कंधार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kndhar, afaganistan

kndhar prachin nagar 'gndhar' ka hi roopatnran hai. [1] yah afaganistan ka doosara sabase bada nagar hai. samarik drishti se kndhar kafi mahattvapoorn hai, kyonki bharat se afaganistan jane vali relave lain yahin par samapt hoti hai. yah nagar mahattvapoorn mndi bhi hai. poorv se pashchim ko sthal marg se hone vala adhikansh vyapar yahin se hota hai. kndhar men soton ke pani se sinchaee ki anokhi vyavastha hai. jagah-jagah kuen khodakar unako surng se mila diya gaya hai.

sthiti

kndhar kabul se lagabhag 280 mil dakshin-pashchim aur 3,462 phut ki oonchaee par sthit hai. yah nagar taranak evn argdab nadiyon ke upajaoo maidan ke madhy men sthit hai, jahan naharon dvara sinchaee hoti hai; parntu isake uttar ka bhag ujad hai. samip ke ne dhng se sinchit maidanon men phal, gehoon, jau, dalen, majith, hing, tnbakoo adi ugaee jati hain. kndhar se ne chaman tak relamarg hai aur vahan tak pakistan se rel jati hai. prachin kndhar nagar tin mil men basa hua hai, jisake charon taraph 24 phut chaudi, 10 phut gahari khaee evn 27 phut oonchi divar hai. is shahar ke chhah daravaze hain, jinamen se do poorab, do pashchim, ek uttar tatha ek dakshin men hai. mukhy sadaken 40 phut se adhik chaudi hain. kndhar char spasht bhagon men vibhakt hai, jinamen alag-alag jati (kabile) ke log rahate hain. inamen char- 'durrani', 'ghilazaee', 'parsivan' aur 'kakar' prasiddh hain.[2]

itihas

kndhar ka itihas uthal-puthal se bhara hua hai. panchavin shatabdi ee. poo. men yah faras ke samrajy ka bhag tha. lagabhag 326 ee. poo. men makadooniya ke raja sikandar ne bharat par akraman karate samay ise jita aur usake marane par yah usake senapati selyookas ke adhikar men aya. kuchh varsh ke bad selyookas ne ise chandragupt maury ko saunp diya. yah ashok ke samrajy ka ek bhag tha. samrat ashok ka ek shilalekh hal hi men is nagar ke nikat se mila hai. maury vnsh ke patan par yah baiktriya, parthiya, kushan tatha shak rajaon ke antargat raha. dashavi shatabdi men yah afaganon ke qabze men a gaya aur muslim rajy ban gaya. gyarahavin shatabdi men sultan mahamood, terahavin shatabdi men chngez khan tatha chaudahavin shatabdi men taimoor ne is par apana adhikar jamaya.

mugalon ka adhikar

1507 ee. men kndhar ko mugal vnsh ke snsthapak babar ne jit liya aur 1625 ee. tak yah dilli ke mugal badashahon ke qabze men raha. 1625 ee. men hi faras ke shah abbas ne is par dakhal kar liya. shahajahan aur aurngazeb dvara is par dubara adhikar karane ke kee prayas kiye ge, kintu sare prayas viphal hue. kndhar thode samay (1708-37 ee.) ko chhodakar nadirashah ki mrityu ke samay tak faras ke qabze men raha. 1747 ee. men ahamadashah abdali ne afaganistan ke sath is par bhi adhikar kar liya tha, kintu usake pautr jamanashah ki mrityu ke bad kuchh samay ke lie kndhar kabul se alag ho gaya.

british niyntran

1839 ee. men british bharatiy sarakar ne afaganistan ke amir shahashuja ki or se yuddh karate hue is par niyntran sthapit kar liya aur 1842 ee. tak apane qabze men rakha. british sena ne 1879 ee. men is par phir se dakhal kar liya, kintu 1881 ee. men khali kar dena pada. tab se kndhar afaganistan ka hi ek bhag hai.

varsha ki sthiti

kndhar men varsha keval jade men bahut kam matra men hoti hai. garmi adhik padati hai. yah sthan phalon ke lie prasiddh hai. afaganistan ka yah ek pradhan vyaparik kendr hai. yahan se bharat ko phal niryat hote hain. yahan ke dhani vyapari hindoo hain. nagar men lagabhag 200 masjiden hain. darshaniy sthalon men 'ahamadashah ka maqabara' aur ek masjid, jisamen muhammad sahab ka kurta rakha hai, pramukh hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aitihasik sthanavali |lekhak: vijayendr kumar mathur |prakashak: rajasthan hindi grnth akadami, jayapur |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 122 |
  2. kndhar (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 25 joon, 2014.

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