पश्चिम बंगाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

India-flag.gif
pashchim bngal
West-Bengal-Map.jpg
rajadhani kolakata
rajabhasha(en) bangla bhasha, hindi bhasha, angrezi bhasha
sthapana 1 navambar, 1956
janasnkhya 8,01,76,197 [1]
· ghanatv 903[1] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 88,752 varg kimi[1]
bhaugolik nirdeshank 22.5697°N 88.3697°E
zile 20[2]
ling anupat 1000:934 [1] ♂/♀
saksharata 68.64 [1]%
· stri 59.61%
· purush 77.20%
rajyapal keshari nath tripathi
mukhyamntri mamata banarji[1]
rajakiy vriksh saptaparn (Alstonia scholaris)
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
West-Bengal-Seal.gif

pashchim bngal (bangla: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ poshchim bongo) bharat ke poorvi bhag men sthit ek rajy hai. isake pados men nepal, sikkim, bhootan, asam, bangladesh, udisa, jharakhnd aur bihar hain. isaki rajadhani kolakata hai. pashchim bngal men 19 zile hai. pashchim bngal ki mukhy bhasha bangla hai.

  • kriket tatha phutabaaul yahan ke lokapriyatam khelon men se hain.
  • mohan bagan evn eest bngal jaisi tim isi pradesh se hain.
  • nrity, sngit tatha chalachitron ki yahan lambi tatha suvyavasthit parampara rahi hai.
  • bnkim chndr, bhoodev mukhopadhyay aur svami vivekannd jaise maulik samajik chintakon ki bhoomi hai.
  • pashchim bngal men bhadoo bagdi nam ki ek vanavasi jati payi jati hai.

bhoogol

pashchim bngal rajh‍y ke poorv men bangladesh, pashchim men nepal, uttar-poorv men bhootan, uttar men sikkim, pashchim men bihar, jharakhnd, dakshin-pashchim men udisa tatha dakshin men bngal ki khadi hai. pashchim bngal rajy men bharat ke hugali nadi par kolakata se 22 mil uttar chaubis paragana zile men neehati nagar sthit hai.

kshetraphal

pashchim bngal ka kshetraphal 88,752 varg kilomitar hai.

jalavayu

pashchim bngal men ushnakatibndhiy ardr shushk jalavayu rahati hai. varshik ausat tapaman 26.8° se. rahata hai. grishm ritu garm evn ardr rahati hai, jisamen nyoonatam tapaman 30° lagabhag rahata hai. mee aur joon mah men yah 40° ko bhi par kar jata hai. shit ritu men nyoonatam tapaman 12° se. tak ho jata hai. disnbar se faravari ke bich yah tapaman rahata hai. grishmakal ke arnbh men dhool bhari andhiyan ati hain aur usake bad barish hoti hai jo bhishan garami se rahat dilati hai. manasoon men adhikatam varsha agast men hoti hain. kolakata ki pradhan samasya pradooshan hai. yahan ka saspended partikulet maitar (Suspended Particulate Matter) star bharat ke any pradhan shaharon ki apeksha bahut adhik hai jo dhundh ka karan banata hai.

itihas

bharat ke pragaitihasik kal ke itihas men bngal ka vishishh‍t sh‍than hai. sikndar ke akraman ke samay bngal men 'gngaridayi' namak samrajh‍y tha. guph‍t tatha maury samraton ka bngal par vishesh prabhav nahin pada. bad men 'shashank' bngal pradesh ka naresh bana. aisa kaha jata hai ki usane satavin shatabh‍di ke poorvarddh men uttar-poorvi bharat men mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. usake bad 'gopal' ne sath‍ta snbhali aur pal rajavnsh ki sh‍thapana ki. pal shasakon ne vishal samrajh‍y ka nirman kiya aur lagabhag char shatabdiyon tak rajh‍y kiya. pal shasakon ke bad bngal par sen rajavnsh ka adhikar hua, jinhen bad men dilli ke muslim shasakon ne parash‍t kiya. solahavin shatabh‍di men mugal kal se pahale hi bngal par anek muslim rajaon aur sultanon ne shasan kiya. ikhtiyaruddin muhammad bngal ka pahala musalaman vijeta tha.

mugalon ke pashh‍chat adhunik bngal ka itihas yooropiy tatha angrezi vh‍yaparik knpaniyon ke agaman se arnbh hota hai. sanh 1757 men plasi ka yuddh ne itihas ki dhara ko mod diya jab angrezon ne pahali bar bngal aur bharat men apane panv jamae. sanh 1905 men rajanitik labh ke lie angrezon ne bngal ka vibhajan kar diya lekin kangres ke netrith‍v men logon ke badhate hue akrosh ko dekhate hue 1911 men bngal ko phir se ek kar diya gaya. isase sh‍vatntrata andolan ki jh‍vala aur teji se bhadak uthi, jisaka patakshep 1947 men desh ki azadi aur vibhajan ke sath hua.

1947 ke bad deshi riyasaton ke vilay ka kam prarambh hua aur rajh‍y punargathan adhiniyam, 1956 ki sipharishon ke anusar padosi rajh‍yon ke kuchh bangh‍labhashi kshetron ka pashchim bngal men vilay kar diya gaya.

arthavyavastha

chhote akar ke bavajood pashchim bngal se bharat ke sakal ghareloo utpadan ka lagabhag chhatha hissa ata hai.

krishi

rajh‍y ki arthik vyavastha men krishi ki mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika hai. rajh‍y ke char men se tin vh‍yakti prath‍yaksh ya aprath‍yaksh roop se krishi karyon men lage hain. varsh 2006-07 men rajh‍y men kul khady uth‍padan 15820 hazar tan tha‍ jisamen se chaval ka uth‍padan 14745.9 hazar tan, gehoon aur dalahanon ka uth‍padan kramash: 799.9 hazar tan aur 154.4 hazar tan raha. isi avadhi men tilahanon ka uth‍padan 645.4 hazar tan aur aloo ka 5052 hazar tan hua. 2006-07 men patasan ka uth‍padan 8411.5 hazar ganthen raha. patasan, kapas aur kagaz ki milon ka pramukh kend bhatapara hai.

sundaravan
  • sundaravan, bharat tatha bangladesh men sthit vishv ka sabase bada nadi delta hai .
  • yahan ke narabhakshi bagh 'bngal taigar' ke nam se vishv bhar men prasiddh hain
  • poorn sundaravan 102 dvipon ka samooh hain jisamen 48 dvipon par basti hai.
  • yah lagabhag 9630 varg kilo mitar kshetraphal tak phaila hua hain .
  • lagabhag 40 lakh log sundaravan men rahate hain .
  • yahan adhikatar log 60 se 120 varsh pahale a kar base hain .
  • yah log poornatayah vanon se milane vale sadhanon par ashrit hain . in logon ki jivika- kheti badi, matsy palan, lakadi aur shahad sngrahan hai.

udyog

varsh 2007 men, upalabh‍dh ankadon ke anusar 3677.51 karod rupe ki nivesh vali 96 pariyojanaen shuroo ki geen. isake atirikt haladiya petro kemikalh‍s ki 34 adhogami pariyojanaon men 160.15 karod ru. ka nivesh kiya gaya hai aur is prakar kul nivesh 3837.66 karod ru. ho gaya hai. yah apekshit hai ki 150 yoonit ki kul snkhh‍ya ke sath 4014.84 karod ru. ka kul nivesh 2007 ke ant tak rajh‍y men karyanvit kiya jaega aur karyanvit pariyojanaon ki poori janakari upalabh‍dh hogi. pashchim bngal rajh‍y men 2007 ke dauran karyanvit sabase mahath‍vapoorn pariyojana

  • jay balaji indash‍tri li. dvara 153.73 karod ru. ki keptiv vidyut snyntr pariyojana hai jo samekit ish‍pat snyntr hai.
  • hugali met kop aur vidyut knpani li., 140 karod ru. ki lagat se mait narjikal kok enh‍d pavar ph‍lant,
  • ambuja siment li.,
  • 165 karod ru. ki vishal vish‍tar pariyojana, pharakh‍ka, murshidabad aur aee.o.si.el. 154.36 karod ru. vali vish‍tar pariyojana poorvi medinipur men ki jani hai. chhote ish‍pat snyntr, sh‍pnj ayaran, dhalaee vala pig ayaran adi men bhari nivesh kiya gaya hai.
  • bijali ki asani se upalabdhata, malabhada samh‍yata ko hatane, udyog ke lie prakritik snsadhanon ke pas sthit hone tatha shramik bal ke parnparik roop se lauh aur ish‍pat ikaiyon men dakshata pae jane ke karan is kshetr ke nivesh men vriddhi huee hai. hal ke varshon men siment udyog men nivesh bhi badh gaya hai.
  • janavari se agash‍t 2007 ke dauran 34 haladiya petro kemikalh‍s li. adhogami i‍kaiyon men 160.15 karod ru. ka nivesh kiya gaya hai. ye ikaiyan adhikanshat: nirman ph‍lastik madon men snlagh‍n hain jaise- baltiyan patr, molh‍did pharnichar, baitari ke patr, nayalaaun ki jaliyan, ghareloo saman adi.

pashchim bngal rajh‍y sarakar ne aauto mobail kshetr men bhi sashakh‍t avasar de rakhe hain. is kshetr men nivesh ko akarshit karane ke lie vishishh‍t nitigat karyakramon ko lagoo kiya gaya hai.

pashchim bngal men kie ge kul nivesh men se adhikatam nivesh ish‍pat aur vidyut kshetr men hoga. rajh‍y men uchh‍ch sambhavana niveshak sel ne kulati, banapur aur durgapur men ish‍pat uth‍padan kshamata ko badhane ke lie 20,000 karod ru. ke nivesh ki yojana ghoshit ki hai. isake bad el enh‍d ti pavar devalapament ka sh‍than hai, jisamen vidyut uth‍padan kshamata ko badhane ke lie haladiya men 20,000 karod ru. ki yojana banaee hai.

rajh‍y sarakar ne audyogik nivesh dvara tivr arthik vikas ki avashyata ko pahachana hai. soochana praudyogiki kshetr men nivesh aur is kshetr men rashh‍triy vriddhi 30 pratishat ki tulana men niryat ki vriddhi men 48 pratishat ki vriddhi huee hai. kolakata men lagabhag 45000 vh‍yavasayikon ko shamil karate hue 250 soochana praudyogiki aur soochana praudyogiki samarthit sevaon ki knpaniyan karyarat thin. saaulh‍t lek ke sekh‍tar 5 men soochana praudyogiki kenh‍dr bharat ka prathamapoornat: samekit ilekh‍traaunik kaaumh‍ph‍lekh‍s hai jo havaee adde ke pas pradooshan mukh‍t 150 ekad se adhik kshetraphal men phaila hua hai.

bijali aur sinchaee

kalakatta uchch nyayalay, kolakata

rajh‍y men badi evn madhyam sinchaee pariyojanaon par kary ho raha hai. rajh‍y men is samay 'tish‍t bairaj pariyojana' aur 'suvarnarekha bairaj pariyojana' par kam chal raha hai. isake karan dasavin pariyojana men 51.475 hazar hekh‍teyar sinchaee kshamata prapt ki ja saki. 11vin yojana ka lakshh‍y 210 hazar hekh‍teyar sinchaee ka srijan karana hai. kul 1,38,520 hekh‍teyar ki snchit sinchaee 2006-07 tak tish‍ta bairaj pariyojana men banaee gee hai jo 5,27,000 hekh‍teyar hai. 'subam rekha bairaj pariyojana men khariph ki 99248 hekh‍teyar tatha rabi ki 30,766 hekh‍teyar bhoomi ki sinchaee ki poorvi aur pashchimi maidanipur zilon men yojana hai.

puruliya zile men madhh‍yam 32 sinchaee yojanaon men se 25 sinchaee yojanaen poori ho chuki hain. rajh‍y men antim laghu sinchaee 44.34 lakh hekh‍teyar anki gee hai, jisamen se 31.34 lakh hekh‍teyar bhoomi bhoojal snsadhanon tatha 13.00 lakh hekh‍teyar bhoomi satahi jal snsadhanon se snchit ki jani hai. varsh 2006-07 tak 38.64 lakh hekh‍teyar laghu sinchaee ki yojana banayi gayi hai, jisamen se 81.96 pratishat ka upayog varsh ke antargat 31.67 lakh hekh‍teyar men kiya ja sakega.

pashchim bngal men is samay 'pashchim bngal vidyut vikas nigam limited', 'pashchim bngal rajh‍y bijali bord', 'kolakata vidyut apoorti nigam', 'durgapur pariyojana li.', 'disheragadh vidyut apoorti nigam' ith‍yadi dvara bijali ka uth‍padan kiya jata hai. varsh 2007-08 ke dauran rajh‍y men (apral se navamh‍bar) tak kul 21926.2 miliyan yoonit bijali ka uth‍padan kiya gaya. varsh 2007-08 ke antargat (navnbar 2007 tak) kul 36,944 maujon ka vidyutikaran kiya gaya evn 1,14,516 pnp set chalayi gaye.

yatayat

sadak marg

  • 31 march 2002 ko pashchim bngal rajh‍y men sadakon ki kul lnbaee 91,970 kilomitar thi jisamen 1,898 kilomitar lnbe rashh‍triy rajamarg shamil the.
  • sadakon ki lnbaee is prakar hai :
  1. prantiy rajamarg - 3533 kilomitar,
  2. lok nirman vibhag sadaken - 12565 ki.mi. aur
  3. zila sadaken - 42,479 ki.mi..
pashchim bngal ka manachitr

rel marg

  • rajy men 1854 men poorv bharatiy rel pranali k udghatan hua tha.
  • varsh 2005-06 men rajh‍y men kul 4499.82 kilomitar lnbe relamarg the.
  • rajh‍y ke pramukh relave jnkh‍shan hain: havada, asanasol, siyaladah, bndil, vardaman, khadagapur tatha jalapaeegudi.
  • vishv ka sabase lamba relave steshan khadagapur men sthit hai, jisaki lambaee 833 mi hai.
  • vartaman men rajy men do sthaniy relave mukhyalay hain aur yah shesh bharat se do rashtriy rajamargon se juda hua hai.

havaee marg

  • kolakata vayuseva ke madhyam se baingalor, munbee, dilli, chennee sahit sabhi pramukh shaharon se juda hua hai.
  • kolakata ke antarrashtriy havaee adde par adhunik jet viman ke pattan ki suvidha hai. rajy men ath any havaee pattiyan hain.

bndaragah

nadiyon men vashpachalit jalayanon dvara jalaparivahan ki shuruat pahali bar 19vin sadi men kalakatta, ilahabad aur guvahati ke bich huee. delta vali nadiyon ne sthaniy nadi jal-parivahan pranali ke vikas ke avasar upalabdh karae. svatntrata ke samay hue vibhajan aur naharon ke kshay se nadi parivahan pranali lagabhag poori tarah se thapp pad gee.

shiksha

  • pashchim bngal men 10 vishvavidyalayon ke sath abhiyantriki evn chikitsa mahavidyalay hain.
  • kalakatta, jadavapur aur ravindr bharati vishvavidyalay rajadhani men sthit hain.
  • yahan kee takaniki snsthan aur 5,000 se bhi zyada praudh shiksha kendr hain.
  • yahan kee zila, kshetriy aur gramin pustakalayon ke sath- sath ek kendriy pustakalay bhi hai.
  • saksharata dar 69.22 pratishat hai aur purush- mahila saksharata dar ke bich ka antar rashtriy ausat se kam hai.

janajivan

bhasha

pashchim bngal ki mukhy bhasha bangla hai. angrezi aur hindi bhasha bhi boli aur samajhi jati hain.

bngali bhojan

khanapan

  • pashchim bngal ke log machhali-bhat bahut pasnd karate hain .
  • pashchim bngal mithaeeyon ke liye prasiddh hai. rasagulle ka avishkar bhi yahin hua tha .

janasnkhya

2001 ki janaganana ke anusar pashchim bngal ki janasnkhya 80,176,197 hai.

sanskritik jivan

bngaliyon ne hamesha se hi sahity, kala, sngit aur rngamnch (natak) ko snrakshan diya hai. bangla sahity ka avirbhav 12vin sadi se pahale hua. hindoo dharm ke ek snghan bhavanatmak svaroop, chaitany andolan, ko madhyakalin snt chaitany (1485-1533) ne prerit kiya, jisane 19vin sadi ke arambh tak bangla kavita ke paravarti vikas ko akar diya. isake bad pashchim ke sath hue sampark ne ek drut bahumukhi srijanatmak yug ki shuruat ki. adhunak yug men any sahityakaron ke sath nobel puraskar vijeta kavi rabindranath thakur (1861-1941) hue, jinaka yogadan aj bhi bharatiy sahityik paridrishy par chhaya hua hai.

manornjan

rngamnch yahan lokapriy hai tatha ne kalakaron ke sath-sath peshevar kalakaron dvara mnch-prastuti uchch koti ki hoti hai. jatra khule rngamnch par hone vala parnparik karyakram hai, jisaki kathavastu ab spasht roop se pauranik evn aitihasik vishayon se samakalin vishay-vastu men parivartit ho rahi hai aur yah gramin aur shahari, donon shaharon men lokapriy hai. kathakata ek dharmik jap hai aur lokagiton par adharit gramin manornjan ka ek paramparik svaroop hai.

lepcha prajati ke log, darjiling, pashchim bngal

filmodyog susthapit manornjan ka ek adhunik lokapriy sadhan hai. bangla filmon ne bharatiy kathavastuon ki utkrisht prastuti ke lie rashtriy evn antarrashtriy puraskar hasil kie hain. satyajit ray, tapan sinha, mrinal sen aur aparna sen jaise nirdeshakon ke kary ka vishisht mahatv hai.

sngit

paramparik sngit bhakti aur sanskritik giton ke roop men hai. rabindranath thakur dvara likhit evn snyojit ‘rabindr sngit’, jise vishuddh bharatiy shastriy sngit ke sath-sath paramparik lokagiton men piroya gaya hai, bngaliyon ke sanskritik jivan par sashakt prabhav chhodata hai.

drishy kala

drishy kala parampara ke anusar, mukhyat: mitti ki moortiyon, pakki eenton (terakaauta) ki kritiyon aur sajja-chitron par adharit hain. kolakata ki indiyan esosiyeshan faaur kaltiveshan aauf sains, d bos risarch instityoot aur kolakata vishvavidyalay ki vigyan prayogashalaon ne vigyan ke kshetr men ullekhaniy yogadan diya hai. 19vin sadi ki suvikhyat bharatiy aitihasik anusndhan sabha eshiyatik sosaiti aauf bngal, pashchim bngal men hai. shantiniketan men rabindranath thakur dvara sthapit vishvabharati vishvavidyalay bharatiyata evn antarrashtriy sanskritik sambandhon ke adhyayan ka vishvaprasiddh kendr hai.

th‍yohar

durga pooja sabase mahath‍vapoorn th‍yohar hai isake atirikt kali pooja, sarasvati pooja, dipavali. basnt pnchami, lakshh‍mi pooja, holi, shivaratri, janh‍mashh‍tami, eed, krisamas adi tyohar bhi manaye jate hain. bngal men ayojit hone vale melon men gngasagar mela, kendoli mela, jalapesh mela, rash mela tatha paush mela pramukh hain.

paryatan sh‍thal

havada

pashchim bngal ka doosara sabase bada nagar hai. paryatak sthalon men havada brij paryatakon ko akarshit karata hai. havada brij ke atirikt paryatak yahan par havada steshan, mahanh baragad ka ped, beloor math, garachoomuk, panitaras-samtaber aur vidyasagar setu adi dekh sakate hain, jo bahut khoobasoorat hain. yah apani prakritik sundarata ke lie bhi bahut prasiddh hai.

jalapaeegudi

nadiyon aur pahadiyon se ghira jalapaeegudi pashchim bngal men hai. yahan par chay ke baganon aur jngal bahut sundar hain. yahan rahane vale nivasi bade milanasar aur hnsamukh hain. vah jalapaeegudi men ane vale paryatakon ka svagat bade adar aur utsah ke sath karate hain.

purooliya

purooliya pashchim bngal ka abhooshan nam se jana jata hai. yahan par prakritik sunh‍darata ke sath-sath atachala aur charachala shaili men bane mndir bhi prasiddh hain. in mandiron ke atirikt bagamundi, birnchinath, buddhapur, charra aur ganapur paryatak sthal hain.

varddhaman

varddhaman pashchim bngal men sthit hai. dhan ke kheton ke atirikt yah vishvaprasiddh paryatak sthalon karzan get, knchananagar, ek sau ath shiv mandir, mnkar aur kalyanoshvari mandir ke lie jana jata hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 mukhaprishth pashchim bngal (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) pashchim bngal ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 13 mee, 2012.
  2. adhikarik vebasait

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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