सूरत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parale paauint, soorat

soorat gujarat rajy ka prasiddh shahar hai. yah zile ka prashasanik mukhyalay bhi hai. soorat dakshin-poorvi gujarat rajy, pashchim bharat men sthit hai. yah 'khnbhat ki khadi' par tapti nadi ke muhane par sthit hai. kaha jata hai ki 1516 ee. men ek hindoo brahman 'gopi' ne ise basaya tha. soorat mukhyat: kapada udyog aur hire ki kating aur paaulishaing adi ke karyon ke lie prasiddh hai. yahi karan hai ki is shahar ko 'silk siti' aur 'dayamnd siti' ke nam se bhi jana jata hai.

itihas

12vin se 15vin shatabdi tak soorat shahar muslim shasakon, purtagaliyon, mugalon aur marathon ke akramanon ka shikar hua. 1514 ee. men purtagali yatri duarate barabosa ne soorat ka varnan ek mahattvapoorn bndaragah ke roop men kiya tha. yahan fransisiyon ne apani pahali kothi 'fraikon kairo' dvara 1668 ee. men sthapit ki. golakunda riyasat ke sultan se adhikar patr prapt karane ke bad fransisiyon ne apani doosari vyaparik kothi ki sthapana 1669 ee. men masulipattam men ki thi. 18vin shatabdi men dhire-dhire soorat ka patan hone laga tha. us samay angrez aur dach, donon ne hi soorat par niyntran ka dava kiya, lekin 1800 ee. men angrezon ka hi is par poornat: adhikar ho gaya.

karobariyon ki nagari

gujarat ki arthik rajadhani soorat pichhale kuchh salon men hire aur teksatail sektar men bharat aur duniya ke any shaharon ki tulana men kafi age badh gee hai. in donon karobaron ki vajah se soorat ne sirf gujarat hi nahin, doosare rajyon se bhi badi tadad men logon ko akarshit kiya hai. soorat ko qarib 400 varsh pahale se hi karobariyon ki nagari mana jata raha hai. jari ke karobar se shuruat kar soorat ne teksatail karobar men bhi apana nam duniya bhar men bana liya hai. aj soorat men qarib 7.5 lakh looms aur qarib 450 teksatail prosesing haus hain. isake alava 70000 embraauyadari ki yoonit hain. hire ke karobar men soorat men chhoti-badi qarib 90000 dayamnd kating aur paaulishing yoonit hain. in donon indastrij men badi tadad men logon ko rojagar mil raha hai, jisamen soorat ke bahar se akar base logon ki snkhya adhik hai. aj duniya bhar ke paaulish kiye ge hire men 80 phisadi soorat men taiyar hote hain. dayamnd aur teksatail indastrij ke alava soorat ke hajira sthit indastriyal eriya men diggaj knpaniyan, jaise- 'oenajisi', 'rilayns indastrij', 'essar' aur 'shel' bhi hain. is vajah se yahan ke karobariyon ki ek badi mang hai- havaee kanektiviti badhane ki. doosari suvidhaon ki bat karen to soorat desh ke sabase saph-suthare shaharon men ek hai. munbee-ahamadabad kaauridor ka aham hissa soorat duniya ke sabase teji se badhane vale shaharon men chauthe nnbar par hai.[1]

hira udyog

soorat ka hira karobar mashahoor to hai hi, ab ye uchchastariy vyavasthaon sahit haeetek bhi hota ja raha hai. mazadooron ki kami se nipatane ke lie yahan ke hira karobariyon ne adhunik mashinen lagava di hain. yahi nahin, soorat ke najadiki ganv ke logon ko hire ki tarashane v usaki paaulishing ki trening bhi de rahe hain. soorat men hire ka karobar shuroo hue qarib 50 varsh hi hue hain, lekin aj ye shahar hire ko tarashane aur paaulishing men duniya men avval ban chuka hai. duniya bhar men pahane jane vale har 100 hiron men se 80 ki kating aur paaulishing soorat men hoti hai. hire ki qarib ek lakh chhoti yoonit soorat men hain, jabaki aisi qarib 300 badi yoonit hain, jo eksaport bhi karati hain. apane karobar ko aur badhava dene ke lie soorat ke hira karobari adhunik takanik bhi apana rahe hain. soorat ka hira udyog ekadam uchchastar ka ho gaya hai. jis hire ki kating pahale hath se hoti thi, ab vahi kary lejar mashin se ho raha hai.

soorat ke udyogakar chahate hain ki unake karmachari bhi haeetek hon, isake lie unhonne gujarat ki sarakar ko anurodh kiya hai ki vah hire ki kating, paaulishing aur marketing ke diploma kors shuroo kare. soorat ke hira karobariyon ne soorat ke as-pas ke 50 kilomitar ilake men base ganv ke logon ko trening dene ka kam shuroo kar diya hai. isaki vajah ye bhi hai ki kendr sarakar ki 'narega yojana' ki vajah se inhen hire ki kating-paaulishing ka kam karane vale karigaron ki kami bhi ek varsh tak jhelani padi thi. soorat ke hira udyog men aj is udyog ke jarie das lakh logon ko rojagar mil raha hai. yahan ka hira duniya bhar ke deshon men niryat kiya jata hai. varsh 2010-2011 men bharat se 1,28,000 karod rupaye ke paaulishd hire niryat kie ge the, jabaki 2011-2012 men ye niryat qarib 1,11,000 karod rupaye ka raha tha. isaka adhikansh hissa soorat ka hi hai, aur isi vajah se 'soorat dayamnd siti' kahalane laga hai.[2]

hajira audyogik kshetr

shayar haaul, soorat
shri ram chauk, soorat

soorat ko 'fyoochar siti' banane men yahan ki dayamnd aur teksatail indastrij ke alava ek aur chij ne aham bhoomika nibhaee hai, jo hai- 'hajira audyogik kshetr'. soorat se qarib 25 kilomitar door hajira ek aham bndaragah bhi hai aur is ilake men desh ki kee badi knpaniyon ke plant hain. aj yah mana jata hai ki ane vale dinon men hajira aur teji se vikasit hone ja raha hai. desh ke bade bndaragahon men ek hajira soorat metropaaulitan rijan ki sabase badi khoobi hai. soorat se 25 kilomitar ki doori par samudr kinare base hajira men bharat ki kee badi aur nami knpaniyan hain, jinamen 'rilayns indastrij', 'elendati', 'oenajisi', 'gel', 'adani', 'essar grup', 'kribhako', 'shel' aur 'jiesapisi' shamil hain. pichhale 25 varshon men is ilake ne din-dooni-rat chauguni taraqqi ki hai. hajira bndaragah najadik hone ka bada phayada soorat ko mila hai, kyonki isi vajah se diggaj knpaniyon ne apane plant yahan lagae hain.

in knpaniyon men kam karane vale karmachariyon ki snkhya 2 lakh se bhi adhik hai aur badi snkhya men ye karmachari apane parivar ke sath hajira men hi base hain. is vajah se ab soorat aur hajira ke sampark ko behatar karane ki mang ho rahi hai. hajira ka ek aur phayada soorat ko mil raha hai, skil devalapament ke taur par, kyonki yahan ke bade udyogapati soorat ke dayamnd aur teksatail ke karigaron ko prodakt kvaliti behatar karane ki trening dete hain. hajira ko prastavit dilli-munbee ke dediketed rel phret kaauridor se jodane ka prastav hai. yahi nahin, dilli-munbee indastriyal kaauridor ke tahat hajira indastriyal eriya ke bade paimane par vikas ki bhi yojana hai. inhen bhi dekhen: hajira evn hajira snyntr

yatayat aur parivahan

poore bharat men aj apani ek khas pahachan bana chuka soorat shahar sadakamarg, relamarg aur havaee margon se poori tarah juda hua hai. yahan pahunchana ab adhik kathin kary nahin hai. is shahar men bhi yatayat ke sabhi sadhan upalabdh hain, jaise- bas, aauto, taiksi adi.

krishi aur khanij

soorat ke as-pas ke ilake men krishi hoti hai. kapas, bajara, dalahan aur chaval yahan ki mukhy paidavar hain. vastrodyog soorat shahar men hi kendrit hai. 1990 men ganna, angoor aur kele jaise nakadi fasalon ki krishi ki shuruat yahan ki gee thi. zile men ausat varshik varsha 1,071 mimi hai.

udyog aur vyapar

purtagaliyon dvara varsh 1512 evn 1530 ee. soorat ko jala die jane ke bad yah ek bada vikray kendr bana, jahan se kapade aur sone ka niryat hota tha. vastrodyog aur jahaz nirman yahan ke mukhy udyog the. angrezon ne 1612 men pahali bar apani vyaparik chauki yahin par sthapit ki thi. yahan ke sooti, reshami, kimakhab (jaridar kapada) ke vastr tatha sone v chandi ki vastuen prasiddh hain. soorat ke hire par paaulish ke udyog ne pravasi mazadooron kon apani aur badi snkhya men akarshit kiya hai.

janasnkhya

19vin shatabdi ke madhy men soorat ek gatihin nagar tha, jisaki abadi 80,000 thi, lekin bharatiy relave ki shuruat ke sath soorat phir se samriddh hone laga. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar nagar ki janasnkhya 24,33,787 hai. soorat zile ki kul janasnkhya 49,96,391 hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. karobariyon ki nagari, soorat (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 mee, 2013.
  2. dayamnd siti soorat hai phyoochar siti (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 mee, 2013.

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