nahin hai. yah sabaki sahodar hai.-- mahadevi varma Blockquote-close.gif

dakshin ke tirthayatriyon ko, jinamen se bahut se log dakkhini ke snpark men pahale hi a chuke hote, maharashtr se hi ek prakar ki vyavaharik khadiboli sunaee dene lagati. unake dvara arjit isaki shabd-snpada simit hone ke bavazood uttar bharat ki yatra ki avadhi men unake lie atynt upadey pramanit hoti. tirthayatriyon ki yah snpark bhasha, jo hinditar kshetr ke pnde-purohiton ki samany ajivika bhasha banati gee tatha vahan ki vaikalpik bazar bhasha bhi ban gee, n keval uttar bharat ki yatra karane vale dakshin ke tirthayatriyon, varanh dakshin bharat ki yatra karane vali uttar ke tirthayatriyon ke lie bhi upayogi ban gee. dakshin ke vibhinn tirthasthanon tak jane vale vibhinn margon par nirmit dharmashalaen, jahan yatri rat men thaharate the, sthaniy logon ke sath hindi ke madhyam se hone vale snpark ka kendr ban jati thi. in dharmashalaon men pas -pados ke ganvon ke aise log ekatr hua karate jo in yatriyon ke pradesh, snskriti adi ke vishay men janakari lena chahate the aur inaki seva kar us puny ke bhagi banana chahate the jisaki vasana dharmapran vyaktiyon men vidyaman raha karati hai. aise avasaron par unake bich ve log dubhashiye ka kam karate the, jo uttar bharat ki yatra kar chuke hote aur hindi ka kisi n kisi roop men vyavahar kar sakate the.

satrahavin shatabdi

uparyukt rajanitik aur dharmik karanon se khadiboli satrahavin shatabdi tak bharatavyapi ho chuki thi. isake sakshi satrahavin shatabdi ke antim aur atharahavin shatabdi ke doosare-tisare dashakon men yooropiy dharm pracharakon ke lie likhit hindi vyakaran hai.

  • pahala vyakaran jaaun joshua kaitalar krit 'hindustani bhasha' hai, jisaki rachana 1698 ee. men agara men huee.
  • doosara vyakaran benjamin shoolz ka 'hindustani vyakaran' hai, jo 1745 ee. men dakshin ke haidarabad men likha gaya.
  • tisare vyakaran ka nam 'alphabetum bramhanikum' hai, jisake lekhak kaisiyano beligatti hain. isaki rachana 1771 ee. men patana men huee.
desh ke tin sudooravarti kendron men likhe ge in vyakaranon men ek hi bat bar-bar kahi gee hai. vah yah hai ki hindi ya hindustani inake rachana-sthalon-agara, haidarabad aur patana ke parshvavarti kshetron ki sabase mahattvapoorn snpark bhasha hai. benjamin shoolz ne likha hai, ki is hindustani bhasha ko devanagaram bhi kaha jata hai.
jab se musalaman log sare bharat ko jitakar yahan rahane lage tab se unhonne yahan ki hindustani ko apani matribhasha ke roop men svikar kiya. mugalon ke vistrit rajy men is bhasha ka prachar-prasar hai.
hindi ke tin prarnbhik vyakaran maithyu bechchur, beligatti ne ise n keval patana ke as-pas prachalit tatha videshi yatriyon dvara prayukt bhasha kaha hai, balki ise tatkalin bharat ki rashtrabhasha kaha hai.
bharatiy punarjagaran

yahi karan hai ki ab jab pichhali sadi men bharatiy punarjagaran arnbh hua, to poore desh ko jodanevali bhasha ke roop men khadiboli ke mahattv ki or raja ramamohan ray, keshavachndr sen aur maharshi dayannd jaise mahanh netaon ka dhyan gaya. brahmasamaj ke pravartak raja ramamohan ray ne apane vicharon ke prachar ke lie 'udntamarttand' namak hindi patr prakashit kiya. aryasamaj ke janmadata maharshi dayannd ne isamen apane vikhyat 'satyarthaprakash' tatha any kee pustakon ki rachana ki aur ise akhil bharatiy bhasha ke roop men pratishthit karane ka sabase pahala suvyavasthit prayatn kiya. raja ramamohan ray ke jivanakal men hi kalakatta men phort viliyam kaaulej ki sthapana huee, jahan videshiyon ko hindi sikhalane ke uddeshy se gady ki kee mahattvapoorn pustaken likhi geen. videshi eesaee dharmapracharakon ne apane mat ke prachar ke lie hindi men jo pustaken taiyar ki ya karaee, hindi ke prasar men unaki bhoomika kam mahattvapoorn nahin hai.

hindi ka prasar

akhil bharatiy bhasha ke roop men hindi ke prasar aur pratishtha ki prastavana sabase pahale un mahapurushon ne ki, jo hinditar pradeshon ke the. yah bat bhi kam ullekhy nahin hai ki likhit bhasha ke roop men apane vikas ke arnbhik yug se hi hindi dharmanirapeksh bhasha rahi hai. isake arnbhik kavi aur lekhak musalaman hain aur mukhyat unhonne hi isake dakkhini sahity ki rachana ki hai. sabase pahale unhonne hi ise rajakiy vyavahar ki bhasha ke roop men prayukt kiya hai. pichhali sadi se lekar aj tak eesaee mishanariyon se sahity aur shiksha ki bhasha ke roop men isaki pratishtha ke lie chirasmaraniy kary kiya hai. isalie dharmavishesh ke sath isako jodana sahi nahin hai.

hindi ke lie pichhali sadi kee drishtiyon se mahattvapoorn hai. is sadi men hindi gady ka n keval vikas hua, varanh bharatendu harishchndr ne use manak roop pradan kiya. isi sadi men aise mahapurush utpann hue jinhonne hindi ki pahachan akhil bharatiy snpark sootr ke roop men itihas dvara pradatt bhasha ke roop men ki aur isake lie prayatn arnbh kiya. yah akaran nahin hai ki mahatma gandhi ne hindi ke prashn ko svarajy ka prashn mana, kangres ko isake prachar ka ek shaktishali madhyam banaya aur hindi prachar sabhaon ki sthapana ki. pichhale chhah sau varshon se bharatiy itihas ne jis bhasha ko akhil bharatiy bhasha banane ki sadhana ki, use siddhi tak le jane ka sabase bada shrey gandhi ji ko hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mool lekh:- prasad, pro. dineshvar (aktoobar, 1983) hindi ki akhil bharatiyata ka itihas. nee dilli: vishv hindi.

snbndhit lekh

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