पर्वत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parvat ya pahad prithvi ki bhoo-satah par prakritik roop se ooncha utha hua hissa hota hai, jo zyadatar akasmik tariqe se ubhara hota hai aur pahadi se bada hota hai. parvat zyadatar ek lagatar samooh men hote hain.

parvat nirman

vibhinn prakar ke parvaton ka nirman vibhinn prakar se hota hai, jaise jvalamukhi parvaton ka nirman jvalamukhi udgaron se tatha blak parvaton ka nirman bhoopatal par padi dararon se hota hai. bhrnsh ke samay asapas ka bhag tootakar niche dhns jata hai tatha bich ka bhag parvat ke roop men oopar utha rah jata hai. kintu bade bade parvaton ka nirman adhikanshat: paratadar chattanon se hua hai. vishv ki sarvochch parvamalaen paratadar parvaton ka hi udaharan hain. in paraton ka nirman bhoo-abhinati men mitti ke bharate rahane se hua hai. bhoo-abhinati men ekatr kiya gaya padarth ek naram evn kamazor kshetr banata hai. padarth ke bhar ke karan sntulan ko thik rakhane ke lie bhoo-abhinati ki tali niche ki or dhnsati hai. is kamazor kshetr ke donon or prachin kathor bhookhnd hote hain. in bhookhndon se davab padane ke karan bhoo-abhinati men ekatr padarth men mod pad jate hain, tatpashchath‌ snkuchan se parvaton ka nirtan hota hai. prithvi apani gurutvakarshan shakti ke dvara samanata aur sthayitv lati hai. isamen keval tap hi kabhi kabhi badhak hota hai. tap ke badh jane se padarth athava chattanon men phailav tatha tap ke ghat jane se snkuchan tatha jamav hota hai.

parvat nirman ki snkuchan parikalpana

prithvi adi kal men drav roop men thi. at: vartaman prithvi ka akar isake thnde hone se bana hai. sarvapratham prithvi ki oopari parat thndhi hone se thos ho gee, kintu niche thnda hone ki kriya jari rahi at: niche ki satah sikudati gee, aur oopari parat se alag ho gee. oopari parat men gurutvakarshan shakti ke karan snkuchan utpann hua phalat: parvat nirmanakari parvatan ka janm hua. is parikalpana ko samajhane ke lie sookhe seb ka udaharan liya ja sakata hai. yah bhi kaha jata hai ki jaise jaise prithvi ki thndhe hone ki kriya dhimi hoti gee vaise vaise parvat nirmanakari kriyaen bhi mnd hoti gee. arthar homs ki snvahan dhara ki parikalpana ke anusar prithvi ke garbh men tap ki dharaen oopar niche chala karati hain. ye dharaen bhoopatal ki nimn tah men mudate samay snkuchan tatha phailate samay phailav utpann kar deti hain. at: do vibhinn dishaon se ane vali snvahan dharaon ke mudane ke sthan par parvat nirmanakari shaktiyon ka janm hota hai. aragaid ki parikalpana ke anusar parvat nirman men do kathor bhookhndon men se ek agr pradesh tatha doosara prishth pradesh hota hai. isake anusar parvat nirmanakari snkuchan ek or se hi hota hai, tatha isamen agr pradesh sthir rahata hai evn snkuchan prishth pradesh se ata hai. aragaind ke anusar yooropiy parvatan men afrika ka prishth pradesh, yoorop ke agr pradesh ki or khisakane laga jab ki yoorop ka agrapradesh sthir tha. at: sthal ka lagabhag 1,000 mil lnba bhag sikud gaya jisase tithij bhoo-abhinati men mod tatha dararen padin aur yoorop men alps parvat ka nirman hua. kobar ke anusar parvat-nirman-kriya men koee agr pradesh ya prishth pradesh nahin hota hai balki donon hi agrapradesh hote hain. donon pradesh bhoo-abhinati ki or khisakate hain. isase donon or mod padate hain, jo madhyapind ke donon or ek doosare ki viparit disha men hote hain. inake madhy men madhyapind hota hai.

kobar ke anusar himalay ka nirman

kobar ke anusar tithij bhoo-abhinati men bharatiy tatha eshiyaee agrabhagon se dabav aya. at: bhoo-abhinati men donon or mod pad ge jisase dakshin tatiy himalay shreniyon tatha uttari shreniyon ka nirman hua. bich ke madhy pind se tibbat ke pathar ka nirman hua.

parvat nirman ke lie avashyak tatv

parvat nirman ke lie nimnalikhit dashaen avashyak hain :-

  • do kathor sthir bhookhndon ka hona.
  • isake bich men bhoo-abhinati ka hona jisamen padarth bhookhndon se kshayatmak shaktiyon dvara kat katakar jama hota rahe tatha tali nirntar niche ko dhnsati rahe.
  • bich men madhy pind ka hona jinaka prabhav mod par padata hai.

parvat nirman ki avasthaen

parvat utpatti or vikas ki nimnalikhit avasthaen hain :-

  • bhoo-abhinati ka hona, jisamen padarth jama hota rahe tatha sath hi tali nirntar niche dhnsati rahe.
  • mahadvipiy nirmanakari shaktiyon dvara padarth ka oopar uthana.
  • parvat n shaktiyon ke dvara padarth men mod padana.
  • parshv shaktiyon ka atyadhik prabhav padana aur modon ki adhikata.

parvat nirman ki antim avastha

parvaton ka oopar uthana, atyadhik mod ke karan dararen padana, parshv se atyadhik dabav ke karan toote padarth ka door jakar girana.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

dube, rameshachndr “khand 7”, hindi vishvakosh (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: nagari pracharini sabha varanasi, prishth snkhya- 124.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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