अलाउद्दीन ख़िलजी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alauddin khilaji
alauddin khilaji (abhikalpit chitr)
poora nam alauddin khilaji
janm 1266-1267 ee.
mrityu tithi 4 janavari 1316 ee.
mrityu sthan dilli
pati/patni malika-e-jahan, maharoo, kamaladevi, jhatyapali
shasan kal 1296–1316 ee.
dharmik manyata sunni (islam)
rajadhani dilli
poorvadhikari jalaluddin khilaji
uttaradhikari shihabuddin umar khilaji
vnsh khilaji vnsh
snbndhit lekh rani padmini, raval ratan sinh
any janakari alauddin khilaji ka bachapan ka nam ali 'gurashasp' tha. usake takht par baithane ke bad use 'amir-e-tujuk' ka pad mila. malik chhajjoo ke vidroh ko dabane men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhane ke karan jalaluddin ne use kada-manikapur ki soobedari saunp di.

alauddin khilaji (angrezi: Alauddin Khilji, rajyakal- 1296-1316 ee.) dilli ka sultan tha. vah khilaji vnsh ke snsthapak jalaluddin khilaji ka bhatija aur damad tha. sultan banane ke pahale use ilahabad ke nikat kada ki jagir di gayi thi. alauddin khilaji ka bachapan ka nam ali 'gurashasp' tha. usake takht par baithane ke bad use 'amir-e-tujuk' ka pad mila. malik chhajjoo ke vidroh ko dabane men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhane ke karan jalaluddin ne use kada-manikapur ki soobedari saunp di. bhilasa, chnderi evn devagiri ke saphal abhiyanon se prapt apar dhan ne usaki sthiti aur mazaboot kar di. is prakar utkarsh par pahunche alauddin khilaji ne apane chacha jalaluddin ki hatya 22 aktoobar, 1296 ko kar di aur dilli men sthit balaban ke lal mahal men apana rajyabhishek sampann karavaya.

shasan vyavastha

rajyabhishek ke bad utpann kathinaeeyon ka saphalata poorvak samana karate hue alauddin ne kathor shasan vyavastha ke antargat apane rajy ki simaon ka vistar karana prarambh kiya. apani prarambhik saphalataon se protsahit hokar alauddin ne 'sikandar dvitiy' (sani) ki upadhi grahan kar isaka ullekh apane sikkon par karavaya. usane vishv-vijay evn ek navin dharm ko sthapit karane ke apane vichar ko apane mitr evn dilli ke kotaval 'alaul mulk' ke samajhane par tyag diya. yadyapi alauddin ne khalifa ki satta ko manyata pradan karate hue ‘yamin-ul-khilafat-nasiri-amir-ul-mominin’ ki upadhi grahan ki, kintu usane khalifa se apane pad ki svikrit leni avashyak nahin samajhi. ulema varg ko bhi apane shasan kary men hastakshep nahin karane diya. usane shasan men islam dharm ke siddhanton ko pramukhata n dekar rajyahit ko sarvopari mana. alauddin khilaji ke samay nirnkushata apane charam sima par pahunch gayi. alauddin khilaji ne shasan men n to islam ke siddhanton ka sahara liya aur n hi ulema varg ki salah li.

vidrohon ka daman

alauddin khilaji ke rajy men kuchh vidroh hue, jinamen 1299 ee. men gujarat ke saphal abhiyan men prapt dhan ke bntavare ko lekar ‘navi musalamanon’ dvara kiye gaye vidroh ka daman nusarat khan ne kiya. doosara vidroh alauddin ke bhatije akat khan dvara kiya gaya. apane mngol musalamanon ke sahayog se usane alauddin par pran ghatak hamala kiya, jisake badalen men use pakad kar mar diya gaya. tisara vidroh alauddin ki bahan ke ladake malik umar evn mngoo khan ne kiya, par in donon ko harakar unaki hatya kar di gee. chautha vidroh dilli ke haji maula dvara kiya gaya, jisaka daman sarakar hamiddin ne kiya. is prakar in sabhi vidrohon ko saphalata poorvak daba diya gaya. alauddin ne turk amiron dvara kiye jane vale vidroh ke karanon ka adhyayan kar un karanon ko samapt karane ke lie 4 adhyadesh jari kiye. pratham adhyadesh ke antargat alauddin ne dan, upahar evn penshan ke roop me amiron ko di gayi bhoomi ko jabt kar us par adhikadhik kar laga diya, jisase unake pas dhan ka abhav ho gaya. dvitiy adhyadhesh ke antargat alauddin ne guptachar vibhag ko sngathit kar ‘barid’ (guptachar adhikari) evn ‘munahin’ (guptachar) ki niyukti ki. tritiy adhyadhesh ke antargat alauddin khilaji ne madyanished, bhang khane evn jua khelane par poorn pratibandh laga diya. chauthe adhyadesh ke antargat alauddin ne amiron ke apas men mel-jol, sarvajanik samarohon evn vaivahik sambandhon par pratibandh laga diya. sultan dvara laye gaye ye charon adhyadesh poornatah saphal rahe. alauddin ne khooton, muqadamon adi hindoo lagan adhikariyon ke visheshadhikar ko samapt kar diya.

samrajy vistar

alauddin khilaji samrajyavadi pravritti ka vyakti tha. usane uttar bharat ke rajyon ko jit kar un par pratyaksh shasan kiya. dakshin bharat ke rajyon ko alauddin ne apane adhin kar unase varshik kar vasoola.

gujarat vijay

1298 ee. men alauddin ne uloog khan evn nusarat khan ko gujarat vijay ke lie bheja. ahamadabad ke nikat ‘baghel raja karn’ (rajakaran) aur alauddin ki sena men sngharsh hua. raja karn ne parajit hokar apani putri ‘deval devi’ ke sath bhag kar devagiri ke shasak ramachandr dev ke yahan sharan li. alauddin khilaji karn ki sampatti evn usaki patni kamala devi ko sath lekar vapas dilli a gaya. kalantar men alauddin khilaji ne kamala devi se vivah kar use apani sabase priy rani banaya. yahin par nusarat khan ne hindoo hijade malik kafoor ko ek hazar dinar men kharida. yuddh men vijay ke pashchath sainikon ne soorat, somanath aur kaimbe tak akraman kiya.

jaisalamer vijay

alauddin khilaji ki sena ke kuchh ghode churane ke karan sultan khilaji ne jaisalamer ke shasak dooda evn usake sahayogi tilak sinh ko 1299 ee. men parajit kiya aur jesalamer ki vijay ki.

ranathambhaur vijay

ranathambhaur ka shasak hammiradev apani yogyata evn sahas ke lie prasiddh tha. alauddin ke lie ranathambhaur ko jitana isalie bhi avashyak tha, kyonki hammiradev ne vidrohi mngol neta muhammad shah evn kehab ko apane yahan sharan de rakhi thi, isalie bhi alauddin ranathambhaur ko jitana chahata tha. atah julaee, 1301 ee. men alauddin ne ranathambhaur ke qile ko apane qabze men kar liya. hammiradev viragati ko prapt hua. alauddin ne ranamal aur usake sathiyon ka vadh karava diya, jo hammiradev se vishvasaghat karake usase a mile the. ‘tarikh-e-alaee’ evn ‘hammir mahakavy’ men hammiradev usake parivar ke logon ka jauhar dvara mrityu prapt hone ka varnan hai. ranathambhaur yuddh ke dauran hi nusarat khan ki mrityu huee.

chittaud akraman evn mevad vijay

mevad ka shasak rana ratan sinh tha, jisaki rajadhani chittaud thi. chittaud ka qila samarik drishtikon se bahut surakshit sthan par bana hua tha. isalie yah qila alauddin ki nigah men chadha hua tha. kuchh itihasakaron ne amir khusarav ke rani shaiba aur suleman ke prem prasng ke ullekh adhar par aur 'padmavat ki katha' ke adhar par chittaud par alauddin ke akraman ka karan rani padmini ke anupan saundary ke prati usake akarshan ko thaharaya hai. antatah 28 janavari, 1303 ee. ko sultan chittaud ke qile par adhikar karane men saphal hua. rana ratan sinh yuddh men shahid hua aur usaki patni rani padmini ne any striyon ke sath jauhar kar liya. qile par adhikar ke bad sultan ne lagabhag 30,000 rajapoot viron ka katl karava diya. usane chittaud ka nam khizr khan ke nam par 'khizrabad' rakha aur khizr khan ko saunp kar dilli vapas a gaya.

chittaud ko punah svatntr karane ka prayatn rajapooton dvara jari tha. isi bich alauddin ne khizr khan ko vapas dilli bulakar chittaud durg ki zimmedari rajapoot saradar maladev ko saunp di. alauddin ki mrityu ke pashchath guhilaut rajavnsh ke hammiradev ne maladev par akraman kar 1321 ee. men chittaud sahit poore mevad ko azad karava liya. is tarah alauddin ki mrityu ke bad chittaud ek bar phir poorn svatantr ho gaya.

malava vijay

malava par shasan karane vala mahalakadev evn usaka senapati haranand (koka pradhan) bahadur yoddha the. 1305 ee. men alauddin ne multan ke soobedar aeen-ul-mulk ke netritv men ek sena ko malava par adhikar karane ke lie bheja. donon pakshon ke sngharsh men mahalakadev evn usaka senapati haranand mara gaya. navambar, 1305 men qile par adhikar ke sath hi ujjain, dharanagari, chnderi adi ko jit kar malava samet dilli saltanat men mila liya gaya. 1308 ee. men alauddin ne sivana par adhikar karane ke lie akraman kiya. vahan ke paramar rajapoot shasak shitaladev ne kada sngharsh kiya, parantu antatah vah mara gaya. kamaluddin gurg ko vahan ka shasak niyukt kiya gaya.

jalaur

jalaur ke shasak kanhanadev ne 1304 ee. men alauddin ki adhinata ko svikar kar liya tha, par dhire-dhire usane apane ko punah svatantr kar liya. 1305 ee. men kamaluddin gurg ke netritv men sultan ki sena ne kanhanadev ko yuddh men parajit kar usaki hatya kar di. is prakar jalaur par adhikar ke sath hi alauddin ki rajasthan vijay ka kathin kary poora hua. 1311 ee. tak uttar bharat men sirf nepal, kashmir evn asam hi aise bhag bache the, jin par alauddin adhikar nahin kar saka tha. uttar bharat ki vijay ke bad alauddin ne dakshin bharat ki or apana rukh kiya.

alauddin ki dakshin vijay

alauddin khilaji ke samakalin dakshin bharat men sirf tin mahattvapoorn shaktiyan thin-

  1. devagiri ke yadav
  2. dakshin-poorv telngana ke kakatiy aur
  3. dvarasamudr ke hoyasal

alauddin dvara dakshin bharat ke rajyon ko jitane ke uddeshy ke pichhe dhan ki chah evn vijay ki lalasa thi. vah in rajyon ko apane adhin kar varshik kar vasool karana chahata tha. dakshin bharat ki vijay ka mukhy shrey ‘malik kafoor’ ko hi jata hai. alauddin khilaji ke shasan kal men dakshin men sarvapratham 1303 ee. men telngana par akraman kiya gaya. telngana ke shasak pratap rudradev dvitiy ne apani ek sone ki moorti banavakar aur usake gale men sone ki jnjir dal kar atmasamarpan hetu malik kafoor ke pas bheja tha. isi avasar par pratap rudradev ne malik kafoor ko snsar prasiddh kohinoor hira diya tha.

devagiri

shasak banane ke bad alauddin dvara 1296 ee. men devagiri ke viruddh kiye gaye abhiyan ki saphalata par, vahan ke shasak ramachandr dev ne prati varsh elichapur ki ay bhejane ka vada kiya tha, par ramachandr dev ke putr shnkar dev (sinhan dev) ke hastakshep se varshik kar ka bhugatan rok diya gaya. atah naib malik kafoor ke netritv me ek sena ko devagiri par dhava bolane ke lie bheja gaya. raste men raja karn ko yuddh men parast kar kafoor ne usaki putri deval devi, jo kamala devi evn karn ki putri thi, ko dilli bhej diya, jahan par usaka vivah khizr khan se kar diya gaya. raste bhar loot pat karata hua kafoor devagiri pahuncha aur pahunchate hi usane devagiri par akraman kar diya. bhayanak loot-pat ke bad ramachandr dev ne atmasamarpan kar diya. kafoor apar dhan-sampatti, dher sare hathi evn raja ramachandr dev ke sath vapas dilli aya. ramachandr ke sultan ke samaksh prastut hone par sultan ne usake sath udarata ka vyavahar karate hue ‘ray rayan’ ki upadhi pradan ki. use sultan ne gujarat ki navasari jagir evn ek lakh svarn take dekar vapas bhej diya. kalantar men raja ramachandr dev alauddin ka mitr ban gaya. jab malik kafoor dvarasamudr vijay ke lie ja raha tha, to ramachandr dev ne usaki bharapoor sahayata ki thi.

telngana

telngana men kakatiy vnsh ke raja rajy karate the. tatkalin telngana ka shasak pratap rudradev tha, jisaki rajadhani varngal thi. navambar, 1309 men malik kafoor telngana ke lie ravana hua. raste men ramachandr dev ne kafoor ki sahayata ki. kafoor ne hiron ki khanon ke zile asiragadh (meragadh) ke marg se telngana men pravesh kiya. 1310 ee. men kafoor apani sena ke sath varngal pahuncha. pratap rudradev ne apani sone ki moorti banavakar gale men ek sone ki jnjir dalakar atmasamarpan svaroop kafoor ke pas bheja, sath hi 100 hathi, 700 ghode, apar dhan rashi evn varshik kar dene ke vayade ke sath alauddin khilaji ki adhinata svikar kar li.

hoyasal

hoyasal ka shasak vir ballal tritiy tha. isaki rajadhani dvarasamudr thi. 1310 ee. men malik kafoor ne hoyasal ke lie prasthan kiya. is prakar 1311 ee. men sadharan yuddh ke pashchath ballal dev ne atmasamarpan kar alauddin ki adhinata grahan kar li. usane mabar ke abhiyan men kafoor ki sahayata bhi ki. sultan alauddin ne ballal dev ko ‘khilat’, ‘ek mukat’, ‘chhatr’ evn das lakh take ki thaili bhent ki.

pandy

pandy ko mabar (malabar) ke nam se bhi jana jata tha. yahan ke shasak sundar pandy evn vir pandy the. donon men hue satta sngharsh men sundar pandy parajit hua. sundar pandy dvara sahayata mangane par kafoor ne 1311 ee. men pandyon ke mahattvapoorn kendr ‘virathool’ par akraman kar diya, par vir pandy hath nahin aya. kafoor ne baramatapati men sthit ‘ling mahadev’ ke sone ke mndir men khoob lootapat ki. isake atirikt dher sare mndir usake dvara loote evn tode gaye. amir khusaro ke anusar kafoor ne rameshvaram tak akraman kiya, vahan ke hindoo mndir ko todakar ek masjid banavaee. 1311 ee. men kafoor vipul dhan sampatti ke sath dilli pahuncha, parantu use vir pandy ko pakadane men saphalata prapt nahin huee. sambhavatah dhan ke drishtikon se yah kafoor ka sarvadhik saphal abhiyan tha.

mngol akraman

alauddin ke samay men hue mngolon ke akraman ka uddeshy bharat vijay aur pratishodh ki bhavana thi. 1297-98 ee. men mngol sena ne apane neta kadar ke netritv men pnjab evn lahaur par akraman kiya. jalndhar ke nikat in akramanakariyon ko sultan ki sena ne parast kar diya. is sena ka netritv jafar khan evn uloog khan ne kiya tha. mngolon ka doosara akraman saladi ke netritv men 1298 ee. men sehaban par hua. jafar khan ne is akraman ko saphalata poorvak asaphal kar diya. 1299 ee. men kutalug khvaja ke netritv men mngol sena ke akraman ko jafar khan ne asaphal kar diya. isi yuddh ke dauran jafar khan mara gaya, kyonki alauddin evn uloog khan vali sena se use koee sahayata nahin mili. 1303 ee. men mngol sena ka chautha akraman targi ke netritv men hua. lagabhag 2 mah tak siri ke qile ko ghere rahane ke bad bhi use saphalata n milane par dilli ke samip ke kshetron men lootapat kar targi vapas chala gaya. 1305 ee. men ‘alibeg’, ‘tartak’ evn ‘targi’ ke netritv men mngolon ne amaroha par akraman kiya. parntu malik kafoor evn gaji malik ne mngolon ko buri tarah parajit kiya. 1306 ee. men mngol sena ka netritv karane vala iqabalamand, gaji malik (gayasuddin tugalak) dvara ravi nadi ke kinare parast kiya gaya. gaji malik tugalak ko alauddin ne apana sima rakshak niyukt kiya. is prakar alauddin ne apane shasan kal men mngolon ke sabase adhik evn sabase bhayanak akraman ka samana karate hue saphalata prapt ki. mngol akraman se suraksha ke lie usane 1304 ee. men siri ko apani rajadhani banaya tatha qilebandi ki.

prashasanik sudhar

apane poorvakalin sultanon ki tarah alauddin ke pas bhi karyapalika vyavasthapika evn nyayapalika ki sarvochch shaktiyan vidyaman thin. vah apane ko dharati par eeshvar ka nayak ya khalifa hone ka dava karata tha tatha usane apane ko hamesha ulema ke adeshon se alag rakha. vah prashasan ke kendrikaran par vishvas karata tha. usane pranton ke soobedar tatha any adhikariyon ko apane poorn niyntran men rakha.

mntrigan

barani ke anusar, “ek buddhiman vazir ke bina rajatv vyarth hai” tatha “sultan ke lie ek buddhiman vazir se badhakar abhiyan aur yash ka doosara srot nahin hai aur ho bhi nahin sakata.” mntrigan alauddin ko sirf salah dete v rajy ke dainik kary ko snbhalate the. alauddin ke samay men 5 mahattvapoorn mntri the, jo prashasan ke karyon men apana bahut hi mahattvapoorn sthan rakhate the. ye mntri evn unake snbndhit vibhag nimn prakar the-
(1) divan-e-vajarat - mukhyamntri ko ‘vazir’ kaha jata tha. yah sarvadhik shaktishali mntri hota tha. alauddin ke samay men vazir ka mahattvapoorn vibhag hota tha. vitt ke atirikt use sainik abhiyan ke samay shahi senaon ka netritv bhi karana padata tha. alauddin ne vazir pad apane sainik adhikariyon ko saunpa. alauddin ke shasan kal men khvaja khatir, tajuddin kafoor, nusarat khan adi vazir ke pad par kary kar chuke the.
(2) divan-e-arij ya arj - 'arij-e-mumalik' yuddhamntri v sainy mntri hota tha. yah vazir ke bad doosara mahattvapoorn mntri hota tha. isake mukhy kary sainikon ki bharti karana, unhen vetan bantana, sena ki dakshata evn saj-sajja ki dekhabhal karana, yuddh ke samay senapati ke sath yuddh kshetr men jana adi tha. alauddin ke shasan men malik nasiruddin mulk sirajuddin arij-e-mumalik ke pad par tha. usaka upadhikari khvaja haji nayab arij tha. alauddin apane sainikon ke sath sahridayata ki niti apanata tha.
(3) divan-e-insha - yah rajy ka tisara mahattvapoorn mntralay hota tha, jisaka pradhan 'dabir-e-khas' tha. usaka mahattvapoorn kary shahi udaghonshanaon evn patron ka praroop taiyar karana tatha prantapatiyon evn sthaniy adhikariyon se patr vyavahar karana hota tha. isake sahayak sachiv ko ‘dabir’ kaha jata tha. dabir ke pramukh ko ‘dabir-e-mumalikat’ ya dabir-e-khas kaha jata tha.
(4) divan-e-rasalat- yah rajy ka chautha mntri hota tha. isaka sambandh mukhyatah videsh vibhag evn kootaniti patr vyavahar se hota tha. yah padosi rajyon ko bheje jane vale patron ka praroop taiyar karata tha aur sath hi videshon se aye rajadooton se nazadik ka sampark banaye rakhata tha. kuchh itihasakaron ke anusar yah dharm se sambandhit vibhag tha.
(5) divan-e-risayat - arthik mamalon se sambandhit is naye vibhag ki sthapana alauddin khilaji ne ki thi. divan-e-riyasat vyapari varg par niyntran rakhata tha.
alauddin dvara sthapit do naye vibhag-
(1) divan-e-mustakharaj
(2) divan-risayat

alauddin ne bazar vyavastha ke kushal snchalan hetu kuchh naye padon ko bhi srijit kiya-
(1) shahan-e-mndi - yah bazar ka daroga hota tha.
(2) muhatasib - janasadharan ke acharan ka rakshak evn map-taul ka nirikshan karata tha.

isake atirikt kuchh any adhikari sachiv hote the. raj mahal ke karyon ki dekh-rekh karane vala mukhy adhikari 'vakil-e-dar' hota tha. sultan ke angarakshakon ke mukhiya ko 'sarajanadar' kaha jata tha. inake atirikt rajamahal ke kuchh any adhikari ‘amir-e-akhoor’, ‘shahana-e-pil, ‘amir-e-shikar’, ‘sharabadar’, muharadar’ adi hote the.

nyay prashasan

nyay ka uchch srot evn uchchatam adalat sultan svayn hota tha. sultan ke bad ‘sadr-e-jahan’ ya ‘qazi-ul-kujat’ hota tha, jisake niche ‘nayab qazi’ ya ‘adal’ kary karata tha, jinaki sahayata ‘mufti’ karate the. ‘amir-e-dad’ nam ka adhikari darabar men aise prabhavashali vyaktitv ko prastut karata tha, jis par qaziyon ka niyntran nahin hota tha.

pulis evn guptachar

alauddin ne apane shasan kal men pulis evn guptachar vibhag ko prabhavashali dhng se prastut kiya. kotaval pulis vibhag ka pramukh adhikari hota tha. pulis vibhag ko aur adhik sudharane ke lie alauddin ne ek naye pad ‘divan-e-risayat’ ka gathan kiya, jo vyapari varg par niyntran sthapit karata tha. ‘shahana’ v ‘dndadhikari’ bhi pulis vibhag se sambandhit adhikari the. ‘muhatasib’ sensar adhikari hota tha, jo jan samany ke achar ki raksha evn dekhabhal karata tha. alauddin dvara sthapit guptachar vibhag ka pramukh adhikari ‘barid-e-mumalik’ hota tha. usake niyntran men unake barid (sndeh vahak) kary karate the. barid ke atirikt any soochanadata ko ‘munhi’ kaha jata tha. munhi logon ke gharon men pravesh karake gaunn aparadhon ko rokate the. mukhyatah inhin adhikariyon ko alauddin ke bazar niyntran ki saphalata ka shrey jata hai.

dak paddhati

alauddin dvara sthapit dak chaikiyon par kushal ghudasavaron evn lipikon ko niyukt kiya jata tha, jo rajy bhar men samachar pahunchate the. vidrohon evn yuddh abhiyanon ke bare men soochana shighrata se mil jati thi.

sainik prabandh

alauddin khilaji ne antarik vidrohon ko dabane, bahari akramanon ka saphalatapoorvak samana karane evn samrajy vistar hetu ek vishal sudridh evn sthayi sena ka gathan kiya. usane ghodon ko dagane evn sainikon ke huliya likhe jane ke vishay men navinatam niyam banaye. sthayi sena ko gathit karane vala alauddin pahala sultan tha. usane sena ka kendrikaran kiya aur sath hi sainikon ki sidhi bharti evn nakad vetan dene ki pratha ko prarambh kiya. amir khusaron ke varnan ke adhar par ‘tuman’ das hazar sainikon ki tukadi ko kaha jata tha. alauddin ki sena men ghudasavar, paidal sainik evn hathi sainik the. inamen ghudasavar sainik sabase adhik mahattvapoorn the. 'divan-e-arij' pratyek sainik ki namavali evn huliya rakhata tha. farishta ke anusar alauddin ke pas lagabhag 4 lakh 75 hazar susajjit evn vardidhari sainik the. bhalibhanti janch-parakh kar bharti kiye jane vale sainik ko ‘murrattav’ kaha jata tha. ‘ek aspa’ (ek ghode vale sainik) sainik ko prati varsh 234 taka vetan milata tha tatha ‘do aspa’ ko prativarsh 378 taka vetan ke roop milata tha.

arthik sudhar

alauddin ko arthik sudharon ki avashyata isalie mahasoos huee, kyonki use apane samrajy vistar ki mahatvakanksha ki poorti ke lie evn nirantar ho rahe mngol akramanon ke karan ek vishal sena ki avashyakata thi. farishta ke anusar sultan ke pas lagabhag 50,000 das the, jin par atyadhik kharch hota tha. in tamam kharchon ko drishti men rakhate hue alauddin ne ek nee arthik niti ka nirman kiya. alauddin ke arthik sudharon men sena ki bhoomika mahattvapoorn thi. alauddin khilaji ki arthik niti ke vishay men hamen vyapak janakari jiyauddin barani ki kriti 'tarikhe-firojashahi' se milati hai. alauddin khilaji ke arthik sudharon ke antargat mooly niyntran ke bare men thodi bahut janakari amir khusaron ki pustak ‘khajainul-phutooh’, ibn batoota ki pustak ‘rehala’ evn isami ki pustak ‘phutooh-us-salatin’ se bhi milati hai. alauddin ka mooly niyntran keval dilli bhoo-bhag men lagoo tha ya phir poori saltanat men, yah prashn kafi vivadaspad hai. moralaind evn ke.es. lal ne mooly niyntran keval dilli men lagoo hone ki bat kahi hai, parantu pro. banarasi prasad saksena ne is mat ka khandan kiya hai. alauddin ke bazar vyavastha ke pichhe karanon ko lekar itihasakaron men matabhed hai. alauddin ke samakalin itihasakaron ne usaki is vyavastha ke bare men jo ullekh kiya, unamen kuchh pramukh nimnalikhit hain.
(1) jiyauddin barani - “in sudharon ke kriyanvayan ke pichhe moolabhoot uddeshy mngol logon ke bhishan akraman ka muqabala karane ke lie ek vishal evn shaktishali sena taiyar karana tha.”
(2) amir khusaro - “sultan ne in sudharon ko janakalyan ki bhavana se lagoo kiya.” alauddin ne ek adhiniyam dvara dainik upayog ki vastuon ka mooly nishchit kar diya tha. kuchh mahattvapoorn anajon ka mooly is prakar tha - gehoon 7.5 jital prati man, chaval 5 jital prati man, jau 4 jitan prati man, udad 5 jital prati man, makkhan ya ghi 1 jital prati 5/2 kilo. moolyon ki sthirata alauddin ki mahattvapoorn upalabdhi thi. usane khadyannon ki bikri hetu ‘shahana-e-mndi’ namak bazar ki sthapana ki thi. prakritik vipada se bachane ke lie alauddin ne ‘shasakiy ann bhandaron’ ki vyavastha ki thi. apani ‘rashan vyavastha’ ke antargat anaj ko paryapt matra men upalabdh karane ke lie sultan ne doab kshetr se lagan anaj ke roop men vasool kiya par poorvi rajasthan ke jhainakshetr se adhi malaguzari anaj men aur adhi nakad roop men vasool ki jati thi. akal ya badh ke samay alauddin pratyek ghar ko prati adha man anaj deta tha. rashaning vyavastha alauddin ki navin soch thi. malik-kabool ko alauddin ne khadyann ya ann bazar ka ‘shahana-e-mndi’ niyukt kiya tha.

saray-e-adal aisa bazar hota tha, jahan par vastr, shakkar, jadi-booti, meva, dipak jalane ka tel evn any nirmit vastuen bikane ke lie ati thi. 'saray-e-adal' vishesh roop se sarakari dhan se sahayata prapt bazar tha. 'saray-e-adal' ka nirman badayoon ke samip ek bade maidan men kiya gaya tha. is bazar men ek take se lekar 10,000 take mooly ki vastuen bikane ke lie ati thin. alauddin ne kapade ka vyapar karane vale vyapariyon ko khadyann vyapariyon ki tulana men adhik se adhik protsahan diya.

dilli men akar vyapar karane vale pratyek vyapari ko 'divan-e-riyasat' men apana nam likhavana padata tha. alauddin ke bazar niyantran ki poori vyavastha ka snchalan ‘divan-e-riyasat’ nam ka adhikari karata tha. usake niche kam karane vale karmachari vastuon ke kray-vikray evn vyavastha ka nirikshan karate the. pratyek bazar ka adhikshak jise ‘shahana-e-mndi’ kaha jata tha, bazar ka uchch adhikari hota tha. usake adhin ‘barid’ hote the, jo bazar ke andar ghoom kar bazar ka nirikshan karate the. barid ke niche ‘munahiyan’ ya guptachar kary karate the. adhikariyon ka kram is prakar tha - divan-e-risayat, shahana-e-mndi, barid aur munahiyan. alauddin ne malik yakoob ko ‘divan-e-riyasat’ niyukt kiya tha.

ghodo, dason evn maveshiyon ke bazar men mukhyatah char niyam lagoo the-

(1) kism ke anusar mooly ka nirdharan
(2) vyapariyon evn poonjipatiyon ka bahishkar
(3) dalali karane vale logon par kathor ankush aur
(4) sultan dvara bar-bar janch padatal

mooly niyntran ko saphal banane men ‘muhatasib’ (sensar) evn ‘najir’ (nap-taul adhikari) ki bhi mahattvapoorn bhoomika thi.

rajasv evn kar vyavastha

rajasv sudharon ke antargat alauddin ne sarvapratham milk, inam evn vakph ke antargat di gee bhoomi ko vapas lekar use khalasa bhoomi men badal diya, sath hi usane mukaddamon, khooton evn balaharon ke vishesh adhikaron ko vapas le liya tha. kar vyavastha ke sucharu snchalan ke lie ‘divane mustakharaj’ vibhag ki sthapana ki thi. alauddin ki rajasv niti ki saphalata, kar nirdharan aur kar vasooli ka shrey usake nayab vazir sharf kayini ko hai. alauddin ne paidavar ka 50 pratishat bhoomikar (kharaj) ke roop men lena nishchit kiya tha. alauddin pratham sultan tha, jisane bhoomi ki paimaish karakar (masahat) usaki vastavik ay par lagan lena nishchit kiya tha. alauddin ne bhoomi ke ek ‘visva’ ko ek eekaee mana. bhoomi mapan ki ek ekikrit paddhati apanayi gayi thi tatha sabase saman roop se kar liya jata tha. isaka parinam yah hua ki dhire-dhire zamindar krishakon ki sthiti men a gaye. sultan lagan ko ann men vasoolane ko mahattv deta tha. alauddin dvara lagaye gaye do navin kar the-

(1) charaee kar jo dudharoo pashuon par lagaya jata tha aur
(2) chari kar jo gharon evn jhopadi par lagaya jata tha

'karahi' nam ke kar ka bhi ullekh milata hai. ‘jaziya’ kar gair muslimon se liya jata tha. ‘khums’ kar 4/5 bhag rajy ke hissen men tatha 1/5 bhag sainikon ko milata tha. ‘jakat’ keval musalamanon se liya jane vala ek dharmik kar tha, jo sampati ka 40van hissa hota tha. 'divan-e-mustakharaj' ko rajasv ekatrit karane vale adhikariyon ke bakaya rashi ki janch karane aur vasoolane ka kary saunpa gaya.

mrityu evn nirman kary

jalodar rog se grasit alauddin khilaji ne apana antim samay atyant kathinaeeyon men vyatit kiya aur 5 janavari, 1316 ee. ko vah mrityu ko prapt ho gaya.

alauddin ke darabar men amir khusaron tatha hasan nijami jaise uchch koti ke viddhanon ko snrakshan prapt tha. sthapaty kala ke kshetr men alauddin khilaji ne vrittakar 'alaee daravaza' athava 'kushk-e-shikar' ka nirman karavaya. usake dvara banaya gaya 'alaee daravaza' prarambhik turki kala ka ek shreshth namoona mana jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

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