हिमालय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

himalay
Himalayas

himalay snskrit ke 'him' tatha 'alay' shabdon se milakar bana hai, jisaka shabdarth 'barf ka ghar' hota hai. himalay bharat ki dharohar hai. himalay parvat ki ek choti ka nam 'bandarapuchchh' hai. yah choti uttarakhnd ke tihari gadhaval zile men sthit hai. isaki oonchaee 20,731 phut hai. ise sumeru bhi kahate hain. himalay ek poori parvat shrinkhala hai, jo bharatiy upamahadvip aur tibbat ko alag karata hai. yah bharatavarsh ka sabase ooncha parvat hai, jo uttar men desh ki lagabhag 2500 kilomitar lnbi sima banata hai aur desh ko uttar eshiya se prithakh karata hai. kashmir se lekar asam tak isaka vistar hai.

bhaugolik tathy

himalay parvatamala ki ganana vaigyanik vishv ki navin parvat malaon se karate hain. isaka nirman sagar tal ke uthane se aj se panch-chhah karod varsh pahale hua tha. himalay ko apani poori oonchaee prapt karane men 60 se 70 lakh varsh lage. yah apani oonchi chotiyon ke liye prasiddh hai. vishv ka sarvochch shikhar maunt evarest himalay ki hai. vishv ke 100 sarvochch shikharon men kee himalay ki chotiyan hain. any parvaton ki apeksha yah kafi naya hai. himalay se sambaddh pahali parvat shrinkhala pir pnjal parvatashreni hai. himalay ke ek bhag ka nam 'kalind' hai. yahin se yamuna nikalati hai. isi se yamuna ka nam 'kalindaja' aur 'kalindi' bhi hai. donon ka matalab 'kalind ki beti' hota hai. yah jagah bahut sundar hai, par yahan pahunchana bahut kathin hai. apane udgam se age kee mil tak vishal himagaron aur hinm mndit kndaraon men aprakat roop se bahati huee tatha pahadi dhalanon par se atyant tivrata poorvak utarati huee isaki dhara yamunottari parvat 20,731 phit oonchaee se prakat hoti hai. himalay parvatashreni ke atirikt anaee shikhar bharat ki sabase oonchi choti hai.

pauranik sndarbh

pauranik varnanon men himalay ka ullekh 'himavan' nam se milata hai. vastav men vaidik kal se hi himavan bharatiy snskriti ka prerana srot raha hai. rigved men 'himavan' shabd ka bahubachan men (himavantah) prayog kiya gaya hai, jisase himalay ki brihat parvat shrnkhala ka bodh hota hai. himalay ke majaboot shikhar ka bhi rigved men ullekh hai.[1]

himalay
Himalayas
'gnga himavato jseshtha duhita purusharshabh.'[3]
'tada haimavati jseshtha sarvalok namaskrita tada satimahadroo pn kritvavegn ch dahsahamh.'[4]
  • valmiki ko himavan parvat ke anchal men nivas karane vali vividh jatiyon ka bhi gyan tha-
'kambojayavananshchaiv shakananpattananich, anvikshy varadanshchaiv himavantn vichinvath.'[5]
'avekshamanah kailasn mainakn chaiv parvatamh, gndhamadanapadanshch shvetn chapi shilochchayamh. uparyupari shailasy bahvishch saritah shivaah prishthn himavatah punyn yayau saptadasheahani.'[6]
'shatadroochandrabhagadya himavatpadanirgataah.[7]
  • puranon ke anusar himalay maina ka pati aur parvati ka pita hai. gnga isaki sabase badi putri hai. bhagavan shnkar ka nivas kailash yahin hai.
  • mahabharat ke anusar pandav svargarohan ke lie yahin ae the. yudhishthar devarath men baithakar jab sasharir svarg jane lage to unaki indr se bhent yahin huee thi.[1]
  • any puranon men bhi himalay ke vishay men asnkhy ullekh hai. 'himavan' nam vaidik hai tatha sarvaprachin pratit hota hai. himalay nam paravarti kal men prachalit tha. kalidas ne isaka prayog kiya hai.

pandav antim samay men himalay par galane ke liye chale gaye the tatha unaka janm bhi 'shatashrring' namak himalay ke shikhar par hi hua tha. himalay parvat men base anek tirthon ka varnan mahabharat men hai. vastav men is mahakavy ke adhyayan se mahabharatakar ki himalay ke prati agadh astha ka bodh hota hai. kalidas ko bhi himalay se adbhut prem tha. 'kumarasambhav' ke pratham sarg men nagadhiraj himalay ka sundar kavyamay varnan hai. isamen himalay ko prithvi ka manadnd kaha gaya hai-

'astyuttarasyan dishi devatatma himalayo nam nagadhirajah poorvaparau toyanidhivagahm, sthit: prithivya iv manadndah.'[8]

kalidas ka varnan

is sarg men kalidas ne himalay ki annt ratnaprabhavata, apsaraon ke alnkaran prasadhan men shamil rngin badal, parvat ke krod men sncharanashil meghon ki chhaya, himachalavasi kiraton dvara gajamuktaon ke sahare sinhamarg ka anveshan, vidyadhar sundariyon ka pranayapatr lekhan, kicharndhron men vayu ka venuvadan, devadaru vrikshon ke kshir se sugndhit shikhar, manipradipt giri guhaen, kinariyon ki mntharagati, parvat guha men chhipa hua andhakar, chndrakiranon ke saman dhavalapuchchh vali chamariyan aur mriganveshi kirat-in sabhi drishyon aur ghatanaon ke bade hi manoram aur yatharth chitr khinche hain.[1] 'meghadoot' men kalidas ne himalay ko 'praleyadri'[9] tatha gnga ka 'prabhav' tatha 'tusharagaur' parvat mana hai-

'asinanan surabhitashiln nabhigndhaimriganan tasya eb prabhavamachaln prapy gaurn tusharaiah.'[10]

jain grnth ka ullekh

jain grnth 'jnboodvipaprgypti' men himavan ki jnbudvip ke chhah varsh parvaton men ganana ki gee hai aur is parvatamala ke 'mahahimavnt' aur 'chullahimavnt' nam ke do bhag bataye ge hain. mahahimavnt poorvasamudr (bngal ki khadi) tak phaila hua hai aur chullahimavnt pashchim aur dakshin ki or varshadhar parvat ke niche vale sagar (arab sagar) tak vistrit hai. is grnth men gnga aur sindhu nadiyon ka udgam chullahimalay men sthit sarovaron se mana gaya hai. mahahimavnt ke 8 aur chull ke 11 shikharon ka ullekh is jain grnth men hai.

gahan prabhav

himalay ka havaee drishy

hazaron varshon tak himalay ne dakshin eshiya ke logon par vaiyaktik aur gahan prabhav dala hai, jo unake sahity, rajaniti, arthavyavastha aur pauranik kathaon men bhi pratibinbit hota hai. isaki vistrit barfili chotiyan lnbe samay se prachin bharat ke parvatarohi tirthayatriyon ko akarshit karati rahi hain, jinhonne is vishal parvat shrinkhala ka snskrit men namakaran kiya. adhunik kal men himalay vishv bhar ke parvatarohiyon ke lie sabase bada akarshan aur mahanatam chunauti hai. bharatiy upamahadvip ki uttari sima ka nirdharan karane aur uttar ki bhoomi ke lie lagabhag agamy avarodh banane vali yah parvatashreni ek vishal parvat pattika ka hissa hai jo uttari afrika se dakshin-poorv eshiya ke prashant tat tak lagabhag adhi duniya men phaili huee hai. himalay parvatashreni lagabhag 2,500 kilomitar tak pashchim se poorv disha men jammoo-kashmir kshetr ke nnga parvat (8,126 mitar) se tibbat men namacha barava (7,756 mitar) tak nirbadh roop se phaili huee hai. poorv aur pashchim ke in do sudoor chhoron ke bich do himalayi desh, nepal aur bhootan, sthit hain. himalay ke pashchimottar men hindukush aur karakoram parvatashreniyan aur uttar men tibbat ka pathar hai. dakshin se uttar tak himalay ki chaudaee 201 se 402 kilomitar ke bich parivartit hoti rahati hai. isaka kul kshetraphal lagabhag 5,94,400 varg kilomitar hai.

bhaugolik visheshataen

himalay ki pramukh lakshanik vishishtata isaki bulnd oonchaiyan, khade kinaron vale nukile shikhar, ghatiyan, parvatiy himanadiyan, jo aksar vishal hoti hain, aparadan dvara gahari kati huee sthalakriti, athah pratit hoti nadi ghatiyan, jatil bhaugarbhik snrachana aur oonchi pattiyon (ya kshetron) ki shrinkhala hai, jinamen vibhinn prakar ki vanaspatiyan, jntujivan aur jalavayu hain. dakshin ki or se dekhane par himalay vishalakay arddh chndr pratit hota hai, jisaka mool aksh himarekha se oopar sthit hai, jahan himakshetr, parvatiy himanadiyan aur himaskhalan nichali ghatiyon ki un himanadiyon ka hissa banate hain, jo himalay se nikalane vali adhikansh nadiyon ke srot hain. lekin himalay ka bada hissa himarekha ke niche sthit hai. is shreni ka nirman karane vali parvat-nirman prakriya ab bhi kriyashil hai, jisamen dharaon ke bhari aparadan aur vishal bhooskhalan jaisi gatividhiyan bhi shamil hain. himalay parvatashreni ko char samanantar, lnbavat, bhinn chaudaee vali parvat-pattikaon men vibhakt kiya ja sakata hai, jinamen se pratyek ki apani bhaugolik vishishtata tatha apana alag bhoogarbhashastriy itihas hai. inhen dakshin se uttar ki or is prakar banta gaya hai- bahari ya up-himalay; laghu ya nimn himalay; uchch ya vrihat himalay; aur tethis ya tibbati himalay, isase age uttar men tibbat men para-himalay hai, jo kuchh sudoor uttari himalayi shreniyon ka poorv disha men vistar hai. pashchim se poorv ki or himalay ko mote taur par tin parvatiy kshetron men banta gaya hai-

  • pashchimi
  • madhyavarti
  • poorvi

bhaugarbhik itihas

himalay
Himalayas

himalay parvatashreni alps se dakshin-poorv eshiya ke pahadon tak phaile yooreshiyaee parvatashreni ke vistar ka hissa hai, jisaka nirman pichhale 6.5 karod varshon men sarvabhaumik plet-vivartanik shaktiyon ke karan prithvi ki oopari satah par vishalakay ubharon ke banane se hua hai.

lagabhag 18 karod varsh pahale, jyooraisik kal men, jab tethis sagar namak ek gahari bhoo- abhinati yooreshiya ke samooche dakshini kinare ko ghere hue thi, purane vishal mahadvip gondavana (gondavanalaind) ke vikhndan ki prakriya shuroo huee. agale 13 karod varshon men isaka ek khnd, bharatiy upamahadvip ka nirman karane vali sthalamndaliy plet ke roop men, uttar disha ki or yooreshiyaee plet se takarane ke marg ki or badha, is bharatiy-aaustreliyaee plet ne dhire-dhire apane aur yooreshiyaee plet ke bich sthit tethis khaee ko vishalakay chimate ki bhanti jakad liya. jaise-jaise tethis khaee snkari hoti gee, badhate hue dabav ki shaktiyon ne isake samudri talachhat men kee vivartanik ubharon, gadhdon aur antargrathit bhrnshon ko janm diya aur grenait tatha baisalt ke bhndar isake gaharaiyon se kamazor ho chuke talachhat ki oopari satah par ubhar ae. tritiy mahakalp (lagabhag panch karod varsh pahale) ke arnbh men bharat, antatah yooreshiya se takara gaya. bharat, niche ki or tethis khaee ke niche lagatar badhane vali akshanati ke sath aparoopit ho gaya.

agale tin karod varshon men tethis sagar men bharatiy-aaustreliyaee plet ke doobane ke karan isaka samudr tal oopar ki or uth gaya tatha isake kam gahare hisse pani se oopar nikal ae. isase tibbat ke pathar ki rachana huee. pathar ke dakshini kinare par simant parvat, aj ki parahimalay parvatashreni, is kshetr ka pahala bada jalavibhajak bana aur itani oonchaee tak upar utha ki jalavayaviy avarodh ban sake. dakshini tikhi dhalanon par bhari varsha hone ke sath uttar disha men purani anuprasth khaiyon men badhati huee shakti ke sath pramukh dakshinavarti nadiyon ka shirsh jal ki or aparadan badhata gaya aur ye pathar par bahane vali dharaon men shamil ho geen. is prakar, aj ki jal apavah pranali ki rooparekha taiyar huee. dakshin ki or arab sagar tatha bngal ki khadi ke purane muhane prachin sindhu, gnga aur brahmaputr nadiyon dvara bahakar laee gee samagri se tezi se bhar ge. vistrit aparadan aur nikshepan ki prakriya aj bhi jari hai aur ye nadiyan pratidin bhari matra men samagri bahakar le jati hain.

'nape' ki rachana

antatah lagabhag tin karod varsh pahale madhyanootan yug (maiosin epaauk) men donon pleton ke bich tootate hue judane ki prakriya men tezi se vriddhi huee aur isake phalasvaroop himalay parvat ki nirman prakriya ka vastavik arnbh hua. bharatiy upamahadvipiy plet ka tethis khaee men doobana jari raha aur prachin gondavana roopantarit chattanen dakshin men lambi kshaitij doori tak chhilake ki tarah nikalakar apane hi dher par ekatr hoti rahin aur isa prakar 'nape' ki rachana huee. bharatiy bhoomi kshetr par dakshin disha men 97 kilomitar ki doori tak nape ki tah bichhati gee. pratyek ne nape men pahale ke nape ke muqabale zyada purani gondavana chattanen thin. kalakram men ye nape valayakar ho ge aur isase bhootapoorv khaee, pahale ke muqabale lagabhag 402 kshaitij kilomitar (kuchh vidvan ise 805 kilomitar batate hain) tak sikud ge. is bich, niche ki or bahane vali nadiyan bhi utthan ki dar sindhu, gnga aur brahmaputr nadiyon men ikathta ho raha tha. is avasad ke vazan se vahan gadhde ban ge, jisase aur adhik avasad ekatr hota gaya. gnga ke maidan ke niche kuchh sthanon par jalodhak 7,620 mitar se bhi adhik hai.

himalay
Himalayas

pichhale matr 6 lakh varshon ke dauran, atynt nootan yug (plaistosin epaauk, 16 lakh se 10 hazar varsh pahale tak) men hi himalay prithvi ki sabase oonchi parvat shrinkhala bani. yadi madhy nootan yug aur atinootan yug ki visheshata shaktishali kshaitij bal thi, to atynt nootan yug ki khasiyat zabaradast utthan shakti thi. sudoor uttari nape ke madhyavarti hisse men aur isake thik bad navin pattitashm tatha grenait yukt ravedar chattanen ubharin, jinase aj dikhaee dene vale oonche shikharon ka nirman hua. maunt evarest jaisi kuchh chotiyon par ravedar chattanon ne prachin jivashmon se yukt uttar disha ke tethis avasad ko shikhar par jama kar diya.

jalavayaviy avarodh

ek bar vishal himalay jalavayaviy avarodh ban gaya, to uttar men sthit simant parvat varsha se vnchit ho ge tatha tibbat ke pathar ki tarah sookh ge. isake viparit nam dakshini kagaron par nadiyan itani aparadanakari shaktiyon ke sath prakat hueen ki unhonne shirsh rekha ko dhire-dhire uttar disha men dhakel diya. sath hi himalay se phootane vali vishal anuprasth nadiyon ne in vishal nadiyon ke alava any sabhi ko unaki nichali dharaon men parivartan ke lie badhy kiya, kyonki jaise-jaise uttari shikhar oopar uth raha tha, vaise hi vishal nape ka dakshini sira bhi uth raha tha. in shaktiyon tatha valayon se shivalik shreni ka nirman hua tatha nimn himalay kshetr men snvalit hokar madhyavarti kshetr ki utpatti huee. is dauran dakshin ki or bahav men avarodh a jane se adhikansh chhoti nadiyan poorv ya pashchim men madhyavarti kshetr ke snrachanatmak taur par kamazor hisson ke zariye ne dakshini avarodh ko todane ya kisi badi dhara men milane tak bahati rahin.

kashmir ghati aur nepal ki kathamandoo ghati jaisi kuchh ghatiyon men asthaee roop se jhilon ka nirman hua, jinamen atynt nootan yug (plaistosin) ka nikshep ekatr ho gaya. lagabhag 2 lakh sal pahale sookhane ke bad kathamandoo ghati kam se kam 198 mitar tak oopar uthi hai, jo laghu himalay kshetr men sthaniy utthan ka soochak hai.

bhoo-akriti vigyan

bahy himalay men samatal bhoomi vali snrachanatmak ghatiyan aur himalay parvatashreni ki dakshini sima par sthit shivalik bharat par sthit shivalik pahadiyan hain. poorv ke kuchh chhote darron ko chhodakar shivalik bharat ke himachal pradesh men adhikatar 110 kilomitar ki chaudaee ke sath himalay ki poori lnbaee tak phaila hua hai. amataur par 274 mitar ki samochch rekha isaki dakshini sima nirdharit karati hai. uttar bharat men isaki oonchaee 762 mitar tak hai. mukhy shivalik shreni ka dakshini hissa bharatiy maidanon ki or tikhi dhalan vala hai aur uttar ki or samatal bhoomi vale besin, jinhen doon kaha jata hai ki dhal kam tikhi hai. inamen se sabase vikhyat uttaranchal ka parvatiy kshetr deharadoon hai.

laghu himalay

  • laghu himalay ko antarik himalay, nimn himalay ya madhy himalay bhi kahalata hai.
  • himalay parvat shrinkhala ka madhyavarti bhag, dakshin-poorvi disha men uttari pakistan, uttar bharat, nepal, sikkim (bharat) aur bhootan tak vistrit hai.
  • yah shrinkhala vrihad (uttar) aur shivalik ya bah (dakshin) himalay shrinkhalaon ke bich sthit hai.
  • isaki aurat oonchaee 3,700 se 4,500 mitar tak hai. isamen pnjab, kumaoon, nepal aur asam ke himalay kshetr shamil hain.
nag tibba
himalay
Himalayas

in tin shreniyon men sabase poorv men nag tibba ka poorvi sira nepal men lagabhag 8,169 mitar ooncha hai aur yah gnga v yamuna nadiyon ke bich uttarakhnd men jalavibhajak kshetr ka nirman karata hai.

snrachanatmak besin

pashchim men kashmir ki khoobasoorat ghati hai, jo ek snrachanatmak besin hai (ek valayakar besin, jisamen chattani parat kendriy bindu ki or jhuki huee hai) aur laghu himalay ke ek mahattvapoorn khnd ka nirman karati hai. yah dakshin-poorv se poorvottar ki or lagabhag 160 kilomitar tak phaili huee hai aur isaki chaudaee 80 kilomitar tak hai. isaki ausat oonchaee 1,554 mitar hai. is besin se hokar tiryak roop se sarpakar jhelam nadi bahati hai jo jammoo-kashmir ki vishal mithe pani ki vular jhil se hokar bahati hai.

uchch himalay shreni

samooche parvatiy kshetr ki ridh uchch himalay shreni hai, jo satat himarekha se oopar tak uthi huee hain. yah parvatashreni nepal men apani adhikatam oonchaee tak pahunchati hai, jahan vishv ki 14 sabase oonchi chotiyon men se 9 sthit hain. inamen se pratyek ki oonchaee 7,925 mitar se adhik hai. pashchim se poorv ki or inake nam hain. dhaulagiri-1, annapoorna-1, manasaloo-1, cho yoo, gyachung kang-1, maunt evarest, lhotse, makaloo-1 aur knchanajnga-1. age poorv men bharat ka hissa ban chuke prachir himalayi rajy sikkim men pravesh karate samay yah shreni dakshin-poorvi disha se poorv disha apana leti hai. isake bad yah agale 418.34 kilomitar tak bhootan aur arunachal pradesh ke poorvi hisse men kangto shikhar (7,090 mitar) tak yah poorv disha men badhati hai aur antat: poorvottar men mudakar namacha barava men samapt ho jati hai.

uchch himalay aur isake uttar ki shreniyon, patharon tatha besinon ke bich koee spasht simarekha nahin hai aur inhen amataur par tethis himalay tatha sudoor uttar men tibbat ke roop men samoohabaddh kiya jata hai. kashmir aur himachal pradesh men tethis sabase chaude hain, jinase spiti besin aur zaskar parvaton ka nirman hota hai. isake sabase oonche shikhar dakshin-poorv disha men sataluj nadi ke uttar men shipaki darre ke samane sthit liyo pargiyal 6,791 mitar aur shilla 7,026 mitar hain.

apavah

himalay ke apavah men 19 pramukh nadiyan hain. jinamen brahmaputr v sindhu sabase badi hai, donon men se pratyek ka parvaton men 2,59,000 varg kilomitar vistrit jalasngrahak besin hai. any nadiyon men se panch, jhelam, chenab, ravi, vyas, aur sataluj sindhu tntr ki nadiyan hain. jinaka kul jalagrahan kshetr lagabhag 1,32,090 varg kilomitar hai. nau nadiyan, gnga, yamuna, ramagnga , kali, karanali, rapti, gndak, bagamati v kosi, gnga tntr ki hain, jinaka jalagrahan kshetr 2,17,560 varg kilomitar hai aur tin, tista, raidak v manas, brahmaputr tntr ki hain jo 1,83,890 varg kilomitar kshetr ko apavahit karati hain.

himalay
Himalayas

pramukh himalayi nadiyan parvatashreni ke uttar se nikalati hain aur gahare mahakhaddon se hoti huee bahati hain, jo amataur par kuchh bhaugorbhik snrachanatmak niyntran ko spasht karata hai. sindhu tntr ki nadiyon ka bahav ek niyam ki tarah pashchimottar hai, jabaki gnga-brahmaputr nadi tntr ki nadiyan parvatiy kshetr se bahate hue poorvi marg apanati hain.

bharat ke uttar men karakoram shreni, jisake pashchim men hindukush v poorv men laddakh shreni hai, ek vishal jalavibhag banati hai jo sindhu tntr ko madhy eshiya ki nadiyon se alag karata hai. is vibhajan ke poorv men kailash shreni aur poorv ki or age nianaking tnggula parvat hain, jo brahmaputr, uchch himalay shreni ke mahakhadd ko par karane se pahale poorv ki or lagabhag 1,488 kilomitar bahati hai. isaki bahut si tibbati sahayak nadiyan viparit disha men bahati hain aur snbhavatah kabhi brahmaputr ki bhi yahi disha rahi hogi.

jal-vibhajan

uchch himalay, jo samanyah apani samoochi lnbaee men pramukh jal-vibhajan hai, kuchh simit kshetron men hi jal-vibhajan ka kam karata hai. isaka karan yah hai ki pramukh himalayi nadiyan, jaise sindhu, brahmaputr sataluj aur gnga ki do pramukh dharaen, alakannda v bhagirathi un parvaton se bhi purani hain, jinhen ve katati hain. aisa vishvas hai ki himalay itani dhimi gati se utha ki purani nadiyon ko dharaon men bahate rahane men koee pareshani nahin huee aur himalay ke uthane se unake bahav ne gati pakad li, jisase ve ghatiyon ka katav tezi se kar paeen. is prakar himalay ka unnayan aur ghatiyon ka gahara hona sath-sath jari raha, parinamasvaroop, parvatashreniyon ke sath poornatah vikasit nadi tntr ka udbhav hua, jo gahare anuprasth mahakhandon men kata tha. inaki gaharaee 1,524 se 4,877 mitar v chaudaee 10 se 48 kilomitar hai. apavah tntr ka arnbhik mool is anokhe tathy ko spasht karata hai ki pramukh nadiyan n keval uchch himalay ki dakshini dhalon ko, balki ek vishal sima tak isaki uttari dhalon ko bhi apavahit karati hain, kyonki jal-vibhajak kshetr shirsh rekha ke uttar men sthit hai.

himanad

ek jal-vibhajak ke roop men uchch himalay shreni ki bhoomika ko sataluj v sindhu ghati ke bich ke 579 kilomitar ke kshetr men dekha ja sakata hai. uttari dhalon men uttar ki or bahane vali zaauskar v dras nadiyan hain, jo sindhu nadi men apavahit hoti hain. gleshiyar (himanad) bhi oonche kshetron ko apavahit karane v himalayi nadiyon ke poshan (pani dene) men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhate hain. uttarakhnd men anek himanad hain, jinamen se sabase bada gngotri himanad 32 kilomitar lnba hai aur gnga ke sroton men se ek hai. khunbu himanad nepal ke evarest kshetr ko apavahit karata hai aur is parvat ki chadhaee ka sabase lokapriy marg hai. himalay kshetr ke himanadon ki gati ki dar ullekhaniy roop se bhinn hai. karakoram shreni men baltoro himanad pratidin do mitar khisakata hai, jabaki khunbu jaise any himanad pratidin keval lagabhag 30 sentimitar tak hi khisak pate hain. himalay ke adhikansh himanad sikud rahe hain.

mitti

himalay
Himalayas

himalay ki mitti ke bare men adhik janakari upalabdh nahin hai. uttaramukhi dhalanon par mitti ki achchhi-khasi moti parat hai, jo kam oonchaiyon par ghane jngalon tatha adhik oonchaee par ghas ka poshan karati hai. jngal ki mitti gahare bhoore rng ki hai tatha isaki banavat chikani domat hai. yah phalon ke vriksh ugane ke lie adarsh mitti hai. parvatiy ghas sthali ki mitti bhalibhanti vikasit hai, lekin isaki motaee tatha rasayanik gun alag-alag hain.

jalavayu

hava aur jal sncharan ki vishal pranaliyon ko prabhavit karane vale vishal jalavayaviy vibhajak ke roop men himalay dakshin men bharatiy upamahadvip aur uttar men madhy eshiyaee uchchabhoomi ki mausami sthitiyon ko prabhavit karane men pramukh bhoomika nibhata hai. apani sthiti aur vishal oonchaee ke karan himalay parvatashreni sardiyon men uttar ki or se ane vali thndi yooropiy vayu ko bharat men pravesh karane se rokati hai aur dakshin-pashchim maaunasooni havaon ko parvatashreni ko par karake uttar men jane se pahale adhik varsha ke lie bhi badhy karati hai. is prakar, bharatiy kshetr men bhari matra men varsha (barish aur himapat) hoti hai, lekin vahin tibbat men marusthaliy sthitiyan hain. dakshini dhalanon par shimala aur pashchimi himalay ke masoori men ausat salana varsha 1,530 mimi tatha poorvi himalay ke darjiling men 3,048 mimi hoti hai. uchch himalay ke uttar men sindhu ghati ke kashmir kshetr men sthit skardoo gilagit aur leh men sirf 76 se 152 mimi varsha hoti hai.

vanaspati jivan

himalay men paee jane vali vanaspati ko oonchaee aur barish ke adhar par mukhyatah char kshetron men banta ja sakata hai- ushn, uposhn, shitoshn aur amliy. oonchaee tatha jalavayu men sthaniy bhinnata tatha soory ke prakash aur hava ke karan pratyek kshetr ke vanaspatik jivan men kafi bhinnata paee jati hai. ushnakatibndhiy varsha prachur van, poorvi aur madhy himalay ki nam taraiyon tak simit hai. sadabahar dipterokarps, imarati lakadi aur ral utpad karane vale vriksh am hain. inaki vibhinn prajatiyan, vibhinn mittiyon tatha bhinn dhalon vali parvatiy dhalanon par ugati hain. ayaranavud (mesua feriya) 183 aur 732 mitar ki oonchaiyon ke bich chhidradar mitti ke kshetr men paya jata hai.
himalay
Himalayas
tikhi dhalanon par bans ugate hain, ok aur chestanat 1,097 se 1,737 mitar ki oonchaiyon par pashchim men himachal pradesh se madhy nepal tak baluee pattharon ko dhakane vali ashmamrida men ugate hain. tikhi dhalanon par jaladharaon ke kinare eldar ke vriksh pae jate hain. adhik oonchaee par inaka sthan parvatiy se van le lete hain, jinamen samany sadabahar prajati pendanas faraketas hai, jo ek prakar ka skroo pain (ketaki) hai. poorvi himalay men anumanatah in vrikshon ke alava lagabhag 4,000 prajatiyon ke phooladar paudhe pae jate hain, jinamen se 20 khajoor jati ke hain. pashchim ki or ghatati huee varsha aur badhati huee oonchaee ke sath-sath varsha vanon ka sthan ushnakatibndhiy parnapati van le lete hain, jahan bahumooly imarati vriksh sal (shoriya robasta) pramukh prajati hai, sal 914 mitar (nam sal) se 1,372 mitar (shushk sal) ki oonchaiyon tak ke oonche patharon men phalata-phoolata hai. isake aur age pashchim men kramashah stepi van (vistrit maidanon men sthit van) uposhn katibndhiy kantedar stepi aur uposhn katibndhiy upamarusthaliy vanaspati paee jati hai. shitoshn van lagabhag 1,372 se 3,353 mitar ki oonchaiyon ke bich phaile hue hain aur inamen shnkudhari tatha chaudi pattiyon vale shitoshn katibndhiy vriksh pae jate hain. ok tatha shnkudhari vrikshon ke sadabahar jngalon ki sudoor pashchimi parvatiy sima pakistan men ravalapindi ke lagabhag 48 kilomitar pashchimottar men madhi ke oopar ke pahadon par sthit hai. ye van nimn himalay ki vishishtata hain, jo bharat men kashmir ke pir pnjal ki bahari dhalanon par spasht dikhate hain.
chid pain

823 se 1,646 mitar ki oonchaee tak chid pain (painas raauksabarghi) pramukh prajati hai. andarooni ghatiyon men yah prajati 1,920 mitar ki oonchaee tak bhi paee ja sakati hai.

devadar

devadar, jo kafi mahattvapoorn sthaniy prajati hai, mukhyatah parvatashreni ke pashchimi hisse men paee jati hai. yah prajati 1,920 se 2,743 mitar ki oonchaee ke bich ugati hai tatha sataluj v gnga nadiyon ki oopari ghatiyon men aur adhik oonchaee par bhi ug sakati hai. any shnkudhari vrikshon men bloo pain v sproos ke vriksh lagabhag 2,225 aur 3,048 mitar ke bich pae jate hain.

alpiy kshetr 3,200 aur 3,566 mitar ki oonchaiyon ke bich vriksh rekha se oopar ka kshetr hai aur pashchimi himalay men lagabhag 4,176 mitar tatha poorvi himalay men 4,450 mitar ki oonchaee tak phaila hai. is kshetr men sabhi prakar ki nam alpiy vanaspatiyan paee jati hain. joonipar kee kshetron men hota hai, visheshakar dhoopadar, tikhi aur chattani dhalanon tatha shushk kshetron men isaka adhiky hai. nnga parvat par yah 3,886 mitar ki oonchaee par bhi paya jata hai. rododendron har jagah hota hai, lekin poorvi himalay ke nam hisson men isaki bahutayat hai, jahan yah vrikshon se lekar chhoti jhadiyon tak har akar men ugata hai. nichale kshetron men jahan nami ki adhikata hai, vahan kaee aur shaivak (laiken) ugate hain, adhik oonchaee, visheshakar nnga parvat aur maunt evarest par phooladar paudhe bhi pae jate hain.

prani jivan

himalay
Himalayas

poorvi himalay men pashu jivan ka udbhav mukhyatah dakshini chin aur bharatiy-chini kshetr se hua hai. isamen prathamik roop se ushnakatibndhiy vanon men paya jane vala pashu jivan hai aur anupoorak roop se oonche kshetron men vyapt uposhn, parvatiy aur shitoshn paristhitiyon tatha shushk pashchimi kshetron ke lie anukoolit hue jntu hain. lekin pashchimi himalay men pashu jivan bhoomadhy sagariy, ithiyopiyaee aur turkameniyaee kshetron se zyada nikatata pradarshit karata hai. atit men is kshetr men jiraf aur dariyaee ghode jaise afriki janavaron ki maujoodagi ka pata bahy himalay ke shivalik nikshep men pae jane vale jivashmon se lagaya ja sakata hai. vriksh rekha se oopar ki oonchaee par paya jane vala pashu jivan lagabhag poornatah sthaniy prajati ka hai, jo thnd ke anukoolit ho chuke hain aur inaka vikas himalay ki oonchaee badhane ke bad stepi ke vany jivan se hua hai.

log

bharatiy upamahadvip men pae jane vale char pramukh jatiy samoohon, bharatiy-yooropiy, tibbati-barmi, aaustro-eshiyaee aur dravid men se pahale do samooh himalay kshetr men kafi snkhya men pae jate hain, halanki vibhinn kshetron men ye alag-alag anupat men ghule-mile hue hain. inaka vitaran pashchim se yooropiy samoohon, dakshin se bharatiy logon aur poorv v uttar se eshiyaee janajatiyon ki ghusapaith ke lnbe itihas ka parinam hai. himalay ke madhyavarti tihaee hisse nepal men ye samooh antamishrit hain. laghu himalay men ghusapaith se dakshin eshiya ke nadi maidanon ke raston men aur unase hote hue pravas ka marg prashast hua. amataur par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki uchch himalay tatha tethis himalay men tibbati v any tibbati-barmi logon ka nivas hai tatha nimn himalay men lnbe, gore bharopiy logon ka vas hai.

arthavyavastha

snsadhan

himalay ki arthik paristhitiyan is vibhinn paristhiti vale vistrit aur visham kshetr ke simit snsadhanon ke anuroop hain. yahan ki mukhy gatividhi pashupalan hai, lekin vanopaj ka dohan aur vyapar bhi mahattvapoorn hai. himalay men prachur arthik snsadhan hain. inamen upajaoo krishi yogy bhoomi, vistrit ghas ke maidan v van, khanan yogy khanij bhndar aur asani se dohan yogy jalavidyut shakti shamil hain. pashchimi himalay men sabase utpadak krishi yogy bhoomi kashmir ghati, kangada sataluj nadi ke besin aur uttarakhnd men gnga v yamuna nadiyon ke kagari kshetr ke sidhidar kheton men hai. in kshetron men chaval, makka, gehoon, jvar-bajara ka utpadan hota hai. madhy himalay men nepal men do-tihaee krishi yogy bhoomi taraee aur isase lage maidani kshetr men hai. is bhoomi men desh ke kul chaval utpadan ka adhikansh hissa paida hota hai. is kshetr men badi matra men makka, gehoon, aloo aur ganne ki bhi kheti ki jati hai.

manali se leh ka rasata, himalay

yatayat

himalay kshetr men sadak yatayat susthapit hai, jisase uttar tatha dakshin, donon dishaon se himalay men pahunchana sugam hai. nepal ke taraee kshetr men poorv-pashchim disha men ek rajamarg sthit hai. yah desh ke kee jalagrahan besinon tak jane vale margon ko jodata hai. rajadhani kathamandoo laghu himalay rajamarg ke zariye pokhara se judi huee hai, jabaki kodari darje se guzarane vala ek nichala himalayi rajamarg nepal ko tibbat ke lhasa se jodata hai. pashchimottar men pakistan ek rajamarg se chin se juda hua hai. himachal pradesh se guzarane vale hindustan-tibbat marg men ullekhaniy sudhar hua hai.

adhyayan tatha paryavekshan

himalay ki arnbhik yatraen vyapariyon, charavahon aur tirthayatriyon dvara ki gee thin. tirthayatriyon ko vishvas tha ki yatra jitani kashtakar hogi, ve moksh ya nirvan ke utane hi qarib pahunch paenge, jabaki vyapariyon aur charavahon ne 5,486 se 5,791 mitar tak ki oonchaee par sthit darron ko samany jivan marg manakar par kiya, lekin any sabhi logon ke lie himalay ek durgam aur bhaynkar avarodh tha.

manachitr
himalay

himalay ka kuchh had tak satik manachitr mugal badashah akabar ke darabar ke speni doot entoniyon maunaseret ne 1590 men taiyar kiya tha. fransisi bhoo-vaigyanik jyan baipatist baauragueegnon di aauravile ne vyavasthit paryavekshan ke adhar par tibbat aur himalay parvatashreni ka pahala manachitr taiyar kiya. 19vin sadi ke madhy men sarve aauf indiya ne himalay ki chotiyon ki oonchaee ke sahi akalan ke lie vyavasthit karyakram ka ayojan kiya. 1849 se 1855 ke bich nepal aur uttarakhnd ki chotiyon ka sarvekshan kar unaka manachitr banaya gaya. nnga parvat aur uttar men karakoram shreni ki chotiyon ko 1855 se 1859 ke bich sarvekshan kiya gaya. sarvekshakon ne in khoee gee asnkhy chotiyon ko alag-alag nam nahin diya, balki ankon aur roman snkhyaon se unaki pahachan ki. is prakar, maunt evarest ko sarvapratham sirf ech nam diya gaya. 1849 s 1850 men ise shikhar x.v kar diya gaya. 1865 men shikhar x.v. ka nam bharat ke mahasarvekshak rahe sar jarj evarest (1830 se 1843 tak) ke nam par rakha gaya. 1852 men ganana ka is had tak vikas nahin hua tha ki shikhar x.v. duniya ke any kisi bhi shikhar se ooncha hai, isaki janakari ho sake. 1862 tak, 5,486 mitar se adhik oonchaee vale 40 shikharon par sarvekshan kary ke lie arohan ho chuka tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh
himalay
himalay ka vihngam drishy

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |prishth snkhya: 1021 |
  2. arthaved 19,39,8
  3. valmiki ramayan balakand 41, 18
  4. balakand 43,4
  5. kishkindha kand 43,12
  6. vanaparv 158, 18
  7. vishnupuran 2, 3, 10
  8. kumarasnbhav 1,1
  9. 'praleyadrerupatatamatikramy tastanh visheshanh' poorvamegh 59
  10. poorvamegh, 54

snbndhit lekh

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