पोलैण्ड  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

polaind ka dhvaj

polaind (angrezi: Poland) madhy yoorop ka ek ganatntr. isaki kul abadi lagabhag 3.8 karod hai. polaind yooropiy sngh ke sarvadhik abadi vale sadasyon men se ek hai. yah poore vishv men 69van aur yoorop men 9van sabase bada desh hai. polaind ka kul kshetraphal 312,679 varg kilomitar hai.[1]

  • polaind ke pashchim men jarmani, dakshin men chek ganarajy aur slovakiya, poorv me kren, belaroos aur lithuaniya aur uttar ki or baltik sagar tatha kaliningrad obalast hai.
  • ek rashtr ke roop men polaind ki sthapana ko isake shasak misjako pratham dvara 966 ee. men eesaee dharm ko rashtr dharm banane ke sath jod kar dekha jata hai. tatkalin samay men polaind ka akar vartaman polaind ke jaisa hi tha.
  • varsh 1025 ee. men polaind rajaon ke adhin aya aur 1569 men polaind ne lithuaniya ke graind dachi ke sath milakar polish-lithuaniyan kamanavelth ki sthapana karate hue ek lnbe rishte ki ninv dali.
  • kamanavelth varsh 1795 men tod diya gaya aur polaind ko aaustriya, roos aur prusiya ke bich bant liya gaya.
  • polaind ne pratham vishv yuddh ke bad 1918 men apani svadhinata punah hasil ki, lekin dvitiy vishvayuddh ke samay phir se paradhin hokar naji jarmani aur soviyat sngh ke adhin chala gaya.
  • dvitiy vishvayuddh men polaind ne apane sath lakh nagarikon ko kho diya tha. kee sal bad polaind roos se prabhavit ek samyavadi ganarajy ke roop men eestarn blaauk men ubhara.
  • samyavadi shasan ka patan 1989 men ho gaya, jisake bad polaind ek naye rashtr ke roop men ubhara. sanvidhanik taur ise 'tritiy polish ganatntr' kahakar pukara gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. polaind (hindi) yatra salah. abhigaman tithi: 28 julaee, 2014.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah