चावल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chaval

chaval vishv ki doosari sarvadhik kshetraphal par ugaee jane vali fasal hai. vishv men lagabhag 15 karod hekteyar bhoomi par 45 karod tan chaval ka utpadan hota hai. bharat vishv men chaval ka doosara bada utpadak desh hai. yahan par vishv ke kul utpadan ka 20% chaval paida kiya jata hai. bharat men 4.2 karod hekteyar bhoomi par 9.2 karod mitrik tan chaval ka utpadan kiya jata hai. chaval bharat ki sarvadhik matra men utpadit ki jane vali fasal hai. yahan lagabhag 34% bhoo-bhag par mote anaj ki kheti ki jati hai. bharat men chaval utpadak rajyon men pashchim bngal, uttar pradesh, andhr pradesh, bihar, madhy pradesh, chhattisagadh, tamilanadu, karnatak, udisa, asam tatha pnjab hai. yah dakshini aur poorvi bharat ke rajh‍yon ka mukhh‍y bhojan hai.

mitti

chaval uth‍padan ke lie upayukh‍t mitti 6.0 pratishat phaausphoras vali hoti hai. isamen vh‍yapak qism ki mitti hoti hai. achh‍chhi upaz pane ke lie bhoomi ki kam se kam char bar jutaee honi chahie. prath‍yek tisare varsh kisanon ko choona bij bone ke ek ya do saph‍tah pahale lagana chahie.

vishv utpadan

vishv men kul chaval utpadan ka 90% chaval dakshin-poorvi eshiya men prapt kiya jata hai. eshiya men pramukh utpadan desh chin, bharat, japan, bangladesh, pakistan, hindeshiya, taivan, myanmar, maleshiya, philipins, viyatanam tatha koriya adi hain. eshiya se bahar chaval ke pramukh utpadak desh misr, brazil, arjentina, snyukt rajy amarika, itali, spen, turki ginikost tatha malagasi hain.

chaval ke khet
chin

chin vishv ka sabase bada chaval utpadak desh hai. yahan par 3.2 karod hekteyar bhoomi par 17.1 karod mitrik tan chaval paida kiya jata hai jo vishv ke kul utpadan ka lagabhag ek tihaee hai.

bharat

bharat vishv men chaval ka doosara bada utpadak desh hai.

indoneshiya

indoneshiya vishv ka tisara bada utpadak desh hai jo kul utpadan ka 8% chaval utpadan karata hai. yahan par java dvip men sabase adhik chaval ka utpadan hota hai.

tapaman 200 se 270 °C
varsha 150 sentimitar 200 sentimitar
mitti chikani (jalodh)
khad supar phaausphet v amoniya, naitrojan, potaishiyam adi.
bangladesh

vishv ka 5% chaval utpadan kar bangladesh vishv ka chautha bada utpadak desh hai. yahan par bhoomi ke 60% bhag men chaval ka utpadan kiya jata hai. yahan varsh men chaval ki tin fasalen ugaee jati hain.

isake atirikt thaeelaind, japan, myanmar tatha koriya chaval ke pramukh utpadak desh hain. chaval ka sabase bada niryatak desh thaeelaind hai. isake atirikt myanmar, viyatanam, snyukt rajy amerika, snyukt arab ganarajy, paqistan, itali, brajil, peroo tatha astreliya adi bade niryatak deshon men shamil hain. chaval ka antarrashtriy shodh snsthan manila (philipins) men tatha rashtriy chaval shodh snsthan katak (udisa) men sthit hai.

prajatiyan

harit kranti ke dauran bharat men chaval ki anek prajatiyan vikasit ki gee jinamen vijaya, padma, kanchi adi pramukh hain. bharat men lagabhag 2,00,000 qish‍m ke chaval hain. bharat ke vibhinh‍n bhagon men upajaye jane vale chaval ke prakar hava, mitti snrachana, visheshataon par nirbhar karate hain. vishh‍v men chaval ka sabase bada kataee kshetr bharat men sthit hain. chaval ki kheti poore bharat men ki jati hai. 1965 se lagabhag 600 unh‍nat qish‍m ke indika chaval kheti ke lie jari kie jate rahe hain. chaval ki qish‍mon ke lie paripakh‍vata avadhi 130 se 160 dinon ke bich hai. yah chaval ke prakar aur jis kshetr men upajaya jata hai, par nirbhar karati hai.

vishisht qismen
vibhinn rajyon men ugaee jane vali chaval ki phasalen
rajy phasal evn samay buvaee ka samay kataee ka samay
uttar pradesh evn uttarakhnd 1. 'kunvari' (sharadakalin phasal)
2. 'agahani (shitakalin phasal)
joon se julaee
joon se agast
sitambar se aktoobar
aktoobar se disambar
bihar 1. 'madoee' (sharadakalin phasal)
2. 'agahani (shitakalin phasal)
mee se julaee tak
joon se agast tak
agast se aktoobar tak
navambar se disambar tak
asam 1. 'adoo' ya 'aus' (sharadakalin phasal)
2.'bao' ya 'sali' (shitakalin phasal)
3. 'bodo' (basant kalin phasal)
aprail se julaee tak
mee se julaee tak
aktoobar se janavari tak
julaee se aktoobar tak
aktoobar se janavari tak
pharavari se aprail tak
pashchim bngal 1. 'aus' (sharadakalin phasal)
2.'aman' (shitakalin phasal)
3. 'bodo' ya 'boro' (basant kalin phasal)
march se julaee tak
mee se julaee tak
aktoobar se janavari tak
joon se sitambar tak
aktoobar se janavari tak
pharavari se aprail tak

ar si pi el 1-28 aur ar si pi el 1-29 chaval ki do qismen hai jo samudr tal se 800 se 1300 mitar ki oonchaee par ugayi jati hain aur ve visphot rodhi hain. ar si pi el 1-81-8 chaval ki aisi qism hai jo madhh‍yam oonchaee men upajayi jati hai jo lauh vishakh‍tata ke prati sahanashil hai. vibhinn rajyon men paida ki jane vali chaval ki kuchh vishesh kismen is prakar hain - gahiakooloo, metasanaloo (andhr pradesh), samba, karuvaee, china, kichadi, (tamilanadu), champaboo, mela. kochoovih (keral), dilapasand, samudrasokh, hiranaki (madhy pradesh), ambemohar, jiresal (maharashtr), kamini, govindabhog, kalajira (pashchim bngal), jarisal (gujarat), basamati (uttar pradesh v uttarakhand), kali kamod, sutan, navari, kolamn (rajasthan) adi. vartaman men isaki adhik upaj dene vali tatha any visheshataon vali avishkrit evn vikasit ki gayi pramukh kismen hain - aee. ar. 8, aee. ar. 5, aee. ar. 20, si. o. 29, ti. en. 1, si. o. 34, aee. ee. ti. 1039, aee. ee. ti. 1136, taichung netiv, tinan 3, chiyachung 242, jaya, poosa 2-21 bhavani, saphari, sabaramati, bala, ratna, karuna, yamuna, jagannath, krishna, kaveri, padma, hnsa, annapoorna, vijay, pnkaj, saket, masoori adi.

desh men chaval ki tin fasalen

desh men chaval ki tin fasalen 'aman (shitakalin), aus (sharadakalin) tatha boro (ya grishmakalin)' paida ki jati hain.

desh ke pramukh chaval utpadak kshetr

poorvi bharat ka maidani pradesh jisamen poorvi uttar pradesh, bihar tatha pashchimi bngal ate hain. matra ki drishti se ghatate kram men pramukh chaval utpadak rajy hain- pashchim bngal, andhr pradesh, uttar pradesh, pnjab, tamilanadu tatha bihar. pashchim bngal evn tamilanadu men chaval ki tin fasale- aaus, aman, evn boro ugayi jati hain. desh men sabase adhik aman ka utpadan hota hai, jo joon se agast tak bokar navambar, se janavari tak kat li jati hai. chaval dvara hi hamare desh ki adhikansh janasnkhya ke bhojan ki apoorti ki jati hai, jisase yah mahattvapoorn khadyann ban gaya hai.

chaval ke khet, tamilanadu

sinchaee

kisi bhi kshetr men ropi jane vali chaval ki qism kshetr ki oonchaee par nirbhar karati hai. oonchaee ki bhoomi sookhi ya ardh sookhi hoti hain. yahan kisan apana khet sinchane ke lie varsha par nirbhar rahate hain. jutaee karane ke bad saman roop se khet se khad buaee ke 2 se 3 saph‍tah pahale vitarit kiya jata hai. bij buaee, hal ke pichhe bij bona ya boring ka prasaran karake manoosan ki barish hone ke turanh‍t bad bij boya jata hai. bij pnktiyon men 2 sentimitar ki doori par boya jana chahie. gili ya nichali bhoomi kheti aise kshetron men ki jati hai jahan sunishchit taur par paryaph‍t matra men jal ki apoorti hoti hai chahe vah varsha se ho ya sinchaee dvara. gili jutaee karane ke bad bhoomi ko jal aur arvarak ke saman vitaran ke lie samatal kiya jata hai.

mausam

buaee aur ropan ke lie do mausam hote hain:- rabi aur kharif mausam. chaval ek kharif fasal hai. chaval ki kataee aktoobar-navnbar men ki jati hai. chaval ek ushn katibandhiy fasal hai evn bharat ki manasooni jalavayu men isaki krishi ki jati hai. yah hamare desh ki mukhy khadyann fasal bhi hai. garm evn ardr jalavayu ki upayukta ke karan ise kharif ki fasal ke roop men ugaya jata hai. desh men khadyannon ke antargat ane vale kul kshetr men 47% bhag par chaval ki krishi ki jati hai. vishv men chaval ke antargat ane vala sarvadhik kshetr bharat men (28%) hai jabaki utpadan men isaka chin ke bad doosara sthan hai. bharat men vishv ke kul chaval utpadan ka lagabhag 21% chaval paida hota hai.

chaval ki kheti

chaval ki fasal

keral men chaval ki kheti tatiy naharon or laigoonon ke kheton men ki jati hai. yah (bhed) daik ke nirman karane ke bad kiya jata hai jo dal-dal ko sookhata hai. dakshini rajh‍y jaise karnatak aur andhr pradesh apane khet sinchane ke lie manasoon par nirbhar hote hain. pnjab aur hariyana men chaval ke kheton ko nahar jaise adhunik pranali se sincha jata hai. yahan chaval vanijyik fasal ke roop men upajaya jata hai. yah uchh‍ch domatiy mitti par ki jati hai jo parnparik chaval upajane vale kshetron ki mitti se bhinh‍n hoti hai.[1] desh men chaval ka prati hekteyar utpadan abhi bhi vikasit deshon ki tulana men bahut kam (matr 2026 kilogram) hai, jabaki japan men 6240 kilogram prati hekteyar chaval ka utpadan kiya jata hai. 2006- 07 ke dauran kul 934 lakh tan chaval ka utpadan hua, jo 1990-91 ki tulana men 1.55% ki varshik vriddhi ko darshata hai.

dharmik mahattv

chaval dharmik drishti se bhi atynt mahattvapoorn hai. koee bhi pooja, ygy adi anushthan bina chaval ke poorn nahin ho sakata. chaval arthath akshat ka matalab jisaka kshay nahin hua hai. shastron ke anusar akshat hi ek aisa anaj hai jise poorn svaroop mana jata hai. poorn svaroop hone ke karan ise sabhi devi-devataon ko arpit kiya jata hai. mana jata hai ki akshat chadhane ka bhav yahi hota hai ki jis prakar ham devi ko poorn svaroop chaval chadha rahe hain usi prakar devi bhi ham par poorn kripa aur ashirvad banae rakhen. hamari shraddha aur bhakti khndit na ho, sadaiv badhati jae. chaval dhan-dhany ka pratinidhitv karata hai at: ise devi-devataon ko chadhane ka ek bhav yah bhi hai ki hamare ghar aur samaj men dhan-dhany ki koee kami na ho. devi annapoorna ki kripa sadaiv bani rahe.[2]

mangalik kary
  • har mangalik kary men chaval ka vishesh mahattv hota hai. navaratri men ghat sthapana ke sath-sath har devi pooja men isaka upayog kiya jata hai.
  • hinduon men kisi bhi shubh karyon par mathe par roli ke sath chaval lagakar tilak kiya jata hai.

any bhashaon men nam

any bhashaon men nam
bhasha asamiya udiya urdoo kannad kashmiri snskrit gujarati
shabd chaul chauळ, bhat chaval akki taaumul akshat chokha
bhasha dogari tamil telugu nepali pnjabi bangla bodo
shabd arisi biyyum chaul chaul
bhasha manipuri marathi malayalam maithili snthali sindhi angrezi
shabd tanduळ, bhat ari chanvar Rice


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chaval (hindi) bharat daaut jiovi daaut in. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2011.
  2. chaval kyon chadhate hain mataji ko (hindi) (ech.ti,em.el) dainik bhaskar. abhigaman tithi: 28 janavari, 2011.

bahari kadiyan

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