डच  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

yooropiy desh 'nidaralaind' (jise pahale 'haaulaind' ke nam se jana jata tha) men rahane vale logon ko dach kaha jata hai. dach logon ne bharat ke itihas men apani ek mahattvapoorn bhoomika ada ki hai. bharat men inaka sabase pramukh uddeshy masalon ka vyapar karana tha. dachon ne bhi bharat men purtagaliyon se kafi lambe samay sngharsh kiya, aur purtagaliyon ki shakti ko kafi had tak kamazor kar diya. dachon ne 'indoneshiya' ko apana prathamik kendr banaya tha.

dach eest indiya kampani

dakshin-poorv eshiya ke masala bazaron men sidha pravesh prapt karana hi dachon ka mahattvapoorn uddeshy tha. dach log haaulaind ke nivasi the. bharat men 'dach eest indiya kampani' ki sthapana 1602 ee. men ki gee. vaise 1596 ee. men bharat men ane vala pratham dach nagarik 'karanolis dehastaman' tha. 20 march, 1602 ee. ko ek rajakiy ghoshana ke adhar par 'yunaited eest indiya kampani aauf d nidaralaind' ki sthapana ki gee. is kampani ki dekharekh ke lie 17 vyaktiyon ka bord banaya gaya. dach sarakar ne sanad bord ko 21 varshon ke lie yuddh karane, sandhi karane, pradeshon par adhikar karane tatha qilebandi karane ka adhikar pradan kiya. sthapana ke samay kampani ki poonji 65,00,000 gildar thi.

purtagaliyon se sngharsh

dachon ka purtagaliyon se sngharsh hua aur dhire-dhire dachon ne bharat ke sabhi mahattvapoorn masala utpadan ke kshetron par adhikar kar purtagaliyon ki shakti ko kamazor kar diya. dachon ne 'masala dvip punj' (indoneshiya) ko apana prarambhik kendr banaya. 1605 ee. men dachon ne purtagaliyon se 'avayana' le liya tatha dhire-dhire masala dvip punj (indoneshiya) men unako harakar apana prabhutv sthapit kar liya. unhonne jakarta ko jitakar 1619 ee. men isake khndaharon par 'bateviya' namak nagar basaya. 1639 ee. men unhonne gova par ghera dala aur 1641 ee. men malakka par adhikar kar liya. jabaki 1658 ee. men 'silon' ki antim purtagali basti par adhikar jama liya. dachon ne gujarat men koromndal samudr tat, bngal, bihar tatha udisa men apani vyaparik kothiyan sthapit kin.

mahattvapoorn kothiyan

bharat men dachon ne nimnalikhit sthanon par apani vyaparik kothiyan sthapit ki thin-

  1. masulipattam - 1605 ee.
  2. pulikat - 1610 ee.
  3. vimalipattam - 1614 ee.
  4. soorat - 1616 ee.
  5. chinasura - 1653 ee.
  6. kasim bazar, kada, patana, balasor, nagapattam - 1658 ee.
  7. kochin - 1663 ee.

karakhane ki sthapana

dachon ne bharat men apana pahala karakhana 1605 ee. men machhalipattam men khola. machhalipattam se dach log 'nil' ka niryat karate the. dach log bharat se mukhyatah masalon, nil, kachche resham, shisha, chaval v aphim ka vyapar karate the. dachon ne masalon ke sthan par bharatiy kapadon ko adhik mahatv diya. ye kapade koromandal tat, bngal aur gujarat se niryat kie jate the. bharat se bharatiy vastu banane ka shrey dachon ka jata hai. pulikat men nirmit dach faiktri ka nam 'goldriya' rakha gaya. goldriya bharat men dachon ki ekamatr qilaband basti thi. pulikat se dach apane svarn sikke 'pagoda' ko dhalate the. 1627 ee. men bngal men pratham dach faiktri 'pipali' men sthapit ki gee. 1653 ee. men hugali ke nikat chinasura men dachon ne apani kothi sthapit ki. chinasura ke dach qile ko 'gustavus fort' ke nam se jana jata hai. 1617 ee. men soorat men niyukt dach faiktri ke prabhari 'van khestejan' ne 1618 ee. men mugal shahazada khurram (shahajahan) se ek vyaparik sandhi kar bhadauch, bambee, ahamadabad, agara aur burahanapur men dach faiktri ki sthapana ki. 1680 ee. men sthapit portonova ek samriddh kapada utpadan kendr tha.

patan

dachon ka bharat men antim roop se patan 1759 ee. men angrenzon evn dachon ke madhy hue 'bedara ke yuddh' se hua. is yuddh men angrezi sena ka netritv raaubart klaib ne kiya tha. dachon ke patan ke karanon men angrezon ki tulana men nau-shakti ka kamazor hona, masalon ke dvipon par adhik dhyan dena, bigadati huee arthik sthiti, atyadhik kendriyakaran ki niti adi ko gina jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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