उरुग्वे  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

urugve dakshin amarika ka sabase chhota sarvabhaum sattavanh‌ svntatr desh hai. isaka vastavik (sarakari) nam 'urugve ka poorvi ganarajy' (ripablika oriental del urugve) hai aur sthaniy roop se ise 'banda oriental' ya urugve nadi ka poorvi kshetr kahate hain. 1,77,508 varg ki.mi. bhookshetr par phaila yah desh hai aur prati varg ki.mi. ghanatv keval 15 vyakti hai. isake uttar evn uttar poorv men vishal brazil aur dakshin men urugve nadi se lekar atalantik mahasagar tak 378 ki.mi. lnbi rio d la plata ki ischuari hai. pashchim men arjentaina ki sima urugve nadi dvara alag hoti hai aur poorv men 193 ki.mi. lnba samudratat hai.

lagabhag snpoorn urugve ka dharatal 600 mitar se nicha hai. poorvi aur dakshini ardhabhag apekshakrit nicha pahadi hai jisake niche prachin sist tatha grenait jaisi kathor chattanen hain. inamen patharon, ghatiyon aur pahadiyon ke kramik silasile milate hain. madhy evn madhyottari bhag pathari aur nicha hai jisake niche prachin sist chattanen hain aur oopar paramikalin chattanen bichhi hain. ye bhag brazil pathar ke ansh hain. pratinootan (plistosin) kalin baloo aur chika adi shesh bhag maidani hain jo jalodh padarthon se bane hain aur vastut: pnpaz ghas ke maidan ke hi ansh hain. samudratatiy kshetr jvariy jhilon tatha baloo ke dhoohon ya stoopon se bhare pade hain. riyo negro sabase lnbi nadi hai jisaka nichala bhag naugamy hai. santa lusiya, kvegve adi any pramukh nadiyan hain.

urugve dakshini golardh men shitoshnakatibndh men sthit hai aur isaki jalavayu poornataya shitoshnakatibndhiy aur sukhat hai. janavari, pharavari garmi ke mahine hain aur ausat tapaman 71° pha. rahata hai. julaee sardi ka mahina hai jisamen tapaman 50° pha. hota hai. dakshin pashchim se anevali thndi havaon ko painpero kahate hain jinake bahane par tapaman ekaek bahut kam ho jata hai. vastut: havaon ki disha men yahan ekaek parivartan ho jata hai aur thndi hava bahane lagati hai. samudratatiy kshetron ke samip samudrik prabhav hone se parivartan ka kam prabhav padata hai. mee se aktoobar tak ke mausam men subah sham tatha rat men kuhasa chhaya rahata hai. desh men ausat varshik varsha lagabhag 89 sen. hoti hai aur isaki matra samudr se doori ke sath kam hoti jati hai.

apekshakrit kam varsha hone ke karan adhikansh kshetron ki prakritik vanaspati lnbi preyari ghasen hain. san jos ki ghati jaise kshetron men desi tad ugate hain.

arthik tntr-pashupalan pramukh arthik dhngha hai yadyapi krishikary men bhi prachur pragati huee hai. oon tatha mans pramukh utpadan hain kintu idhar inake utpadan men badi dhimi vriddhi huee hai aur rashtriy mang utpadan ki apeksha barabar adhik rahi hai. isilie krishi evn pashuon se prapt utpadanon ke kul niryat ke inake pratishat anupat men hhras hua hai. 1930 ke dashak men in padarthon ka bhag 46% ke lagabhag tha jo ab matr 30% rah gaya hai. idhar krishi men bhi prasar hua hai aur sarakar ne gehoon men atmanirbhar hone ke lie vibhinn kadam uthae hain. gehoon, makka, alasi, sooryamukhi ke bij, jee, jau, chaval tatha angoor pramukh utpadan hain. alfapha ghasen bhi pashuon ke chare ke lie boee jati hain.

1828 men jab urugve ko svatntrata prapt huee, us samay yahan adhikansh bhoomi khule roop men pashuon ke charane ke lie upayog ki jati thi aur kheti ka khas vikas nahin hua tha. svatntrataprapti ke bad pramukhataya itali aur spen se kuchh ahvrajak yahan akar base aur dakshini bhagon ke kee kshetron men kheti prarnbh huee. 1852 ke bad la plata pradesh men anevale adhikansh yooropiy ahvrajakon ko arjentaina ka adhik akarshan tha. at: urugve men basanevalon ki snkhya bahut kam ho gee. phalat: dakshini bhag ki kheti men adhik prasar n ho sakata jabaki usapar arjentaina men tivr pragati huee. idhar 1940 ke bad sarakari prarena tatha sahayata se kheti ka prachur prasar hua hai. ab charagahi pradeshon men bhi khuli charagahi bhoomi nahin hain. pashuon ko vistrit badon men rakha aur charaya tatha pala jata hai. riyo nighao ke dakshini kshetron men pashupalan adhik mahatvapoorn hai jabaki khetivale kshetron men bahut kam bhoomi charagahi ke lie upalabdh hai.

aitihasik pariprekshy-uttari evn madhy amariki kshetron ki tarah hi dakshin amarika men bhi amariki indiyan jatiyan phaili thin lekin unaki janasnkhya bahut kam bhi aur meksiko ya peroo adi kshetron ko chhodakar unaka arthik dhancha bhi bahut pichhada tatha kabayali star ka tha. la plata kshetr ki khoj sarvapratham yooropiy juan diyaz d solis ne 1516 ee. men ki. parntu kshetr men koee vishesh ghatana nahin ghati. 1680 men brazil kshetr se purtagali logon ne yahan akar upanivesh sthapit kiya aur riyo d la plata par byoonas ayars (arjentaina) ke uttari par novo koloniya d saikromento ki sthapana ki. byoonas ayars men 1810 ee. men svatntrata ki ghoshana ke bad is kshetr men kee rajanitik evn sainik uthal-puthal huee. urugveee (banda oriental), purtagali, brazili tatha arjentaini senaon ne bhi svatntrata ke lie vidroh aur prayatn kie. 1825 ee. men juan aintonio lavaliza ne kranti sena gathit karake muktisngram ka vistar kiya. phalat: 27 agast, 1828 ee. ko riyo d zanero men brazil evn arjentaina ke madhy ek sndhi huee aur tadanusar urugve ko svatntr rashtr ghoshit kiya gaya. lekin kranti sena ne rashtriy vikas ki or dhyan n dekar aur lakhon pashuoen ko bina unaki vriddhi ka dhyan kie udarasth karake, arthik dhuri ko 1860 ee. tak kaphi nasht kar diya. rashtriy karj bhi badhata gaya. yadyapi koloraido tatha blaiko rajanitik dalon ka samuchit vikas ho raha tha tathapi arthik evn rajanitik arajakata men vriddhi hoti gee. 1865 men koloraido rajanitik dal ki sarakar bani. kintu vishesh arthik sudhar snbhav n ho saka. 1916 ee. se lekar lagatar rajanitik dal ka prabhav kaphi badha aur 1946-58 ee. ke madhy jitane bhi chunav hue, sabamen isi dal ko vijayashri milati gee. navnbar, 1958 men koloraidi dal ke 93 varshiy shasan ka ant hua aur rashtravadiyon ko prachur bahumat prapt hua. dekha jae to march, 1959 se rajanitik daliy prashasanik parivartanachakr ka aitihasik shubharnbh hua.

vastut: arjentaina aur brazil jaise vishal aur sashakt padosi rashtron ke madhy chhote rashtr urugve ki bhoorajanitik sthiti ne ise snyukt suraksha ki or prerit kiya hai aur yahan ki janatntr ki jaden bhi apekshakrit adhik gahari ho gee hain. janamanas ka jhukav bhi janatantrik hai. at: urugve ne lig aauv neshans, rashtrasngh ya any vishvastariy athava amariki mahadvipiy stariy rajanitik, surakshatmak ya arthik snghatanon men sadaiv snghiy ya snyukt suraksha ki avaj bulnd ki hai. punta del eest namak samudratatiy manornjan kendr men 'pragati ke lie sahayog' ka gathan hua. vastut: mantavidiyo lefta (laitin amariki phhऱi tred aisosiyeshan) arthath‌ laitin amariki svatntr vyapar sngh ka, jo yooropiy sajha bajar ke dhanche par gathit hua hai, mukhy kendr hai.

udyog dhndhe evn yatayat-urugve men udyog dhndhon ka adhik vikas nahin ho paya hai. vastut: audyogik dhuri ke vikas ke lie avashyak khanij tatha oorja ke snsadhanon ka yahan nitant abhav hai; keval kuchh sona, chandi, sisa, tanba aur kuchh lignait koyala milata hai. paryapt oobad-khabad bhoomi ke abhav men jalavidyuth‌ ka adhik vikas nahin ho paya hai. adhikansh vidyuth‌ utpadan kendr ayatit koyale tatha petroliyam par nirbhar the. idhar riyo nigro par do bade jalavidyuth‌ kendr sthapit kie ge hain. adhikansh udyog dhndhe kheti aur pashupalan se prapt kachche mal, bhojy padarthon evn any upabhokta padarthon ke nirman se snbaddh hain. vastrodyog, rabar ke tayar tatha any saman, joote evn ghareloo upabhog ke padarth taiyar karanevale dhndhe inamen pramukh hain. inake atirikt dibbon men mans evn satv bnd karane ke karakhane sthapit hain jahan se yoorop, brazil evn any laitin amariki deshon ko ukt vastuen bheji jati hain.

1970 ee. tak urugve men 4,071 ki.mi. lnbe relamarg aur 8,000 ki.mi. se adhik pakke rajamarg the. atalantik mahasagaratat par sthit mantividiyo keval rajadhani aur brihattam nagar hi nahin, urugve ka brihattam arthik, audyogik, vyaparik evn yatayat kendr hai. idhar trakon dvara rajamargiy yatayat men tivr pragati huee hai. phalat: antararashtriy sahayata se rajamargon ko badhane tatha adhik samupayukt banane ke lie prayatn ho rahe hain. brazil se rajamargon dvara adhik vyapar aur yatayat hota hai, at: brazil ki or janevale marg adhik sudhare hain. kul videshi vyaparakary men urugve ke apane jahaji bede ka mahatv bahut kam hai aur ise videshi knpaniyon par ashrit rahana padata hai. ploona namak deshi vayu-yatayat-sngathan dvara desh tatha padosi deshon ka snbndh hai. mantividiyon se 21 ki.mi. door kairrasko men pramukh vayuyan adda hai.

desh men rediyo, teliphon (1,90,000 snbndh ikaiyan), dooravikshan (telivizan) adi snchar snsadhan hain aur 1964 ee. se antararashtriy teleks sevaen bhi prapt ho gee hain. 1877 ee. men kee sudhar hue jinake phalasvaroop shikshan tatha prashikshan ke kshetr men urugve ka sthan antarrashtriy star par ooncha hua hai. lagabhag 90 pratishat log sakshar hain. 1849 ee. men mantivadiyo men vishvavidyalay sthapit kiya gaya tha.[1]


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  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 139 |

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