गिरनार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

giranar
giranar parvat
vivaran giranar ki pahadiyon se pashchim aur poorv disha men bhadas, rohaja, shataroonji aur ghelo nadiyan bahati hain. in pahadiyon par mukhyatah bhil aur dubala logon ka nivas hai.
sthan joonagadh, gujarat, bharat
oonchaee 1,031 mi (3,383 phit)
bhaugolik nirdeshank 21°29′41″ uttar, 70°30′20″ poorv
aitihasik ullekh yahan par ek chattan par maury samrat ashok ka chaturdash shilalekh ankit hai. usi chattan ke doosari or shak kshatrap rudradaman ka abhilekh (150ee.) hai, jisamen maury samrat chandragupt maury ke adesh se vahan par sudarshan jhil ke nirman ka ullekh hai.
tirth sthal giranar jain matavalambiyon ka pavitr tirth sthan hai. yahan mallinath aur neminath ke smarak bane hue hain.
googal manachitr giranar
any janakari vishal giranar pahadiyon men gorakhanath shikhar (1,117 mitar) sthit hai, jise ek mrit jvalamukhi mana jata hai. gir parvatashreni ki ek pahadi par giranar ka prachin jain mndir (aitihasik nam rauvat ya uladathet) hone ke karan is parvatashreni ko pavitr mana jata hai.

giranar (angrezi: Girnar) gujarat men joonagadh ke nikat ek parvat ka nam hai. giranar ki pahadiyon se pashchim aur poorv disha men bhadas, rohaja, shataroonji aur ghelo nadiyan bahati hain. in pahadiyon par mukhyatah bhil aur dubala logon ka nivas hai. eshiyaee sinhon ke lie vikhyat 'gir van rashtriy udyan' isi kshetr men sthit hai. khnbaliya, dhari visavadar, mendarada aur adityana yahan ke pramukh nagar hain.

itihas

giranar ka prachin nam 'girinagar' tha. mahabharat men ullikhit revatak parvat ki krod men basa hua prachin tirth sthal. pahadi ki oonchi choti par kee jain mndir hai. yahan ki chadhaee badi kathin hai. girishikhar tak pahunchane ke lie sat hazar sidhiyan hain. in mndiron men sarvaprachin, gujarat nerash kumarapal ke samay ka bana hua hai. doosara vastupal aur tejapal namak bhaiyon ne banavaya tha. ise tirthnkar mallinath ka mndir kahate hain. yah vikram snvath 1288 (1237 ee.) men bana tha. tisara mndir neminath ka hai, jo 1277 ee. ke lagabhag taiyar hua tha. yah sabase adhik vishal aur bhavy hai.

prachin kal men in mndiron ki shobha bahut adhik thi, kyonki inamen sabhamndap, stnbh, shikhar, garbhagrih adi svachchh sngamaramar se nirmit hone ke karan bahut chamakadar aur sundar dikhate the. ab anekon bar marammat hone se inaka svabhavik sondary kuchh phika pad gaya hai. parvat par dattatrey ka mndir aur gomukhi gnga hai, jo hinduon ka tirth hai. jainon ka tirth gajendr padakund bhi parvat shikhar par avasthit hai.[1]

abhilekh

giranar men kee itihas prasiddh abhilekh mile hain. pahadi ki talahati men ek vrihath chattan par ashok ki mukhy dharmalipiyan 1-14 utkirn hain, jo brahmi lipi aur pali bhasha men hain. isi chattan par kshatrap rudradaman ka, lagabhag 120 ee. men utkirn, prasiddh snskrit abhilekh hai. inamen pataliputr ke chndragupt maury tatha paravarti rajaon dvara nirmit tatha jirnonddharit sudarshan jhil aur vishnu mndir ka sundar varnan hai. yah lekh snskrit kavy shaili ke vikas ke adhyayan ke lie mahatvapoorn samajha jata hai. yah abhilekh is prakar hai-

"siddhamh. idn tadakn sudarshann girinagaradapidoo-mrittikopalavistarayamochchhayani:sndhibaddhadridhasarvapalikatvath parvatapadapratispardhi sushlishtavndhn-mavajatenakritrimen setubndhenopapannn suprativihrit pranaliparibahamidhavidhann ch triskndhn nadibhiranugrahai mahetyupachaye vartate. tadidn ragyo mahakshatrapasy sugrihitanamn: svamichashtanapautrasy ragy: kshatrapasy jayadann: putrasy ragyo mahakshatrapasy gurubhirabhyastanamno rudradamnovarshe dvisaptatitame 702 margashirsh bahul pratipadayan srishtavrishtina parjanyenaikarnavabhootayamiv prithivyan kritayan gireroorjayat: suvarnasikatapalashiniprabhritinan nadinamati matrodrivrittairvegai: setum-yamana-nuroop pratikaramapi-girashikhar tarutatattal kopatalp dvarasharanochchhay vidhvnsina yuganivanasaddashaparamaghoravegen vayuna pramathit salil vikshipt jarjari kritav kshiptashm vrikshagulm latapratan manadi taladityuddhatit masith. chatvari hastashatani vinshaduttaranyayatenaitavantye v vistirnane pnch saptahastanavagadhan bheden ni:srit sarv tirth marudhanvakalp matibhrishn dudarshann-syarthe mauryasy ragy: chandraguptasy rashtriyen vaishyen pushpagupten karitamashokasy mauryasy krite yavanarajen tusharasphenadhishtay pranali bhiralnkrit tatkaritaya ch rajanuroop kritavidhanaya tasmin bhede drishtaya pranadya vistrit setuna garbhath prabhrityavihit samudit rajalakshmi dharanagunat: sarvavarnerabhigamy rakshanarth patitve vritena pranochchhavasath purushavadh nivriti kritasatyapratigyenanyatr sngrameshvabhimukhagat sadrish shatru praharan vitaran tvadiguj ripu-dhritakarunyen svayamabhigat janapad pranipatitayush sharanaden dasyuvyal mrigarogadibhiranu pasrisht poorv nagaranigam janapadanan svaviryarjitanamanurakt sarvaprakritinan poorvaparakara vantyanoopani vridanart surashtr shvabhrabharukachchh sindhu sauvir kukuraparant nishadadinan samagranan tatprabhavady rth kam vishayanan vishayanan patina sarvakshatravishkritavir shabd jatotsek vidheyanan yauyeyanan prasahyotsadaken dakshinapathapate: satakarne dvirapi nirvyaj mavajityavajity snbndhabidooratayanutsadana tpraptayashasa mapt vijayen bhrasht rajapratishthapaken yatharthahastochchhrayarjito-rjitadharmanuragen shabdarth gandharvanyayadyanan vidyanan mahatinan paran dharan vigyan prayogavapt bipulakirtina turag gaj rath charyasi charm niyuddhadya parabal laghavasaushthav kripenahar hardanamana navamanashilen sthoolalakshen yathavath praptairbalishulk bhagai: kanak rajatavajr vadoory ratnopachay vishyandaman koshen sphutalaghu madhur chitrakant shabd samayoharalnkrit gadyapady-n pramanamanonman svar gativarn saras tyadibhi: paramalakshann vynjanai rupetakantamoortina svayamadhigat-mahakshatrap namna narendr kanya svaynvaranek malyaprapt damna mahakshatrapen rudradamna varsh sahastray govrahy-v dharmakirti vriddhayarth chapidayitva karavishti pranayakriyabhi: paurajanapadn jann svasmatkoshanmahata dhanaughenanati mahata ch kalen trigun dridhatar vistarayamn setun vidhay sarv tate sudarshan varn karitamh. asminnarthe mahakshatrapasy mati sachivakarm sachivairamaty gun samudyuktairapyati mahatvadh bhedasyanutsah vimukh matibhi: pratyakhyatarnbhn pun: setuvndhanai rashyaddhaha bhootasu prajasvihaghishthane paurajanapadajananugraharth parthiven kritsnanamanart surashtranan palanarth niyukten pahlaven kulaipaputrenamatyen suvishakhen yathavadarthadharm vyavahar darshanairanuragam bivardhayata shakten dantena chapala vismitenaryenaharyen svadhitishthata dharmakirti yashansi bharturabhivardhayatanushthitamiti."[1]

skndagupt ka abhilekh

isi abhilekh ki chattan par 458 ee. ka gupt samrat skandagupt ke samay ka bhi ek abhilekh ankit hai. isamen skndagupt dvara niyukt surashtr ke tatkalinarashtrik parnadatt ka ullekh hai. parnadatt ke putr chakrapalit ne jo girinagar ka shasak tha, sudarshan tadag ke setu ya bandh ka jirnoddhar karavaya, kyonki yah skndagupt ke rajyabhishek ke varsh men jal ke veg se nasht ho gaya tha. in abhilekhon se pramanit hota hai ki hamare itihas ke sudoor atit men bhi rajy dvara nadiyon par bandh banakar kisanon ke lie krishi evn sinchaee ke sadhan jutane ko dirghakalin pratha thi. jain grnth vividhatirthakalp men varnit hai ki giranar sab parvaton men shreshth hai, kyonki yah tirthnkar neminath se sambndhit hai.[1]

rudradaman ke joonagadh lekh se gyat hota hai ki samrat ashok ke samay tushashp namak adhinasth yavan rajyapal ke roop men saurashtr par shasan karata tha. giranar ki ek pahadi ki talahati men ashok ke shilalekh (tisari shatabdi ee. poo.) se yukt ek chattan hai. maury shasak chndragupt (chauthi shatabdi ee. poo. ka uttarardh) dvara sudarshan namak jhil banae jane ka ullekh bhi isi shilalekh men milata hai. in do mahattvapoorn aitihasik pramanon ke as-pas ki pahadiyon par solnki vnsh (961-1242) ke rajaon dvara banavae ge kee jain mndir sthit hain.

tirth sthal

in donon aitihasik abhilekhon ke alava giranar jain matavalambiyon ka pavitr tirth sthan hai. yahan mallinath aur neminath ke smarak bane hue hain. jainon ke sabase pavitr tirth sthalon men pramukh 1118 mitar oonche giranar parvat par sngamaramar se bane 16 mandir vishesh roop se darshaniy hain. oopar tak pahunchane ke lie darshakon ko pattharon se tarashi gayi das hazar sidhiyan chadhani padati hain. sabase prachin aur vishal mndir 22ven tirthnkar neminath ka hai, jisaka nirman 112vin shatabdi men hua tha.

giranar, gujarat

krishi aur udyog

viral abadi vale is kshetr ki arthavyavastha men jivika ke lie ki jane vali krishi ki pradhanata hai; yahan ki fasalon men anaj, moongaphali aur kapas shamil hai. bade paimane par kuchh udyog hain, jinamen vastr tatha lohe v ispat ke farnichar ka nirman hota hai. kutir udyogon men badheegiri, lakadi par naqqashi, pital ke bartanon par varnish ka kam, kadhaee (kathiyavadi namoonon ke roop men vikhyat) aur oon ki bunaee shamil hai.

gir parvatashreni

  • gir parvatashreni pashchimi gujarat ki nimn parvatashreni, dakshini kathiyavad prayadvip ke pashchimi-madhy bharat men sthit hai.
  • gir parvatashreni atyadhik oobad-khabad hai aur dakshin men samudr ki or tikhi dhalan tatha uttar men bhitari bhoomi ki or apekshakrit kam nichali hai. yahan se uttar disha men nichali, snkari, vibhakt parvatashreni phaili huee hai.
  • vishal giranar pahadiyon men gorakhanath shikhar (1,117 mitar) sthit hai, jise ek mrit jvalamukhi mana jata hai. gir parvatashreni ki ek pahadi par giranar ka prachin jain mndir (aitihasik nam rauvat ya uladathet) hone ke karan is parvatashreni ko pavitr mana jata hai.
  • yah mndir ka pramukh tirthasthal hai. yah parvatashreni sal aur dhak ke vrikshon se bhare jngalon se dhaki huee hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |prishth snkhya: 285 |

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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