उज़बेकिस्तान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uzabekistan ka dhvaj

uzabekistan ya 'uzabek soviyat samajavadi ganarajy' soviyat sngh ke dakshini bhag men arthath soviyat madhy eshiya ke dakshin-poorv men 4,49,600 varg ki.mi. kshetr men phaila hua hai. apani parnparagat kala, snskriti adi ke lie uzabekistan bahut prasiddh hai. janavari, 1971 men isaki kul abadi 1,23,00,000 thi. 27 aktoobar, 1924 men ise soviyat snghiy ganarajy ka star prapt hua. uttar men aral sagar tatha dakshin men afaganistan ki sima tak phaile is ganarajy ke dakshin evn pashchim men turkamen soviyat, dakshin-poorv men tajjhik soviyat, poorv men kiragiz soviyat aur uttar evn pashchim men kazak soviyat phaile hain.

aitihasik tathy

itihas uzabekistan tatha uzabek logon ka namakaran chaudahavin sadi ke unake jatiy neta khan uzabek (1312-1342 ee.) ke nam par hua hai. 1917 ee. men soviyat kranti ke samay uzabek log roosi turkistan men sir dariya, samaraknd aur pharagana kshetron (oblast) tatha bukhara aur khiva ardhasvatntr khanajadon men bikhare hue the. kuchh sngharsh ke bad 1919 ee. tak tashaknd kendriy roosi sarakar ke adhin ho gaya.
uzabekistan ki snsad
kuchh antarik sngharsh ke pashchath yahan poorn samyavadi prashasan sthapit hua. 1936 ke disambar aur 1956 men prashasanik suvidha tatha uzabekon ki svayattata ke lie isaka purnasnghatan kiya gaya. 1936-1937 men uzabekon ke jativadi sngharsh ka durdant daman kiya gaya. yadyapi uzabekistan ko poorn svayatt ganarajy ki sngya di gee hai, tathapi usaka kisi videsh se kisi prakar ka svatntr snbndh nahin hai.[1]

prashasanik vibhag

uzabekistan men andijhan, bukhara, samaraknd, surakhan dariya, tashaknd, faragana, khorezm, sar dariya aur kashka dariya namak nau prashasanik vibhagon ke atirikt isamen karakalpak svayatt soviyat samajavadi ganarajy bhi shamil hai. yahan 33 nagar aur 66 nagariy kshetr ya nagar ke saman bastiyan hain. kul ek tihaee se adhik log nagar nivasi hain. yahan uzabek logon ki adhikatam abadi[2] hai, jinake atirikt roosi, tatar, kazak, tajjhik, karakalpak tatha thode koriyaee, yahoodi, kiragiz evn any log hain. tashaknd isaki rajadhani hai.

bhaugolik snrachana

poorv men thyasan ke pashchimi dhalon se uttar-pashchim ki or peshki kizilakum (lal baloo) ke par tak vistirn uzabekistan adhikanshat: marubhoomi hai. pleto ustayurt ka pathari kshetr, jo lagabhag 200 se 300 mitar ooncha hai, pashchim men aral sagar, jo ki samudratal se 50 mitar ooncha hai, tak phaila hai. aral sagar men salphet snpannata adhik hai. aral sagar aur parvatapadon ke madhy 480 ki.mi. tak phaila kizilakum kshetr adhikanshat: balukamay kshetr hai. isamen vanaspatiyon ke karan keval kuchh hi kshetron men baluka-stoop milate hain. is bhag men amoo dariya ek matra satatasalila nadi hai aur svanirmit chaude maidan se hokar bahati hai.[1]

mir i arab madarasa, uzabekistan

dakshin ki or kee shushk loes maidan hain, jinamen se kee men dhalon se bahati nadiyon dvara jalodh shnkuon ka nirman hua hai. shesh bhagon men parvaton, patharon aur ghatiyon ke silasile pae jate hain. shnkuon ke madhy ki or ya ghati men loes ki tarah ki mitti aur baloo pae jate hain. faragana, jerabshan, tashaknd, khorezm adi abhisinchit ghatiyan ghani abadi se paripoorn hain. is mahadvipiy jalavayu vale kshetr men shitritu men janavari mah ke samay tapaman shoony se niche chala jata hai. jabaki grishm ke julaee mah men 21-22 sentigret ho jata hai. parvatiy bhagon men 50 se 60 sen.mi. tak varsha hoti hai, kintu nimn kshetron men 10 se 12 sen.mi. hi hoti hai. adhikansh varsha vasnt ritu men hoti hai aur adhikansh marukshetron men vibhinn prakar ki ghas, phool, paudhe adi ug ate hain, kintu shighr hi ye grishm men jhulas kar samapt ho jate hain. pahadon par ghas aur vriksh 1,200 mitar ki oonchaee tak paye jate hain.

fasalen

uzabekistan men sinchaee ke adhar par kee fasalen ugaee jati hain. vishesh roop se ghatiyon, nakhalistanon aur parvatiy dhalon tatha patharon par kheti ki jati hai. soviyat sngh ka kul 60 se 70 pratishat tak kapas lagabhag adha prakritik resham aur ek tihaee karakul chamada yahin se prapt hota hai. faragana ghati, tashaknd, samaraknd tatha bukhara kshetr kapas ugane ke lie prasiddh hain. gehoon, jau aur milet adi khady fasalen samaraknd, surakhan dariya, tashaknd adi kshetron men tatha dakshin men ganna ugaya jata hai. yah pradesh angoor, shak sabzi evn phal aur chaval ke lie bhi prasiddh hai.[1]

udyog

khiva, uzabekistan

idhar krishi par adharit udyogon ke atirikt any udyog dhndhon ka bhi teji se vikas hua hai, jinamen khanijon ka utpadan, mashin tatha rasayan udyog sammilit hain. khanijon men koyala, angaren ghati tatha sharagen kshetr, aur petroliyam pramukh hain. yahan mashin udyog, krishi ke yntr tath krishi par adharit udyog dhndhon, jinamen sooti, reshami vastroudyog, binaule ke tel, sharab, phalon aur machhaliyon ka dibbabndi udyog shamil hai, se snbndhit mashinen taiyar ki jati hain. krishi evn udyogon ko bijali adhikanshat: jalasroton se milati hai.

parivahan suvidha

uzabekistan men abhi bhi yatayat ke paryapt sadhan upalabdh nahin hain. pramukh relamarg kraisnovordask-tashaknd, kagan-tamez, ursat yevskayakoknd-namangan aur shardou-kungrad marg hain. gret uzabek marg tatha tashaknd-aingren-koknd rajamarg pramukh sadak v rajamarg hain. tashaknd pramukh havaee adda hai, jahan se dilli tatha madhy eshiyaee nagaron ke lie havaee yatayat ki suvidha hai. rediyo tatha telivijan kendr bhi hain. tashaknd aur samaraknd men vishvavidyalay bhi sthapit hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 ujabekistan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 30 march, 2012.
  2. 1959 men 62.2%

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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