इथिओपिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ithiopiya uttarapoorv aphrika ka ek svatntr samrajy hai jo arajakiy star par abisiniya kahalata hai. sthiti : 5° u.a. se 15° u.a.; 35° poo.de. se 42° poo.de.; kshetraphal : 3,95,800 vargamil;. yah tigre, amhara, gojjam, gondar, shoa tatha any svatntr rajyon ke snyog se bana hai. sanh‌ 1952 ee. men, jab iritriya rajy abisiniya ka ek svayatt (aautonomas) prant ban gaya, is samrajy ki sima poorv men lal sagar tak badh gee. isake pashchim men soodan, u.poo. men somalilaind, d.p. men yooganda tatha d. men kenia adi rajy sthit hain. sanh‌ 1935 ee. men itali ne abisiniya par akraman kar ise anshat: adhin kar liya, kintu sanh‌ 1941 ee. men angrej sainikon ki sahayata se pun: svatntr ho gaya. adis ababa isaki rajadhani hai, tatha asmara (1,78,537), harar (42,771), desi (40,619), dire dava (50,733) adi any mukhy nagar hain.

abisiniya ek vishal pathari kshetr hai jo anek sthalon par 13,000 phut se bhi adhik ooncha hai. ras dasahan isaka sarvochch shikhar hai, jisaki oonchaee 15,153 phut hai. isake prakritik nirman ka snbndh 'gret ripht ghati' tatha usase udgarit lava se hai. gret ripht ghati ki mukhy shakha, jo roodolph jhil se uttarapoorv men lal sagar ki or agrasar hoti hai, abisiniya ke pathar ko do bhagon men vibhakt karati hai : (1) ithiopiya ka brihath‌ pathar, jo ripht ghati ke uttarapashchim men sthit tatha jisake antargat tigre, amhara, shoa evn kapha ke prant hain. (2) harar ka snkirn pathar, jo ripht ghati ke dakshin poorv men sthit hai tatha u.poo. se d.p. ko phaila hai. ye donon kshetr baisalt evn traichait namak pattharon ke bane hain jo shoa prant men 6,000 phut ki motaee tak milate hain. abisiyinaya ke poorvottr bhag tatha iritriya men kam oonche evn shushk pathar milate hain jo adyakalpik (arkiyan) pattharon se bane hain. inaki oonchaee 1,500 se 5,000 phut tak hai.

abisiniya ki mukhy nadi setit hai jo lasta namak parvat se nikalati hai tatha age chalakar atabara ke nam se nil nadi ki sahayak ho jati hai. any nadiyon men abbaee pramukh hai, jo tana jhil se hokar bahati hai aur bloo nil ke nam se prasiddh hai. poorv ko aur pravahit honevali nadiyon men avas mukhy hai.

ithiopiya ke pathar par oonchaee ke anusar jalavayu ke tin prakar milate hain : (1) kolla, 5,500 phut ki oonchaee tak, jahan pratyek mahine ka ausat tap 68° pha. se adhik hota hai; (2) vainadega, 5,500 se 8,000 phut tak, jahan jade men thndi raten (41° 50° pha.) hoti hain tatha varshik tapantar 9° pha. se kam hota hai. adhis ababa (8,000 phut) ki ausat masik tap 58° pha. se 66° pha. tak ghatata badhata rahata hai; (3) dega, 8,000 phut se oopar, jahan sadaiv sardi padati hai tatha garmi ke tin mahinon (march se mee tak) ka ausat tap 60° pha.° rahata hai.

harar, shoa, amhara tatha tigre ke patharon par varsha garmi men hoti hai, kintu ithiopiya ke pathar par varsha pratyek mahine men hoti hai. adis ababa ki varshik varsha 45 inch hai, jisaka adhikansh joon se aktoobar tak hota hai. harar pathar par varsha 20 inch se 35 inch tak hoti hai. kam oonche sthalon men varsha ka abhav hai. dakshinapoorv men varsha keval 5 inch ke lagabhag hoti hai. ithiopiya ke pathar ke pashchimi bhag men saghan van tatha kahi-kahin savaina ke ghas ke maidan milate hain. kam oonche patharon par savaina ki vanaspati tatha niche sthalon men jhadiyan paee jati hain.

is rajy men sona, loha, koyala, plaitinam ityadi khanij vishesh roop se milate hain. inake atirikt baksait, chandi, tanba, gndhak bhi prapt hote hain. yahan jalavidyuth‌ ki snbhavi kshamata 40,00,000 ashvasamarthy hai.

ithiopiyavasi chauthi shatabdi se hi eesaee hain. ye hemait jati ke batae jate hain. galla logon men, jo krishak evn charavahe hain, kuchh eesaee tatha kuchh musalaman hain. inaki janasnkhya 85,00,000 hai, jo desh ki kul janasnkhya ki do tihaee hai. inake atirikt kuchh somali, danakil tatha habshi jatiyan bhi basi hain.

yahan ki mukhy phasal durra hai, yadyapi gehoon, jau, makka, aloo tatha mirch bhi hoti hai. harar, jimma tatha shidamon jilon men utkrisht koti ka kahava utpann kiya jata hai. jagali kahava any sthanon men upajata hai. any phasalon men ruee, eekh, khajoor, kela ityadi mukhy hai. pashupalan yahan ka mukhy udyam hain.

masava tatha asab, jo iritriya ke svayatt prant ke antargat hain, abisiniya ke mukhy bndaragah hain. ye adis ababa evn any sthanon se pakki sadakon dvara snbaddh hain. adis ababa se ek relave lain jibuti bndaragah ko jati hai jo phrench somalilaind ke antargat hai. (n.ki.pr.sin.)

itihas-prachin yoonani kavi homar ke kavy men abisiniya ke nivasiyon ki charcha men likha hai-sab deshon se door unaka desh hai. devata unake rajabhojon men sammilit hote hain aur soory snbhavat: unake desh men ast hota hai. ibrani grnthon men abisiniya ko 'habsiniya' kaha gaya hai.

abisiniya ke uttari pradesh ithiopiya ke prachin itihas ke anusar us desh par 11vin shatabdi ee.poo. tak misri samraton ka adhipaty tha. jab tab vidroh karake abisiniya svatntr ho jata tha, kintu phir misri senaen akar use vash men kar leti thin. 11vin shatabdi ee.poo. men abisiniya poorn svadhin ho gaya. napata ne svadhin rajy ki rajadhani bana. dhire-dhire naya rajy itana shaktishali ho gaya ki usane athavin shatabdi ee.poo. ke madhy svayn misr ko apane adhin kar liya. misr ka 55van rajakul abisiniya ka ithiopi rajakul hi tha. ithiopi rajakul ka jab 660 ee.poo. men misr se ant hua tab bhi abisiniya svatntr rajy bana raha. eerani vijeta knbujiy ne misr vijay karane ke bad abisiniya par akraman karane ke lie apana jahaji beda bheja kintu vah nasht kar diya gaya. is yuddh ke parinamasvaroop rajadhani napata se hatakar mero kar di gee. 24 ee.poo. men romi sena ne abisiniya par akraman kiya aur usake ek bhag par adhikar kar liya, kintu romi samrath ogustas ne romi sena ko vapas bula liya. is kal ke abisiniya ke rajaon men netekamane aur raniyon men kanades ke nam pramukh hain. kuchh abisiniya parnparaon ke anusar samragyi sheba abisiniya ki hi thi.

bharat aur abisiniya ka snbndh lagabhag dhaee hajar varsh purana hai. kalyan, dhenukakat, supara adi bharat ke pashchimi tat ke bndaragahon se tijarati jahaj supari, had, chaval, vaidoory, kesal, agar, choyakastoori, eegunr, shnkh aur sooti kapada lekar abisiniya jate the. 'kathakosh' namak grnth ke anusar bharat men kapada rngane ke lie jis krimiraj ka prayog hota tha vah abisiniya se hi jata tha. ek lekh ke anusar abisiniya ki parvatakndaraon men doosari shatabdi ee.poo. men saikadon dignbar jain sadhu raha karate the. eesa ki tisari shatabdi men eesaee dharm abisiniya pahuncha aur vigat 1,600 varshon men vah vahan ka rajadharm raha hai. sanh‌ 615 ee. men abisiniya ke samrath najashi ne saikadon musalaman arab sharanarthiyon ko apane desh men ashray diya.

sanh‌ 525 ee. men abisiniya ke raja al asabaha ne arab ke yaman prant par adhikar kar liya. lagabhag 50 varshon tak yaman abisiniya ke adhipaty men raha. chhathi sadi ee. se 19vin sadi ee. tak ibisiniya anek chhoti-chhoti riyasaton men bnt gaya. in riyasaton ki ae din ki ladaiyon ne abisiniya ko ek nirbal rashtr bana diya. 19vin shatabdi men abisiniya ko apane snrakshan men lene ke lie yooropiy shaktiyon men pratispardha hone lagi. itali ne senaen bhejakar abisiniya ko apane adhikar men lena chaha, kintu adova ke maidan men abisiniya ke hathon itali ki senaon ko gahari har khakar pichhe hatana pada. 40 varsh bad aktoobar, sanh‌ 1935 men musolini ki senaon ne abisiniya par akraman kiya aur kee mahinon ke yuddh ke bad mee, sanh‌ 1936 men use italavi samrajy ka ang bana liya.[1]

apane desh ki svatntrata ke is apaharan par rashtrasngh se apil karate hue abisiniya ke samrath hel silasi ke shabd the : eeshvar ke rajy ko chhodakar snsar ka koee rajy kisi doosare rajy se ooncha nahin. agar koee shaktishali rashtr kisi shaktihin desh ko sainik bal se dabakar jivit rah sakata hai to vishvas manie, nirbal deshon ki antim ghadi a pahunchi. ap svatntrata ke sath mere desh ke is apaharan par ana nirnay den. eeshvar aur itihas apake nirnay ko yad rakhega.

doosare vishvayuddh ke dauran aprail, 1941 men samrath hel silasi ne phir bndhanamukt abisiniya ki rajadhani adis men pravesh kiya. usake bad se vaidhanik drishti se abisiniya men anek shasan sudhar hue hain. janata ko vayask matadhikar prapt hai. parliyament men 'chenbaraauv deputiz' (lokasabha) aur uchcha sabha, ye do sadan hain. mntrimndal ke hathon men satta hai. abisiniya snyukt rashtrasngh ka sadasy hai. antararashtriy rajaniti men vah pnchashil ka samarthak hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 525-26 |
  2. sn.grn.-je.ech. brested : e histri aauv eejipt phhऱam do arliest taims tu d parshiyan kankvest; rikardas aauv eejipt; e histri aauv eejipt; ji.e. rozanar : arkeyalajikal sarve aauv noobiya; grifith : eksaveshns in noobiya; ee.si. luee : histri aauv sivilizeshns; sar arthar vigal : e histri aauv d fairaoz; e.bi. vild : madarn abisiniya (1901); sar ee.dablyoo. baz : e histri aauv ithiyopiya; ithiyopiyan dootavas dvara prasarit haindauts.

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