चंद्रगुप्त मौर्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chndragupt maury
Chandragupt-Maurya-Stamp.jpg
poora nam chakravarti samrat chandr gupt maury
janm 340 ee. poo.
janm bhoomi magadh, bharat
mrityu tithi 298 ee poo (42 varsh men)
mrityu sthan shravan belgola, karnatak
pita/mata "mura ya mora" (mata)
sntan bindusar
upadhi samrat
rajy sima sampoorn bharat (lagabhag)
shasan kal 322 se 298 ee. poo.
sha. avadhi 24 varsh (lagabhag)
rajyabhishek 322 ee.poo.
dharmik manyata vaidik aur jain
prasiddhi bharat ka pratham 'aitihasik samrat'
rajadhani pataliputr
poorvadhikari dhanannd
vnsh maury vnsh
snbndhit lekh chanaky . ashok
Disamb2.jpg chndragupt ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- chndragupt (bahuvikalpi)

chakravarti samrat chandr gupt maury (shasanakal: 322 se 298 ee. poo.tak) ki ganana bharat ke mahanatam shasakon men ki jati hai. usaki mahanata ki soochak anek upadhiyan hain aur usaki mahanata kee baton men advitiy bhi hai. vah bharat ke pratham ‘aitihasik’ samrat ke roop men hamare samane ata hai, is arth men ki vah bharatiy itihas ka pahala samrat hai jisaki aitihasikata pramanit kalakram ke thos adhar par siddh ki ja sakati hai.[1]

arambhik jivan

chndragupt ke prarambhik jivan ke bare men janakari hamen bauddh kathaon se prapt hoti hai. in kathaon ka srot mukhyat: do rachanaon men milata hai:

  1. mahavns tika, jise vnsatthappakasini bhi kahate hain (jisaki rachana lagabhag 10vin shatabdi eesavi ke madhy huee thi) aur
  2. mahabodhivns, jisake rachayita upatiss hain (lagabhag 10vin shatabdi eesavi ke uttarardh men).

in donon hi granthon ka adhar, sihalatthakatha tatha uttaraviharatthakatha namak prachin granth hain. sihalatthakatha ke bare men kaha jata hai ki usaki rachana ther mahind (ashok ka putr) tatha unake sath magadh se ae hue any bhikshuon ne ki thi, jinhen sngh ke pradhan ne dharmaprachar ke lie lnka bheja tha.[2]

janm aur vnsh

is snbndh men vibhinn mat hain:-

  • chndragupt ke vnsh ke sambandh men brahman, bauddh evn jain paramparaon v anushrutiyon ke adhar par keval itana hi kaha ja sakata hai ki vah kisi kulin gharane se sambandhit nahin tha. videshi vrittanton evn ullekhon se bhi sthiti kuchh aspasht hi bani rahati hai. chndragupt ke vnsh ke saman usake arambhik jivan ke punargathan ka bhi adhar kinvadntiyan evn paramparaen hi adhik hain aur thos praman kam hain. is sambandh men chanaky chndragupt katha ka saransh ullekhaniy hai. jisake anusar nnd vnsh dvara apamanit kie jane par chanaky ne use samool nasht karane ka pran kiya. snyogavash usaki bhent chndragupt se ho gee aur vah use takshashila le gaya.[3]
  • dhundhiraj[4] ke matanusar chndragupt ka pita maury tha aur sarvarthasiddhi ne apana senapati apane nnd putron ko n banakar maury ko banaya tha, is par nnd bndhuon ne chhal se maury tatha usake sab patron ko marava diya, keval chndragupt bhag nikala. nndon ka ek doosara shatru chanaky bhi tha. saman shatruta ke karan ye donon mitr ban ge.
  • mauryavnsh ka snsthapak. usake mata-pita ke nam thik-thik gyat nahin hain. puranon ke anusar vah magadh ke raja nand ka upaputr tha, jisaka janm mura namak shoodra dasi se hua tha. bauddh aur jain sootron se pata chalata hai. ki chandragupt maury ka janm pippalivan ke moriy kshatriy kul men hua tha. jo bhi ho chandragupt prarnbh se hi bahut sahasi vyakti tha.[5]
  • vishakhadatt ke natak 'mudrarakshas' men chndragupt ko nndaputr n kahakar mauryaputr kaha gaya hai. phir bhi use ‘nndavnsh ki santan’ kaha gaya hai, kyonki vah sarvarthasiddhi ke putr maury ka beta tha aur sarvarthasiddhi nau nndon ka pita tha aur svny nndavnsh ki santan tha. is boodhe raja ko bhi nnd kaha gaya hai. natak men dikhaya gaya hai ki rakshas ke paramarsh se vah pataliputr chhodakar van men bhag gaya tha kyonki chndragupt tatha chanaky ne ek-ek karake usake sabhi putron (nau nndon ko) marava dala tha. phir bhi chndragupt ko apane pita ka hatyara nahin kaha ja sakata kyonki use kahin nndaputr nahin kaha gaya hai. vah un nau nndon men se kisi ki bhi santan nahin tha. usake lie jis doosare shabd ‘mauryaputr’ ka prayog kiya gaya, usake karan vah is jaghany aparadh ke dosh se mukt ho gaya hai[6].[7]
  • vrittanton ke anusar chndragupt ka janm moriy namak kshatriy jati men hua tha jinaka shakyon ke sath sambandh tha. apani janmabhoomi chhodakar chali ane vali moriy jati ka mukhiya chndragupt ka pita tha. durbhagyavash vah simant par ek jhagade men mara gaya aur usaka parivar anath rah gaya. usaki abala vidhava apane bhaiyon ke sath bhagakar pushyapur (kusumapur pataliputr) namak nagar men pahunchi, jahan usane chndragupt ko janm diya. suraksha ke vichar se is anath balak ko usake mamaon ne ek goshala men chhod diya, jahan ek gadarie ne apane putr ki tarah usaka lalan-palan kiya aur jab vah bada hua to use ek shikari ke hath bech diya, jisane use gay-bhains charane ke kam par laga diya. kaha jata hai ki ek sadharan gramin balak chndragupt ne rajakilam namak ek khel ka avishkar karake janmajat neta hone ka parichay diya. is khel men vah raja banata tha aur apane sathiyon ko apana anuchar banata tha. vah rajasabha bhi ayojit karata tha jisamen baithakar vah nyay karata tha. ganv ke bachchon ki ek aisi hi rajasabha men chanaky ne pahali bar chndragupt ko dekha tha.[8]
  • kuchh log chndragupt ko mura nam ki shoodr stri ke garbh se utpann nnd samrat ki sntan batate hain par bauddh aur jain sahity ke anusar yah maury (moriy) kul men janma tha aur nnd rajaon ka mahattvakankshi senapati tha. chndragupt ke vnsh aur jati ke sambandh men vidvanh ekamat nahin hain. kuchh vidvanon ne brahman grnthon, mudrarakshas, vishnupuran ki madhyakalin tika tatha 10vin shatabdi ki dhundiraj dvara rachit mudrarakshas ki tika ke adhar par chndragupt ko shoodr mana hai. chndragupt ke vnsh ke sambandh men brahman, bauddh evn jain paramparaon v anushrutiyon ke adhar par keval itana hi kaha ja sakata hai ki vah kisi kulin gharane se sambandhit nahin tha. videshi vrittanton evn ullekhon se bhi sthiti kuchh aspasht hi bani rahati hai.[9]
  • bauddh rachanaon men kaha gaya hai ki ‘nndin’ ke kul ka koee pata nahin chalata (anat kul) aur chndragupt ko asndigdh roop se abhijat kul ka bataya gaya hai. chndragupt ke bare men kaha gaya hai ki vah moriy namak kshatriy jati ki sntan tha; moriy jati shakyon ki us uchch tatha pavitr jati ki ek shakha thi, jisamen mahatma buddh ka janm hua tha. katha ke anusar, jab atyachari kosal naresh vidoodabh ne shakyon par akraman kiya tab moriy apani mool biradari se alag ho ge aur unhonne himalay ke ek surakshit sthan men jakar sharan li. yah pradesh moron ke lie prasiddh tha, jis karan vahan akar bas jane vale ye log moriy kahalane lage, jinaka arth hai moron ke sthan ke nivasi. moriy shabd ‘mor’ se nikala hai, jo snskrit ke mayoor shabd ka pali paryay hai.
    ek aur kahani bhi hai jisamen moriy nagar namak ek sthan ka ullekh milata hai. is shahar ka nam moriy nagar isalie rakha gaya tha ki vahan ki imaraten mor ki gardan ke rng ki eenton ki bani huee thin. jin logon ne is nagar ka nirman kiya tha, ve moriy kahalae. mahabodhivns [10] men kaha gaya hai ki ‘kumar’ chndragupt, jisaka janm rajaon ke kul men hua tha (narind-kulasnbhav), jo moriy nagar ka nivasi tha, jisaka nirman sakyaputton ne kiya tha, chanaky namak brahman (dvij) ki sahayata se pataliputr ka raja bana.
    mahabodhivns men yah bhi kaha gaya hai ki ‘chndragupt ka janm kshatriyon ke moriy namak vnsh men’ hua tha (moriyann khattiyann vnse jatn). bauddhon ke digh nikay namak granth men[11] pippalivan men rahane vale moriy namak ek kshatriy vnsh ka ullekh milata hai. divyavadan[12]men bindusar (chndragupt ke putr) ke bare men kaha gaya hai ki usaka kshatriy raja ke roop men vidhivat abhishek hua tha (kshatriy-moordhabhishikt) aur ashok (chndragupt ke pautr) ko kshatriy kaha gaya hai.[13]
  • ek mat kathasaritsagar men upalabdh hota hai. isake anusar chndragupt nand raja ka hi putr tha, aur usake any koee santan nahin thi.
  • chndragupt ke vishay men mahavnsh men paye matanusar anusar chndragupt pippalivan ke moriy gan ka kumar tha. nand ke sath usaka koee sambandh nahin tha. moriy gan vajji-mahajanapad ke pados men sthit tha. uttari bihar ke sab ganarajy kaushal aur magadh ke samrajyavad ke shikar ho ge the, aur moriy gan bhi magadh ki adhinata men a gaya tha. is gan ki ek rajamahishi pataliputr men chhipakar jivan vyatit kar rahi thi. vahin par usane chndragupt ko janm diya. chndragupt kahin magadh ke rajakarmachariyon ke hathon men n pad jae, isalie usane apane navajat shishu ko gvale ke supurd kar diya. apani ayu ke any gval-balakon ke sath moriy chndragupt ka bhi palan hone laga.

chndragupt aur chanaky ki bhent

chanaky ne apani divyadrishti se turant is gramin anath balak men rajatv ki pratibha tatha chihn dekhe aur vahin par 1,000 karshapan dekar use usake palak-pita se kharid liya. us samay chndragupt ath ya nau varsh ka balak raha hoga. chanaky jise takshashila namak nagar ka nivasi (takkasilanagar-vasi) bataya gaya hai, balak ko lekar apane nagar lauta aur 7 ya 8 varsh tak us prakhyat vidyapith men use shiksha dilaee, jahan jatakakathaon ke anusar, us samay ki samast ‘vidhaen tatha kalaen’ sikhaee jati thin. vahan chanaky ne use apravidhik vishayon aur vyavaharik tatha pravidhik kalaon ki bhi sarvangin shiksha dilaee[14].[15]

pali sroton se prapt chndragupt ke prarambhik jivan ke is vivaran se jastin ke is kathan ki bhi pushti hoti hai ki usaka janm ek mamooli gharane men hua tha.[16]

magadh ke raja jati-niyamon ko vaise hi vishesh mahattv nahin dete the; maury to adivasi mool athava mishrit vnsh ke the, yadyapi unaka aryikaran ho chuka tha. maury (pali: moriy) nam mor totem ka soochak hai, yah vaidik-ary nam nahin ho sakata.[17]

jo bhi ho chandragupt prarnbh se hi bahut sahasi vyakti tha. jab vah kishor hi tha, usane pnjab men padav dale hue yavan (yoonani) vijeta sikndar se bhent ki. usane apani spashtavadita se sikndar ko naraz kar diya. sikndar ne use bndi bana lene ka adesh diya, lekin vah apane shaury ka pradarshan karata hua sikndar ke shiknje se bhag nikala aur kaha jata hai. ki isake bad hi usaki bhent takshashila ke ek achary chanaky ya kautily-se huee.[18]

chndragupt ki shiksha

jatakakathaon se hamen pata chalata hai ki us samay ke raja apane rajakumaron ko vidyoparjan ke lie takshashila bheja karate the, jahan vishv-vikhyat adhyapak the. in kathaon men ham padhate hain : "sare bharat se kshatriyon tatha brahmanon ke putr in adhyapakon se vibhinn kalaen sikhane ate the." takshashila prathamik shiksha ka hi nahin, balki uchch shiksha ka kendr bhi tha. is bat ka ullekh milata hai ki vahan balakon ko 16 varsh ki avastha men arthath ‘kishoravastha men pravesh karane par’ bharati kiya jata tha. isase badi avastha ke chhatr athava grihasth log bhi yahan shiksha prapt karate the. ve apane rahane adi ka prabndh svny karate the. hamen takshashila ke ek aise adhyapak ka bhi ullekh milata hai, jisaki pathashala men keval rajakumar hi padhate the, "us samay bharat men in rajakumaron ki snkhya 101 thi." vahin jin vishayon ki shiksha di jati thi, unamen tin vedon tatha 18 ‘sippon’ arthath shilpon ka ullekh milata hai, jinamen dhanurvidya (issatth-sipp), akhet tatha hathiyon se sambandhit gyan (hatthisutt) ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, jinhen rajakumaron ke lie upayukt samajha jata tha. siddhant tatha vyavahar donon hi ki shiksha di jati thi.

takshashila apani vidhishastr, chikitsa vigyan tatha sainyavidya ki alag-alag pathashalaon ke lie prakhyat tha. takshashila ki sainik akadami ka bhi ullekh milata hai, jisamen 103 rajakumar shiksha pate the. ek jagah par yah vivaran milata hai ki kis prakar ek shishy ko sainyavidya ki shiksha samapt kar lene ke bad usake guru ne pramanapatr ke roop men svny apani "talavar, ek dhanush aur ban, ek kavach tatha ek hira" diya aur usase kaha ki vah usake sthan par sainyavidya ki shiksha prapt karane vale 500 shishyon ki pathashala ke pradhan ka pad grahan kare, kyonki vah vriddh ho gaya hai aur avakash grahan karana chahata hai[19]. chanaky apane alpavayask shishy ki shiksha ka isase achchha koee doosara prabndh nahin kar sakata tha ki use vidyoparjan ke lie takshashila men bharati kara de.

dhanannd

pali granthon men magadh ke tatkalin shasak ka nam dhanannd bataya gaya hai. isaka ullekh snskrit granthon men keval 'nnd' ke nam se kiya gaya hai. isake atirikt pali granthon men nau nndon ke nam tatha unake jivan se sambandhit kuchh baten bhi bataee gee hain. in granthon se hamen pata chalata hai ki nndavnsh ke nau raja, jo sab bhaee the, bari-bari se apani ayu ke kram se gaddi par baithe[20]. dhanannd unamen sabase chhota tha. sabase bade bhaee ka nam ugrasenannd bataya gaya hai; vahi nndavnsh ka snsthapak tha. chndragupt ki tarah hi usaka prarambhik jivan bhi atyant romanchapoorn tha. vah moolat: simant pradesh ka nivasi tha (pachchnt-vasik); ek bar dakuon ne use pakad liya aur use malay namak ek simant pradesh men le ge[21] aur use is mat ka samarthak bana liya ki lootamar karana zamin jotane se achchha vyavasay hai. vah apane bhaiyon tatha sage-sambandhiyon sahit dakuon ke ek giroh men bharati ho gaya aur shighr hi unaka neta ban baitha. ve asapas ke rajyon par dhave marane lage (ratthn vilumapamano vicharnto) aur simant ke nagaron par chadhaee karake (pachchnt nagar) yah chunauti di : ‘ya to apana rajy hamare havale kar do ya yuddh karo'[22]. dhire-dhire ve sarvabhaum satta par adhikar karane ke svapn dekhane lage[23]. is prakar ek dakoo raja rajaon ka raja ban baitha.

dhanannd dvara chanaky ka apaman

sikndar ke bharat akraman ke samay chndragupt maury ki usase pnjab men bhent huee thi. kisi karanavash rusht hokar sikndar ne chndragupt ko qaid kar lene ka adesh diya tha. par chndragupt usaki chngul se nikal aya. isi samay isaka snpark kautily ya chanaky se hua. chanaky nnd rajaon se rusht tha. usane nnd rajaon ko parajit karake apani mahattvakanksha poorn karane men chndragupt maury ki poori sahayata ki.

chndragupt ke vnsh ke saman usake arambhik jivan ke punargathan ka bhi adhar kinvadntiyan evn paramparaen hi adhik hain aur thos praman kam hain. is sambandh men chanaky chndragupt katha ka saransh ullekhaniy hai. jisake anusar nnd vnsh dvara apamanit kie jane par chanaky ne use samool nasht karane ka pran kiya.

jis samay chanaky pataliputr aya tha, us samay dhanannd vahan ka raja tha. vah apane dhan ke lobh ke lie badanam tha. vah ’80 karod (koti) ki sampatti’ ka malik tha aur "khalon, gond, vrikshon tatha pattharon tak par kar vasool" karata tha. tiraskar men usaka nam dhanannd rakh diya gaya tha, kyonki vah ‘dhan ke bhandar bharane ka adi’ tha[24]. kathasaritsagar men nnd ki ’99 karod svarn mudraon’ ka ullekh milata hai. kaha jata hai ki usane gnga nadi ki tali men ek chattan khudavakar usamen apana sara khazana gad diya tha[25]. usaki dhan sampada ki khyati dakshin tak pahunchi. tamil bhasha ki ek kavita men usaki sampada ka ullekh is roop men kiya gaya hai ki "pahale vah patali men snchit huee aur phir gnga ki badh men chhip gee."[26]. parantu chanaky ne use bilkul hi doosare roop men dekha. ab vah dhan batorane ke bajae, use dan-puny men vyay kar raha tha; yah kam danashala namak ek snstha dvara sngathit kiya jata tha. jisaki vyavastha ka snchalan ek sngh ke hathon men tha, jisaka adhyaksh koee brahman hota tha. niyam yah tha ki adhyaksh ek karod mudraon tak ka dan de sakata tha aur sngh ka sabase chhota sadasy ek lakh mudraon tak ka. chanaky ko is sngh ka adhyaksh chuna gaya. parantu, honi ki bat, raja ko usaki kuroopata tatha usaka dhrisht svabhav achchha n laga aur usane use padachyut kar diya. is apaman par kruddh hokar chanaky ne raja ko shap diya, usake vnsh ko nirmool kar dene ki dhamaki di aur ek nagn ajivik sadhu ke bhesh men usake chngul se bach nikala.[27]

alakshendr (sikandar) ka hamala

chitr:Chandragupta-greek-1.ogg bharat par sikandar ka akraman mee 327 ee.poo. se mee 324 ee.poo. tak raha. chndragupt sikandar ka samakalin tha aur svny sikandar se mila bhi tha. yah bat hamen plootark ki rachanaon se maloom hoti hai jisane likha hai- ‘aindrokottos (chandragupt) , jo us samay navayuvak hi tha, svny sikandar se mila tha.’ sikandar ne sabase pahale grik rajyon ko jita aur phir vah eshiya mainar (adhunik turki) ki taraph badha. us kshetr par us samay faras ka shasan tha. farasi samrajy misr se lekar pashchimottar bharat tak phaila tha. faras ke shah dara tritiy ko usane tin alag-alag yuddhon men parajit kiya halanki usaki tathakathit 'vishv-vijay' faras vijay se adhik nahin thi par use shah dara ke alava any sthaniy prantapalon se bhi yuddh karana pada tha. misr, baktriya, tatha adhunik tazikistan men sthaniy pratirodh ka samana karana pada tha. aisi manyata hai aur ullekh hain ki bharat par sikandar ke akraman ke samay chanaky takshashila men pradhyapak tha. takshashila aur gandhar ke raja ambhi ne sikandar se samajhauta kar liya. chanaky ne bharat ki snskriti ko videshiyon se bachane ke lie sabhi rajaon se agrah kiya kintu sikandar se ladane koee nahin aya. puru ne sikandar se yuddh kiya kintu har gaya.

sikandar ke akraman ne pnjab ki in svatntr jatiyon ki ranakshamata tatha virata ko prakat kar diya. yuvak chndragupt ne in baton ko avashy dekha hoga. sikandar ke akramanon ke viruddh unake pratirodh ki kahani sikandar ki vijay ki kahani se kam preranaprad nahin hai. bharat ke vibhinn sthanon men sikandar ka jo virodh kiya gaya, usaka moolyankan svny yoonaniyon dvara ullikhit tathyon tatha ankadon ke adhar par kiya ja sakata hai.[28]

tisari shatabdi ee.poo. men jin yooropiy rajadooton ko yoonani rajaon ne bharat bheja tha, unamen se kuchh ne sikandar ke in sathiyon ki rachanaon men poorak jode hain.:

  1. strabo : isaka jivanakal lagabhag 64 ee.poo. se 19 ee. tak tha. isane bhoogol ki ek atyant mahattvapoorn pustak likhi hai. is pustak ke 15ven bhag ka pratham adhyay bharat ke bare men hai, isamen sikandar ke sathiyon tatha megasthaniz ki rachanaon se li gee samagri ke adhar par bharat ke bhoogol, usake nivasiyon ke rahan-sahan tatha riti-rivajon ka varnan kiya gaya hai.
  2. diyodoras 36 ee.poo. tak jivit raha. isane megasthaniz ki rachanaon ke adhar par bharat ka ek vrittant likha.
  3. plini jyeshth, jo necharal histri (prakriti vritt) namak vishad gyanakosh ka rachayita hai. usaki yah rachana lagabhag 75 ee. men prakashit huee thi. isamen yoonani rachanaon tatha vyapariyon ke navinatam vivaranon ke adhar par bharat ka vivaran diya gaya tha.
  4. erriyan : isaka janm lagabhag 130 ee. men hua tha. yah kam se kam 172 ee. tak jivit raha. isane sikandar ke abhiyanon ka sabase achchha vrittant (ainabesis) likha aur niarkas, megasthaniz tatha bhoogolavetta eratosthaniz (276-195 ee.poo.) ki rachanaon ke adhar par bharat, usake bhoogol, vahan ke rahan-sahan tatha riti-rivajon ke bare men ek chhoti-si pustak likhi hai.
  5. plootark (lagabhag 45-125 ee.), jisaki laivs (jivaniyan) namak rachana ke 57ven se 67ven adhyayon tak sikandar ki jivani di gee hai. un adhyayon men bharat ka bhi vivaran milata hai.[29]
  6. jastin : yah doosari shatabdi eesavi men hua tha. isane ek epitom (sarasngrah) ki rachana ki thi jisake 12ven khnd men bharat men sikandar ke vijay-abhiyanon ka vivaran diya gaya hai.

lekhakon ke vrittant

maury samrat chndragupt ko nnd vnsh ke unmoolan tatha pnjab-sindh men videshi shasan ka ant karane ka hi shrey nahin hai varanh usane bharat ke adhikansh bhag par apana adhipaty sthapit kiya.

  • plootark ne likha hai ki chndragupt ne 6 lakh sena lekar samooche bharat par apana adhipaty sthapit kiya.
  • jastin ke anusar sara bharat usake qabze men tha.
  • mahavnsh men kaha gaya hai ki kautily ne chndragupt ko jnboodvip ka samrat banaya.
  • plini ne, jisaka vrittant maigasthaniz ki indika par adharit hai, likha hai ki magadh ki sima sindhu nadi hai. pashchim men saurashtr chndragupt ke adhikar men tha. isaki pushti shak mahakshatrap rudradaman ke joonagadh abhilekh se hoti hai.

chandragupt ka magadh par akraman

chanaky tatha chndragupt ne sabase pahale simant ke deshon par akraman kiya (antojanapadn pavisitva) aur sarvabhaum sattaprapt karane ki ichchha se (rajjam ichchhnto) unake ganvon ko lootana arnbh kiya. (gamaghatadikammamh). chndragupt simant se bharat ke ant: pradesh ki or magadh tatha pataliputr ki or badh raha tha, parntu pahale usane rananiti men galatiyan ki. ek kahani is prakar prachalit hai:-

"inamen se kisi ganv men ek stri ne (jisake ghar men chndragupt ke ek guptachar ne sharan le rakhi thi) roti pakakar apane bachche ko di. bachche ne roti ke kinare chhodakar keval bich ka bhag kha liya aur kinare phenkakar aur roti mangane laga. is par vah stri boli, 'yah ladaka to bilakul vaisi hi bat kar raha hai jaisi chndragupt ne rajy par akraman karane men ki hai.
ladaka bola, ' kyon man, main kya kar raha hoon aur chndragupt ne kya kiya hai? 'vah aur boli, bachche, too roti ka kinara-kinara chhodakar keval bich ka bhag kha raha hai. aise hi chndragupt ne raja banane ki mahattvakanksha men simant pradeshon se arnbh kie bina aur raste men padanevale nagaron par adhikar kie bina desh ke antaral par akraman kar diya hain...... aur usaki sena ko gherakar nasht kar diya gaya hai. yah usaki moorkhata thi"[30].

isake bad chndragupt ne doosari paddhati apanaee. usane simant pradeshon se apana vijay-abhiyan arnbh kiya (pachchntato patthay) aur raste men padanevale anek rashtron tatha janapadon par vijay prapt ki; par usane ek galati yah ki ki apani vijayon ko surakshit rakhane ke lie usane pichhe apani senaen nahin niyukt kin. parinam yah hua ki jaise-jaise vah age badhata gaya, vaise-vaise jin jatiyon ko parajit karake vah pichhe chhodata gaya, ve svatntratapoorvak apas men mil sakati thin. aur usaki sena ko gherakar usaki yojanaon ko nishphal bana sakati thin. tab use sahi rananiti soojhi. vah jaise-jaise in rashtron tatha janapadon par vijay prapt karata gaya vaise-vaise vah vahan apani senaen bhi niyukt karata gaya (uggahitanaya balamh snvidhay) aur phir usane apani vijayi sena ke sath magadh ki sima men pravesh karake pataliputr par ghera dala aur ghanannd ko mar dala.[31]

chndragupt tatha nnd ke bich jo ladaee huee usaka vivaran nahin milata. parishishtaparvan namak jainagrnth ke chhnd men[32] kaha gaya hai ki 'nnd ke shasan ko samool nasht karane ke lie zamin ke niche chhipakar rakhe ge ghanakoshon ki sahayata se chanaky ne chndragupt ki sena ke lie sainik bharati kie.' "kuchh golon ne yah mat bhi vyakt kiya hai ki kadachit nnd ke viruddh apani ladaee men usane yoonani vetan bhogi sainikon ko bhi istemal kiya hoga"[33].[34]

usane jo vijay prapt kin unake phalasvaroop yah rajy aur bhi badh gaya. isake bad ke chndragupt ke jivan ka pata hamen plootark ke nimnalikhit vaktavy se chal sakata hai "isake kuchh hi samay bad aindrokottas[35] ne, jo usi samay rajasinhasan par baitha tha, selyookas ko 500 hathi bhent kie aur 6,00,000 ki sena lekar sare bharat ko apane adhin kar liya."[36] [37]

abhilekh

  • maisoor se prapt kuchh shilalekhon ke anusar uttari maisoor men chndragupt ka shasan tha.
  • ek abhilekh mila hai jisake anusar shikapur talluke ke nagarakhnd ki raksha mauryon ki zimmedari thi. yah ullekh 14vin shatabdi ka hai.
  • ashok ke shilalekhon se bhi spasht hai ki maisoor maury samrajy ka mahattvapoorn ang tha.
  • plootark, jastin, tamil grnthon tatha maisoor ke abhilekhon ke sammilit pramanon se spasht hai ki pratham maury samrat ne vidhy par ke kafi bharatiy hisson ko apane samrajy men mila liya tha.

rajanitik paristhitiyan

chndragupt maury ka sabha grih
The court of Chandragupta Maurya

jis samay chndragupt maury samrajy ke nirman men tatpar tha, sikandar ka senapati selyookas apani mahanata ki ninv dal raha tha. sikandar ki mrityu ke bad usake senaniyon men yoonani samrajy ki satta ke lie sngharsh hua, jisake parinamasvaroop selyookas, pashchim eshiya men prabhutv ke mamale men, aintigonas ka pratidvandvi bana. ee. poo. 312 men usane bebilon par apana adhikar sthapit kiya. isake bad usane eeran ke vibhinn rajyon ko jitakar baiktriya par adhikar kiya. apane poorvi abhiyan ke dauran vah bharat ki or badha. ee. poo. 305-4 men kabul ke marg se hote hue vah sindhu nadi ki or badha. usane sindhu nadi par ki aur chndragupt ki sena se usaka samana hua. selyookas pnjab aur sindhu par apana prabhutv punah sthapit karane ke uddeshy se aya tha. kintu is samay ki rajanitik sthiti sikandar ke akraman ke samay se kafi bhinn thi. yoonani lekhak stravo ke anusar, chandragupt maury ke samay men agronomoee namak adhikari nadiyon ki dekhabhal, bhoomi ki napajokh, jalashayon ka nirikshan aur naharon ki dekhabhal karate the, taki sabhi logon ko pani thik se mil sake.

pnjab aur sindhu ab paraspar yuddh karane vale chhote-chhote rajyon men vibhikt nahin the, balki ek samrajy ka ang the. ashchary ki bat hai ki yoonani tatha romi lekhak, selyookas aur chndragupt ke bich hue yuddh ka koee vistrit byaura nahin dete. keval eppiyanas ne likha hai ki "selyookas ne sindhu nadi par ki aur bharat ke samrat chndragupt se yuddh chheda. ant men unamen sndhi ho gee aur vaivahik sambandh sthapit ho gaya." jastin ke anusar chndragupt se sndhi karake aur apane poorvi rajy ko shant karake selyookas entigonas se yuddh karane chala gaya. eppiyanas ke kathan se spasht hai ki selyookas chndragupt ke viruddh saphalata prapt nahin kar saka. apane poorvi rajy ki suraksha ke lie selyookas ne chndragupt se sndhi karana hi uchit samajha aur us sndhi ko usane vaivahik sambandh se aur adhik pusht kar liya.

silyookash ko apane un bhootapoorv sahayogi-senapatiyon se yuddh karane ki chhoot thi jinhonne sikndar ke vijit samrajy ko apas men bant liya, parntu isake bad use bharat ko alag-alag karake chhod dena pada. bharat ke bare men jin yoonani vivaranon ka yahan bich-bich men ullekh hua hai, ve adhikatar pataliputr (patana) ki rajasabha men silyookash ke rajadoot megasthaniz ki soochanaon par adharit hain. megasthaniz ki mool kriti nasht ho gee hai, parntu usake vivaran ke kuchh ansh doosare lekhakon ki pustakon men aj bhi dekhane ko milate hain.[38]

chndragupt ne selyookas ko 500 yuddhopayogi hathi upahar men dekar is maitri ko sudridh banane men apana yogadan kiya. yah upahar selyookas ke lie bahut bahumooly tha, kyonki usake sngh ke kaisendar, laisimaikas tatha tolemi namak rajaon ne jo usake mitr the, apane saman shatru aintigonas ke viruddh, usase sahayata mangi thi jisake karan vah bahut chintit tha. chndragupt ke die hue hathi thik samay par iptas ke ranakshetr men pahunch ge aur aintigonas ka bana-banaya khel bigad gaya. jab chndragupt ne selyookas ko hathi bhent kie to usake bad pashchimi deshon men lade janevale yuddhon ke lie unaki mang hone lagi. 281 ee. poo. men pairrahom in hathiyon ko epiros se itali le gaya. 251 ee. poo. men haisadrabul ne painoraman men 'bharatiy' mahavaton dvara chalae janevale hathi istemal kie. rom ke viruddh dvitit pyoonik yuddh men hainibal tatha haisadrabul ne inhin hathiyon ko istemal kiya aur rafiya ki ladaee men tolemi ke libiyaee hathi aintiokas ke bharatiy hathiyon ke samane jara der n tik sake[39].[40]

yoonan ke selyoosid rajavnsh ne faras men apani sthiti sudridh bana li thi aur vah sindhu-par ka kshetr apane adhikar men rakhane ke lie kritasnkalp tha. atah chndragupt ne apana dhyan kuchh samay ke lie madhy bharat par kendrit kiya aur narmada nadi ke uttar men sthit pradesh par adhikar kar liya. parntu 305 ee. poo. men uttar-pashchimi kshetr men lautakar usane selyookas niketar se yuddh kiya aur antatah 303 ee. poo. men use parajit kar diya. phalatah sindhu par ke jo prant selyookas ke adhikar men the- jinamen aj ke afaganistan ka kuchh bhag sammilit hai- chndragupt ko mil ge. is prakar, sindh evn gnga ka maidan tatha sudoor uttar-pashchim chndragupt ke niyntran men a ge, jisase maury samrajy ki simaen nirdharit ho geen. kahana n hoga ki yah samrajy kisi bhi drishti se durjey tha.[41]

vivah

  • straibo ka kathan hai ki selyookas ne airiyana ke pradesh, chndragupt ko vivah-sambandh ke phalasvaroop die. isase yah nishkarsh nikalata hai ki yoonani rajakumari maury samrat ko byahi gee aur ye pradesh dahej ke roop men die ge. itihasakaron ka amataur par yah mat hai ki selyookas ne chndragupt ko char prant dahej men die. :-
  1. eriya arthath kabul
  2. arakosiya arthath kndhar
  3. jedrosiya arthath makaran
  4. paripemisadaee arthath herat pradesh
  • ashok ke lekhon se siddh hota hai ki kabul ki ghati maury samrajy ke antargat thi. in abhilekhon ke anusar yon, yavan gandhar bhi maury samrajy ke antargat the.
  • plootark ke anusar chndragupt ne selyookas ko 500 hathi upahar men die. sambhavatah is sndhi ke parinamasvaroop hi hindukush maury samrajy aur selyookas ke rajy ke bich ki sima ban gaya. 2,000 se adhik varsh poorv bharat ke pratham samrat ne us prakritik sima ko prapt kiya jisake lie angrez tarasate rahe aur jise mugal samrat bhi poori tarah prapt karane men asamarth rahe. vaivahik sambandh se maury samraton aur selyookas vnsh ke rajaon ke bich maitripoorn sambandh ka sootrapat hua. selyookas ne apane rajadoot megasthaniz ko chndragupt ke darabar men bheja. ye maitri sambandh donon ke uttaradhikariyon ke bich bhi bane rahe.

chndragupt maury ne takshashila-sahit poore pnjab par adhikar kar liya; afaganistan ke bhitar tak ka gndhar ka shesh bhag usane 305 ee. poo. ke asapas thodi aur ladaee ladakar silyookash niketan se chhin liya. janakari milati hai ki silyookash aur vijayi chndragupt maury ke bich vaivahik snbndh sthapit hua tha, isalie plutark ki soochana ke anusar, 500 hathi bhent kie ge the. bataya jata hai ki silyookash ki ek putri ka byah chndragupt ke putr bindusar ke sath hua tha. yah koee asnbhav bat nahin hai, yadyapi do apattiyan uthaee gee hain. yoonani vivah ke niyam aur bharatiy jatipratha. [42]

yogy shasak

chndragupt ek kushal yoddha, senanayak tatha mahanh vijeta hi nahin tha, varanh ek yogy shasak bhi tha. itane bade samrajy ki shasan - vyavastha koee saral kary nahin tha. atah apane mukhyamntri kautily ki sahayata se usane ek aisi shasan - vyavastha ka nirman kiya jo us samay ke anukool thi. yah shasan vyavastha ek had tak magadh ke poorvagami shasakon dvara vikasit shasanatntr par adharit thi kintu isaka adhik shrey chndragupt aur kautily ki srijanatmak kshamata ko hi diya jana chahie. kautily ne likha hai ki us samay shasan tntr par jo bhi grnth upalabdh the aur bhinn-bhinn rajyon men shasan - pranaliyan prachalit thin un sabaka bhali-bhanti adhyayan karane ke bad usane apana prasiddh grnth "arthashastr" likha. vidvanon ka vichar hai ki maury shasan vyavastha par tatkalin yoonani tatha akhamini shasan pranali ka bhi kuchh prabhav pada. chndragupt ne aisi shasan vyavastha sthapit ki jise paravarti bharatiy shasakon ne bhi apanaya.

  • is shasan ki mukhy visheshataen thin -
  1. satta ka atyadhik kendrikaran,
  2. vikasit adhikarik tntr,
  3. uchit nyay vyavastha,
  4. nagar-shasan, krishi, shilp udyog, snchar, vanijy evn vyapar ki vriddhi ke lie rajy ke dvara anek karagar upay.

chndragupt ke shasan prabandh ka uddeshy lokahit tha. jahan ek or arthik vikas evn rajy ki samriddhi ke anek thos qadam uthae ge aur shilpiyon evn vyapariyon ke jan - mal ki suraksha ki gee, vahin doosari or janata ko unaki anuchit tatha shoshanatmak kary-vidhiyon se bachane ke lie kathor niyam bhi banae ge. dason aur karmakaron ko malikon ke atyachar se bachane ke lie vistrit niyam the. anath, daridr, mrit sainikon tatha rajakarmachariyon ke parivaron ke bharan - poshan ka bhar rajy ke oopar tha. tatkalin mapadnd ke anusar chndragupt ka shasan - prabandh ek kalyanakari rajy ki dharana ko charitarth karata hai. yah shasan nirakunsh tha, dnd vyavastha kathor thi aur vyakti ki svatntrata ka sarvatha abhav tha, kintu yah sab navazat samrajy ki suraksha tatha praja ke hiton ko dhyan men rakhakar kiya gaya tha. chndragupt ki shasan vyavastha ka charam lakshy arthashastr ke nimn uddharan se vyakt hota hai—

"praja ke sukh men hi raja ka sukh hai aur praja ki bhalaee men usaki bhalaee. raja ko jo achchha lage vah hitakar nahin hai, varanh hitakar vah hai jo praja ko achchha lage."

uparyukt uddharan se spasht hai ki kautily ne raja ke samaksh prajahitaishi raja ka adarsh rakha.

dharmik ruchi

chndragupt dharm men bhi ruchi rakhata tha. yoonani lekhakon ke anusar jin char avasaron par raja mahal se bahar jata tha, unamen ek tha ygy karana. kautily usaka purohit tatha mukhyamntri tha. hemachndr ne bhi likha hai ki vah brahmanon ka adar karata hai.

jainiyon ka dava hai ki chndragupt ne apane jivan ke antim samay men jain mat svikar kar liya tha aur apane putr ko rajy dekar snnyasi ho gaya tha. ek jain muni aur anek any sadhuon ke sath vah dakshin bharat gaya, jahan usane jain dharm ki parnparagat riti se dhire-dhire anahar dvara apane jivan ka ant kar liya.[43]

megasthaniz ne likha hai ki chndragupt van men rahane vale tapasviyon se paramarsh karata tha aur unhen devataon ki pooja ke lie niyukt karata tha. varsh men ek bar vidvanon (brahmanon) ki sabha bulaee jati thi taki ve janahit ke lie uchit paramarsh de saken. darshanikon se sampark rakhana chndragupt ki jigyasu pravritti ka soochak hai. jain anuyayiyon ke anusar jivan ke antim charan men chndragupt ne jain dharm svikar kar liya. kaha jata hai ki jab magadh men 12 varsh ka durbhiksh pada to chndragupt rajy tyagakar jain achary bhadrabahu ke sath shravan belgola (maisoor ke nikat) chala gaya aur ek sachche jain bhikshu ki bhanti usane nirahar samadhisth hokar 'prayopavesh' prakriya se pranatyag kiya (arthath kaivaly prapt kiya). 900 ee. ke bad ke anek abhilekh bhadrabahu aur chndragupt ka ek sath ullekh karate hain.


sikndar ki mrityu ke bad usaka senapati selyookas yoonani samrajy ka shasak bana aur usane chndragupt maury par akraman kar diya. par use munh ki khani padi. kabul, herat, kndhar, aur baloochistan ke pradesh dene ke sath-sath vah apani putri helana ka vivah chndragupt se karane ke lie badhy hua. is parajay ke bad agale sau varsho tak yoonaniyon ko bharat ki or munh karane ka sahas nahin hua.

chndragupt maury ka shasan-prabndh bada vyavasthit tha. isaka parichay yoonani rajadoot megasthaniz ke vivaran aur kautily ke 'arthashastr' se milata hai. lagabhag-300 ee. poo. men chndragupt ne apane putr bindusar ko gaddi saunp di.



maury kal
Arrow-left.png poorvadhikari
dhanannd
chndragupt maury uttaradhikari
bindusar
Arrow-right.png
panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 13 |
  2. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 30 |
  3. prachin bharat ka itihas |lekhak: dvijendr narayan jha, krishn mohan shrimali |prakashak: dilli vishvavidyalay |prishth snkhya: 174-175 |
  4. vishakhadatt ke prasiddh natak mudrarakshas ka tikakar
  5. bharatiy itihas kosh |lekhak: sachchidannd bhattachary |prakashak: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan |prishth snkhya: 143-144 |
  6. si.di. chatarji | indiyan kalchar men abzarveshns aaun di brihatkatha | khnd 1- prishth 221
  7. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 26 |
  8. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 30 |
  9. prachin bharat ka itihas |lekhak: dvijendr narayan jha, krishn mohan shrimali |prakashak: dilli vishvavidyalay |prishth snkhya: 174 |
  10. sampadak: strang, prishth 98
  11. digh nikay 2,167
  12. sampadak: kavel, prishth 370
  13. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 28 |
  14. bahusachchabhavnch; uggahitasippaknch
  15. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 30 |
  16. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 32 |
  17. prachin bharat ki snskriti aur sabhyata |lekhak: damodar dharmannd kosnbi |anuvadak: gunakar mule |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 174 |
  18. bharatiy itihas kosh |lekhak: sachchidannd bhattachary |prakashak: uttar pradesh hindi snsthan |prishth snkhya: 143 |
  19. vistrit vivaran ke lie radhakumud mukharji ki "ainshent indiyan ejukeshan", maikamilns, lndan, namak rachana ka 19van adhyay dekhie.
  20. vuddhapatipatiya
  21. mudrarakshas men malay ka ullekh milata hai
  22. rajjam va dentu yuddhn va
  23. sinhali bhasha men mahavns tika ka moolapath, jo shri si.di. chatarji ne shri radhakumud mukharji ko padhakar bataya [bharatakosh tippani]
  24. mahavns tika
  25. mahavns tika
  26. aiyyngar krit-biginings aauf sauth indiyan histri, prishth 89
  27. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 36 |
  28. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 40 |
  29. Plutarch: Life of Alexander (angrezi) (ech ti em el) penelope.uchicago.edu. abhigaman tithi: 18 aktoobar, 2011.
  30. mahavnsh tika, prishth.123, parishisht1
  31. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 51 |
  32. VIII, 253-54
  33. kainbrij histri, pri.435
  34. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 53 |
  35. 'endrokottas' aur 'saindrokottas' donon chandragupt ke hi nam hain jo yoonani grnthon men paye jate hain.
  36. laivs, adhyay 42
  37. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 54 |
  38. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 174 |
  39. varamingatan. kamars bitavin roman enpayar aind indiya, prishth 151
  40. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 55 |
  41. bharat ka itihas |lekhak: romila thapar |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 62 |
  42. chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 174 |
  43. bharat ka itihas |lekhak: romila thapar |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |prishth snkhya: 62 |

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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