स्वामी विवेकानन्द  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(स्वामी विवेकानंद se punarnirdeshit)
svami vivekanand
Swami Vivekanand.jpg
poora nam svami vivekanand
any nam narendranath datt (mool nam)
janm 12 janavari, 1863
janm bhoomi kalakatta (vartaman kolakata)
mrityu 4 julaee, 1902
mrityu sthan ramakrishn math, beloor
abhibhavak vishvanathadatt (pita)
guru ramakrishn paramahns
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr darshanik, dharm pravartak aur snt
mukhy rachanaen yog, rajayog, gyanayog
vishay sahity, darshan aur itihas
shiksha snatak
vidyalay kalakatta vishvavidyalay
prasiddhi adhyatmik guru
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh rashtriy yuva divas, vivekanand raauk memoriyal, svami vivekanand ke anamol vachan
any janakari angrez bharatavid e. el. basham ne vivekanand ko itihas ka pahala vyakti bataya, jinhonne poorv ki adhyatmik snskriti ke mitratapoorn pratyuttar ka arnbh kiya aur unhen adhunik vishv ko akar dene vala ghoshit kiya.

svami vivekanand (angrezi: Swami Vivekananda, janm: 12 janavari, 1863, kalakatta; mrityu: 4 julaee, 1902 beloor) ek yuva snnyasi ke roop men bharatiy snskriti ki sugandh videshon men bikherane vale sahity, darshan aur itihas ke prakand vidvanh the. vivekanand ji ka mool nam 'narendranath datt' tha, jo ki age chalakar svami vivekanand ke nam se vikhyat hue. yugantarakari adhyatmik guru, jinhonne hindoo dharm ko gatishil tatha vyavaharik banaya aur sudridh sabhyata ke nirman ke lie adhunik manav se pashchimi vigyan v bhautikavad ko bharat ki adhyatmik snskriti se jodane ka agrah kiya. kalakatta ke ek kulin parivar men janme narendranath chintan, bhakti v tarkikata, bhautik evn bauddhik shreshthata ke sath-sath sngit ki pratibha ka ek vilakshan snyog the. bharat men svami vivekanand ke janm divas ko rashtriy yuva divas ke roop men manaya jata hai.

jivan parichay

vishvanathadatt pashchaty sabhyata men astha rakhane vale vyakti the. vishvanathadatt ke ghar men utpann hone vala unaka putr narendradatt pashchaty jagath ko bharatiy tatvgyan ka sandesh sunane vala mahanh vishv-guru bana. svami vivekanand ka janm 12 janavari, 1863 men kalakatta (vartaman kolakata), bharat men hua. roma rolan ne narendradatt (bhavi vivekanand) ke sambandh men thik kaha hai- "unaka bachapan aur yuvavastha ke bich ka kal yorop ke punarujjivan-yug ke kisi kalakar rajapootr ke jivan-prabhat ka smaran dilata hai." bachapan se hi narendr men adhyatmik pipasa thi. sanh 1884 men pita ki mrityu ke pashchath parivar ke bharan-poshan ka bhar bhi unhin par pada. svami vivekanand garib parivar ke the. narendr ka vivah nahin hua tha. durbal arthik sthiti men svayn bhookhe rahakar atithiyon ke satkar ki gaurav-gatha unake jivan ka ujjval adhyay hai. narendr ki pratibha apoorv thi. unhonne bachapan men hi darshanon ka adhyayan kar liya. brahmasamaj men bhi ve gaye, par vahan unaki jigyasa shant n huee. prakhar buddhi sadhana men samadhan n pakar nastik ho chali.

shiksha

1879 men 16 varsh ki ayu men unhonne kalakatta se pravesh pariksha pas ki. apane shiksha kal men ve sarvadhik lokapriy aur ek jigyasu chhatr the. kintu harabart spensar[1] ke nastikavad ka un par poora prabhav tha. snatak upadhi prapt karane ke bad ve brahm samaj men shamil hue, jo hindoo dharm men sudhar lane tatha use adhunik banane ka prayas kar raha tha.

svami vivekannd ki pratima

ramakrishn se bhent

yuvavastha men unhen pashchaty darshanikon ke nirishvar bhautikavad tatha eeshvar ke astitv men dridh bharatiy vishvas ke karan gahare dvndv se guzarana pada. paramahns ji jaise jauhari ne ratn ko parakha. un divy mahapurush ke sparsh ne narendr ko badal diya. isi samay unaki bhent apane guru ramakrishn se huee, jinhonne pahale unhen vishvas dilaya ki eeshvar vastav men hai aur manushy eeshvar ko pa sakata hai. ramakrishn ne sarvavyapi paramasaty ke roop men eeshvar ki sarvochch anubhooti pane men narendr ka margadarshan kiya aur unhen shiksha di ki seva kabhi dan nahin, balki sari manavata men nihit eeshvar ki sachetan aradhana honi chahie. yah upadesh vivekannd ke jivan ka pramukh darshan ban gaya. kaha jata hai ki us shaktipat ke karan kuchh dinon tak narendr unmatt-se rahe. unhen guru ne atmadarshan kara diya tha. pachis varsh ki avastha men narendradatt ne kashayavastr dharan kiye. apane guru se prerit hokar narendranath ne snnyasi jivan bitane ki diksha li aur svami vivekannd ke roop men jane ge. jivan ke alok ko jagat ke andhakar men bhatakate praniyon ke samaksh unhen upasthit karana tha. svami vivekannd ne paidal hi poore bharat ki yatra ki.

desh ka punarnirman

ramakrishn ki mrityu ke bad unhonne svayn ko himalay men chintanaroopi annd sagar men dubane ki cheshta ki, lekin jaldi hi vah ise tyagakar bharat ki karunik nirdhanata se sakshatkar karane aur desh ke punarnirman ke lie samooche bharat men bhraman par nikal pade. is dauran unhen kee dinon tak bhookhe bhi rahana pada. in chhh varshon ke bhraman kal men vah rajaon aur daliton, donon ke atithi rahe. unaki yah mahanh yatra kanyakumari men samapt huee, jahan dhyanamagn vivekannd ko yah gyan prapt hua ki rashtriy punarnirman ki or rujhan vale ne bharatiy vairagiyon aur sabhi atmaon, visheshakar janasadharan ki supt divyata ke jagaran se hi is mritapray desh men pranon ka snchar kiya ja sakata hai. bharat ke punarnirman ke prati unake lagav ne hi unhen antatah 1893 men shikago dharm snsad men jane ke lie prerit kiya, jahan vah bina amntran ke ge the, parishad men unake pravesh ki anumati milani hi kathin ho gayi. unako samay n mile, isaka bharapoor prayatn kiya gaya. bhala, paradhin bharat kya sandesh dega- yoropiy varg ko to bharat ke nam se hi ghrina thi. ek amerikan prophesar ke udyog se kisi prakar samay mila aur 11 sitnbar sanh 1893 ke us din unake alaukik tatvgyan ne pashchaty jagat ko chaunka diya. amerika ne svikar kar liya ki vastut: bharat hi jagadguru tha aur rahega. svami vivekanand ne vahan bharat aur hindoo dharm ki bhavyata sthapit karake zabaradast prabhav chhoda. 'sistars aind bradars aauf amerika' (ameriki bahanon aur bhaiyo) ke snbodhan ke sath apane bhashan ki shuruat karate hi 7000 pratinidhiyon ne taliyon ke sath unaka svagat kiya. vivekannd ne vahan ekatr logon ko sabhi manavon ki anivary divyata ke prachin vedantik sndesh aur sabhi dharmon men nihit ekata se parichit karaya. sanh 1896 tak ve amerika rahe. unhin ka vyaktitv tha, jisane bharat evn hindoo-dharm ke gaurav ko pratham bar videshon men jagrit kiya.
dharm evn tatvgyan ke saman bharatiy svatantrata ki prerana ka bhi unhonne netritv kiya. svami vivekanand kaha karate the- 'main koee tatvavetta nahin hoon. n to snt ya darshanik hi hoon. main to garib hoon aur garibon ka anany bhakt hoon. main to sachcha mahatma use hi kahoonga, jisaka hriday garibon ke liye tadapata ho.'

shishyon ka samooh

svami vivekanand

panch varshon se adhik samay tak unhonne amerika ke vibhinn nagaron, lndan aur peris men vyapak vyakhyan die. unhonne jarmani, roos aur poorvi yoorop ki bhi yatraen kin. har jagah unhonne vedant ke sndesh ka prachar kiya. kuchh avasaron par vah charam avastha men pahunch jate the, yahan tak ki pashchim ke bhid bhare sabhagaron men bhi. yahan unhonne samarpit shishyon ka samooh banaya aur unamen se kuchh ko amerika ke 'thauzend ailaind park' men adhyatmik jivan men prashikshit kiya. unake kuchh shishyon ne unaka bharat tak anusaran kiya. svami vivekanand ne vishv bhraman ke sath uttarakhand ke anek kshetron men bhi bhraman kiya jinamen almoda tatha champavat men unaki vishram sthali ko dharohar ke roop men surakshit kiya gaya hai.

vedant dharm

1897 men jab vivekannd bharat laute, to rashtr ne abhootapoorv utsah ke sath unaka svagat kiya aur unake dvara die ge vedant ke manavatavadi, gatishil tatha prayogik sndesh ne hazaron logon ko prabhavit kiya. svami vivekanand ne sadiyon ke alasy ko tyagane ke lie bharatiyon ko prerit kiya aur unhen vishv neta ke roop men ne atmavishvas ke sath uth khade hone tatha daliton v mahilaon ko shikshit karane tatha unake utthan ke madhyam se desh ko oopar uthane ka sndesh diya. svami vivekanand ne ghoshana ki ki sabhi karyon aur sevaon ko manav men poornatah vyapt eeshvar ki param aradhana banakar vedant dharm ko vyavaharik banaya jana zaroori hai. vah chahate hain ki bharat pashchimi deshon men bhi adhyatmikata ka prasar kare. svami vivekanand ne ghoshana ki ki sirf advait vedant ke adhar par hi vigyan aur dharm sath-sath chal sakate hain, kyonki isake mool men avaiyaktik eeshvar ki adharabhoot dharana, sima ke andar nihit annt aur brahmand men upasthit sabhi vastuon ke parasparik maulik snbndh ki drishti hai. unhonne sabhyata ko manushy men divyata ke pratiroop ke taur par paribhashit kiya aur yah bhavishyavani bhi ki ki ek din pashchim jivan ki anivary divyata ke vedantik siddhant ki or akarshit hoga. vivekannd ke sndesh ne pashchim ke vishisht bauddhikon, jaise viliyam jems, nikolas tesala, abhinetri sara barnahard aur madam emma kalv, englikan charch, lndan ke dharmik chintan revarend kainan vilvarafors, aur revarend hovis tatha sar paitrik gedes, haisinth laauyasan, sar hairaim naiksim, nelsan raaukafelar, lio taaulstaauy v romyan rolan ko bhi prabhavit kiya. angrez bharatavid e. el basham ne vivekannd ko itihas ka pahala vyakti bataya, jinhonne poorv ki adhyatmik snskriti ke mitratapoorn pratyuttar ka arnbh kiya aur unhen adhunik vishv ko akar dene vala ghoshit kiya.

masiha ke roop men

arabindo ghosh, subhashachndr bos, sar jamashedaji tata, rabindranath taigor tatha mahatma gandhi jaise mahanh vyaktiyon ne svami vivekanand ko bharat ki atma ko jagrit karane vala aur bharatiy rashtravad ke masiha ke roop men dekha. vivekannd 'sarvabhaumikata' ke masiha ke roop men ubhare. svami vivekanand pahale antararashtravadi the, jinhonne 'lig aauf neshans' ke janm se bhi pahale varsh 1897 men antarrashtriy sngathanon, gathabndhanon aur qanoonon ka ahvan kiya, jisase rashtron ke bich samanvay sthapit kiya ja sake.

atit ke jharokhe se

pashchim ko yog aur dhyan se parichit karane vale svami vivekannd ke bare men vahan kam hi log janate hain lekin bharat men is bngali buddhijivi ka ab bhi bahut samman kiya jata hai. nyooyaaurk men jahan kabhi svami vivekannd rahate the, vo bibisi snvadadata aimili byukanan ka hi ghar tha. bajari par kar ke tayaron ki charamarahat, ane vale toophan ki ashnka aur havaon ke sath jhoomate ped. 1970 ke dashak men aimili byukanan ke lie in baton ke koee mayane nahin the. unaka nazariya hal men us vakt badala jab inhen pata chala ki vah svami bharat ke sabase prabhavashali adhyatmik shikshakon men se ek the. svami vivekannd ne pashchim ko poorab ke darshan se parichit karaya tha. aimili byukanan ke parivar ne us jamane men unhen apane ghar men rahane ke lie amntrit kiya tha aur svami ji ke kam ke prakashan men unaki sahayata ki thi. shikago men hue dharmon ke vishv snsad se unhen duniya bhar men khyati mili. is dharm snsad men vivekannd ne sahishnuta ke paksh men aur dharmik hathadharmita ko khatm karane ka ahvan kiya. ajib ittafaq tha ki vah tarikh 11 sitnbar ki thi. ‘amerika ke bhaeeyon aur bahanon’ kahakar unhonne apani bat shuroo ki thi. pravahapoorn angrezi men asaradar avaz ke sath bhashan de rahe us snnyasi ne gerooe rng ka choga pahan rakha tha. pagadi pahane hue svami ki ek jhalak dekhane ke lie vahan maujood log bahut utsah se khade ho ge the. is bhashan se svami vivekannd ki lokapriyata badh gee aur unake vyakhyanon men bhid umadane lagi. eeshvar ke bare men yahoodivad aur eesaeeyat ke vicharon ke adi ho chuke logon ke lie yog aur dhyan ka vichar naya aur romanchak tha. ramakrishn paramahns ki anuyayi kailiphorniyaee nan ko vahan 'pravrajika gitaprana' ke nam se jana jata hai. vahan ritrit sentar chala rahin pravrajika gitaprana ne aimili byukanan ko poori jagah dikhaee. ghar men sath tahalate hue pravarajika ne bataya ki unaka bistar bharat bhej diya gaya hai lekin yah vahi kamara hai jahan vo soya karate the, is bhojan kaksh men vah khana khaya karate the. svami vivekannd bibisi snvadadata aimili byukanan ki paradadi ko 'joee-joee' kaha karate the. vah umr bhar unaki dost aur anuyayi rahin. un dinon kam hi dekha jata tha ki shvet mahilaen aur bharatiy ek sath yatraen karate hon.[2]

svami vivekannd dvara sthapit

svami vivekanand

vivekannd ne 1 mee 1897 men kalakatta men ramakrishn mishan aur 9 disnbar 1898 ko kalakatta ke nikat gnga nadi ke kinare beloor men ramakrishn math ki sthapana ki. unake angrez anuyayi kaiptan sarviyar aur unaki patni ne himalay men 1899 men 'mayavati advait ashram' khola. ise sarvabhaumik chetana ke advait drishtikon ke ek advitiy snsthan ke roop men shuroo kiya gaya aur vivekannd ki ichchhanusar, ise unake poorvi aur pashchimi anuyayiyon ka sammilan kendr banaya gaya. vivekannd ne beloor men ek drishy pratik ke roop men sabhi pramukh dharmon ke vastushastr ke samanvay par adharit ramakrishn mndir ke bhavi akar ki rooparekha bhi banaee, jise 1937 men unake sathi shishyon ne poora kiya. inhen bhi dekhen: svami vivekannd ke prerak prasng

granthon ki rachana

'yog', 'rajayog' tatha 'gyanayog' jaise grnthon ki rachana karake vivekanand ne yuva jagat ko ek nee rah dikhaee hai, jisaka prabhav janamanas par yugon-yugon tak chhaya rahega. kanyakumari men nirmit unaka smarak aj bhi unaki mahanata ki kahani kah raha hai.

mrityu

svami vivekanand ke ojasvi aur saragarbhit vyakhyanon ki prasiddhi vishvabhar men hai. jivan ke antim din unhonne shukl yajurved ki vyakhya ki aur kaha "ek aur vivekannd chahie, yah samajhane ke lie ki is vivekannd ne ab tak kya kiya hai." pratyadarshiyon ke anusar jivan ke antim din bhi unhonne apane 'dhyan' karane ki dinacharya ko nahin badala aur prat: do tin ghnte dhyan kiya. unhen dama aur sharkara ke atirikt any sharirik vyadhiyon ne gher rakha tha. unhonne kaha bhi tha, 'ye bimariyan mujhe 40 varsh ke ayu bhi par nahin karane dengi.' 4 julaee, 1902 ko beloor men ramakrishn math men unhonne dhyanamagn avastha men mahasamadhi dharan kar pran tyag die. unake shishyon aur anuyayiyon ne unaki smriti men vahan ek mndir banavaya aur samooche vishv men vivekannd tatha unake guru ramakrishn ke sndeshon ke prachar ke lie 130 se adhik kendron ki sthapana ki.


inhen bhi dekhen: svami vivekanand ke anamol vachan, ramakrishn mishan evn vivekanand raauk memoriyal


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. HERBERT SPENCER
  2. byukanan, aimili. 'main, meri dadi aur svami vivekannd' (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) amar ujala. abhigaman tithi: 20 janavari, 2013.

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