आल्प्स  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alps yoorop ki ek vishal parvatapranali hai jo pashchim men jenoa ki khadi se lekar poorv men viyana tak phaili huee hai. yah pranali uttar men dakshini jarmani ke maidan aur dakshin men uttari itali ke maidan se ghiri huee hai. pranali lagatar oonche pahadon se nahin bani hai, prastut bich bich men gahari ghatiyan hain. parvat uttar ki or uttal hai. adhikansh ghatiyon ki disha poorv pashchim ya uttar poorv se dakshin pashchim ki or hai. kuchh gahari ghatiyan parvatashrrinkhalaon ko katati hain, jisase is parvat ke donon or sthit manushyon, jntuon aur vanaspatiyon ka avagaman snbhav ho saka hai. alps shabd ki utpatti anishchit hai. isaka uchchatam shikhar pashchimi alps men sthit mant blaink hai (oonchaee 15,781 phut).

"'alps ki simaen-"' uttar men yah parvat besil se kanstains jhil tak rain nadi dvara aur sailzabarg se viyana tak baveriya ke maidan tatha nichali pahadiyon dvara ghira hai. dakshin men isaki sima tayoorin se triest tak pidamant, lonbardi aur venishiya ke vishal maidan dvara nirdharit hoti hai. isaka pashchimi sira tyoorin se arnbh hokar dakshin men kal di tenda tak aur poorv ki or mudakar kal di alateyar tak chala gaya hai.

prakritik vibhag - alps ke tin mukhy vibhag hain: pashchimi alps kal di tenda se sinpalan darre tak; madhy alps, sinpalan darre se reshane shidek darre tak aur poorvi alps, reshane shidek darre se radstair taivarn marg tak.

bhoovigyan aur snrachana - alps parvat us vishal bhnjit kshetr ka ek chhota sa bhag hai jo anek vakrakar kramon men morakko ke riph parvat se arnbh hokar himalay ke age tak phaila hua hai. alps ek bhoodroni (jiosinaklain) men sthit hai. yah bhoodroni antim karbanaprad yug se arnbh hokar snpoorn madhyakalp men rahakar tritiyak kalp ke madhyanootan yug tak vidyaman thi. yah bhoodroni uttar men yooreshiyan aur dakshin men aphriki sthalapindon se ghiri huee thi. jyus aur any vaigyanikon ne is droni men sthit lupt sagar ko tethis sagar ki sngya di hai. karbanaprad yug se anrabh hokar isamen avasadon ke mote staron ka nikshepan hua aur sath hi sath bhoodroni nital dhnsata gaya. is prakar avasadon ka nikshepan lagatar samudratal ke niche lagabhag ek hi gaharaee par hota raha. isake bad virodhi dishaon se dab padane ke karan droni ke donon kinare samip a ge, jisake parinamasvaroop ekatrit avasadon men bhnj pad gaya. anumanat: aphriki prishthapradesh (hintaralaind) uttar men yooropiy agrapradesh (phoralaind) ki or gatishil hua. aragaind tatha usake sahayogi anusndhanakarta is dharana se sahamat hain. isake viparit, kobar ke matanusar alps ka bhnjan do agrapradeshon ke ek doosare ki or badhane se hua hai.

alps ka adhikantar bhag jalaj shilaon dvara nirmit hai. ye shilaen raktashm yug se lekar madhyanootan yug tak ki hain. parntu inase adhik prachin chattanen bhi, visheshakar poorvi alps men, paee jati hain (jais giriyug, karbanaprad yug, matsayug, pravaladi yug aur kainbriyan yug ki chattanen.) manibhiy nais aur shist tatha agney shilaen bhi milati hain. kuchh chattanon ka mahatv keval sthaniy hai, jaise molas, nagalaphloo aur phlish. ye sab navakalpiy hain.

himanadiyan - anumanat: alps men himanadiyan aur neve (danedar him) kshetron ki snkhya kul milakar 1,200 hai: isaki vishalatam himanadi alesh hai, jisaki lnbaee 16 mil aur neve sahit pravahakshetr ka vistar 50 varg mil hai. himanadiyon ki samudratal se nimnatam oonchaee bhinn-bhinn hai. yah grindelavald par samudratal se keval 3,200 phut ki oonchaee par hai. himarekha 8,000 se lekar 9,500 phut ke bich sthit hai. pradhan parvat par himanadiyon aur nevon ki snkhya isake antargat parvatamalaon ki tulana men adhik hai. tathapi, alps ki tin vishalatam himanadiyan, arthath‌ alech, oontarar aur vishar (antim donon 10 mil lnbi) barnoz ovaralaind men sthit hai. pradhan parvatamala ki vishalatam himanadiyan mar di gles aur goranar hain jinamen se pratyek 91/4 mil lnbi hain.

jhilen - alps ki jhilen vibhinn prakar ki hain. jyoorikh jhil himanadiyon dvara nikshipt himodh (dhonke, rode adi) nadighati ke ar par ikattha ho jane se bani hai. maitamark jhil bhi ek parshvik himodh ke bandh ka roop dharan karane se bani hai. bhooparpati ki gatiyon se bani jhilon ek himani bani jhilon men joos aur phalen jhiloo ullekhaniy hain. chune ke chattani pradesh men patthhgyr ke ghul jane se bani jhilon men dauban, muten aur sivali jhilen mahatvapoorn hain.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 448-49 |

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