आस्ट्रिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

astriya madhy yoorop ke dakshini poorvi bhag men ek chhota ganatantrik rajy hai. sthiti: 10° 1¢ poo. se 16° 40¢ poo.de. tatha 46° 32¢ u. se 48° 55¢ u.a. ke bich. kshetraphal 32,369 varg mil (jisamen 92.3 pratishat bhoomi parvatiy hai); janasnkhya 70,73,807 (1961). astriya men poorvi alps ki shreniyan phaili huee hain. is parvatiy desh ka pashchimi bhag vishesh pahadi hai jisamen otjarastuvard, jilaratul alps (1,246 phut) adi pahadiyan hain. poorvi bhag ki pahadiyan adhik oonchi nahin hain. desh ke uttar poorvi bhag men dainyoob nadi pashchim se poorv ko (217 mil lnbi) bahati hai. een, drava adi desh ki sari nadiyan dainyoob ki sahayak hain. uttari pashchimi sima par sthit kanstains, dakshin poorv men sthit nyoodilar tatha atar alph gaing, ase adi jhilen desh ki prakritik shobha badhati hain.

astriya ki jalavayu visham hai. yahan grarmiyon men kuchh adhik garmi tatha jadon men adhik thndak padati hai. yahan pachhua tatha uttar pashchimi havaon se varsha hoti hai. alps ki dhalon par paryapt tatha madhyavarti bhagon men kam pani barasata hai. yahan ki vanaspati tatha pashu madhyayooropiy jati ke hain. yahan desh ke 38 pratishat bhag men jngal hain jinamen 71 pratishat chid jati ke, 19 pratishat patajhad vale tatha 10 pratishal mishrit jngal hain. alps ke bhagon men sproos (ek prakar ka chid) tatha devadaru ke vriksh tatha nichale bhagon men chid, devadaru tatha mahogani adi jngali vriksh pae jate hain. aisa kaha jata hai ki astriya ka pratyek doosara vriksh saro hai. in jngalon men hiran, kharagosh, richh adi jngali janavar pae jate hain. 1969 men yahan dhoron ki snkhya 24,17,930; suar 31,96,474; bhed 1,21,190; bakariyanu 69,399; ghode 52,642 tatha murge 1,15,42,843 thin.

desh ki snpoorn bhoomi ke 29 pratishat par krishi hoti hai tatha 30 pratishat par charagah hain. jngal desh ki bahut badi snpatti hai, jo shesh bhoomi ko ghere hue hai. lakadi niryat karanevale deshon men astriya ka sthan chhatha hai.

eejabarg pahad ke asapas lohe tatha koyale ki khanen hain. shakti ke sadhanon men jalavidyuth‌ hi pradhan hai. khanij tail bhi nikala jata hai. yahan namak, graiphait tatha maiganesait paryapt matra men paya jata hai. maiganesait tatha graiphait ke utpadan men astriya ka snsar men kramanusar doosara tatha chautha sthan hai. tanba, jasta tatha sona bhi yahan paya jata hai. in khanijon ke atirikt anupam prakritik drishy bhi desh ki bahut badi snpatti hain.

astriya ki kheti simit hai, kyonki yahan keval 4.5 pratishat bhoomi maidani hai, shesh 92.3 pratishat parvatiy hai. sabase upajaoo kshetr dainyoob ki parshvavarti bhoomi (vina ka doaba) tatha varjinalaind hai. yahan ki mukhy phasalen raee, jee (ot), gehoon, jau tatha makka hain. aloo tatha chukndar yahan ke maidanon men paryapt paida hote hain. niche bhagon men tatha dhalon par charevali phasalen paida hoti hain. inake atirikt desh ke vibhinn bhagon men tisi, telahan, san tatha tnbakoo paida kiya jata hai. parvatiy phal tatha angoor bhi yahan hota hai. pahadi kshetron men pahadon ko katakar sidhinuma khet bane hue hain. uttari tatha poorvi bhagon men pashupalan hota hai tatha yahan se viyana adi shaharon men doodh, makkhan tatha panir paryapt matra men bheja jata hai. joraralabarg desh ka bahut bada snghiy pashupalan kendr hai. yahan bakariyan, bheden tatha suar paryapt pale jate hain jinase mans, doodh tatha oon prapt hota hai.

astriya ki audyogik unnati mahatvapoorn hai. udyog dhndhon men yah desh barabar unnati karata ja raha hai. loha, ispat tatha sooti kapadon ke karakhane desh men phaile hue hain. rasayanik vastuen banane ke bahut se karakhane hain. yahan dhatuon ke chhote mote saman, ghadiyan, sooee, kainchi, chakoo, saikil tatha motarasaikil banane ke karakhane muramuj ki ghati men hain. viyana men vividh prakar ki mashinen tatha kalapurje banane ke karakhane hain. lakadi ke saman, kagaj ki lugdi, kagaj evn vadyatntr banane ke karakhane yahan ke any bade dhndhe hain. jalavidyuth‌ ka vikas khoob hua hai. desh ko paryatakon ka bhi paryapt labh hota hai.

pahadi desh hone par bhi yahann sadakon (kul sadaken 41,649 ki.mi.) tatha relave lainon (5,908 ki.mi.) ka jal bichha hua hai. 2,414 ki.mi. relave ka vidyutikaran ho chuka hai. viyana yoorop ke pray: sabhi nagaron se snbaddh hai. yahan chhah havaee adde hain jo viyana, linj, sailbarg, grej, klagenaphart tatha insabruk men hain. astriya ka vyaparik snbndh jarmani, itali, british dvipasamooh, svitzaralaind, snyukt rajy (amarika), brazil, arjentina, turki, bharat tatha astreliya se hai. yahan se niryat honevali vastuon men imarati lakadi ka bana saman, loha tatha ispat, rasayanik vastuen aur kanch mukhy hain.

desh men niraksharata nahin hai. prarnbhik shiksha ni:shulk tatha anivary hai. vibhinn vishayon ki uchchatam shiksha ke lie astriya ka bahut mahatv hai. viyana, grej tatha insabruk men snsaraprasiddh vishvavidyalay hain.

astriya men ganatntr rajy hai. yoorop ke 36 rajyon men, vistar ke anusar, astriya ka sthan 19van hai. yah nau pranton men vibhakt hai. viyana prant men sthit viyana nagar desh ki rajadhani hai. astriya ki snpoorn janasnkhya ka 1/4 bhag viyana men rahata hai jo snsar ka 22van sabase bada nagar hai. yahan ki janasnkhya 16,27,566 (1961 ee.) hai. any bade nagar grej (2,37,080), jinj (1,95,978), sailjabarg (1,08,114), insabruk (1,00,695) tatha klajenaphart (69,218) hain.

desh ke uttar men jarmani tatha chekoslovakiya, dakshin men yoogoslaviya tatha itali, poorv men hngari aur pashchim men svitazaralaind ke desh hain. adhikansh astriyavasi kakeshiy jati ke hain. kuchh alemanon tatha baveriyanon ke vnshaj bhi hain. desh sada se ek shasak desh raha hai, at: yahan ke nivasi charitravanh‌ tatha maitripoorn vyavaharavale hote hain. yahan ki mukhy bhasha jarman hai.

astriya ka itihas bahut purana hai. lauhayug men yahan iliriyan log rahate the. samrath agastas ke yug men roman logon ne desh par kabja kar liya tha. hoon adi jatiyon ke bad jarman logon ne desh par kabja kar liya tha (435 ee.). jarmanon ne desh par kee shatabdiyon tak shasan kiya, phalasvaroop astriya men jarman sabhyata phaili jo aj bhi vartaman hai. 1919 ee. men astriya vasiyon ki pratham sarakar haipsabarg rajasatta ko samapt karake, samajavadi neta karl renar ke pratinidhitv men bani. 1938 i. men hitalar ne ise mahanh‌ jarman rajy ka ek ang bana liya. dvitiy vishvayuddh men inglaind adi deshon ne astriya ko svatntr karane ka nishchay kiya aur 1945 ee. men amariki, britani, phransisi tatha roosi senaon ne ise mukt kara liya. isase poorv aktoobar, 1943 ee. ki masko ghoshana ke antargat briten, amarika tatha roos astriya ko pun: ek svatntr tatha prabhusattasnpann rashtr ke roop men pratishthit karane ka apana nishchay vyakt kar chuke the. 27 aprail, 1945 ko da. karl renar ne astriya men ek asthayi sarakar ki sthapana ki jisane 1920-29 ee. ke snvidhan ke anuroop astriyaee ganatntr ko pun: pratishthit kiya. astriya ki ukt janatantrik sarakar ko charon mitrarashtron ki niyntran parishadh (kntrol kaunsil) ne 20 aktoobar, 1945 ee. ko manyata de di. kintu desh ko vastavik svatntrata 27 julaee, 1955 ee. ko mili jab briten, amarika, roos tatha phrans ke sath huee astriyan stet sndhi (15 mee, 1955 ee.) lagoo ki gee aur balath‌ adhikar karanevali videshi senaen vapas chali geen.[1]

viyana ke bhootapoorvoo lard meyar phhऱanj jonas 23 mee, 1965 ko astriyaee ganatntr ke rashtrapati nirvachit hue aur 25 aprail, 1971 ko pun: inhen hi rashtrapati ke pad par chun liya gaya jabaki inake pratidvndvi kurt baldhim asaphal rahe. 10 aktoobar, 1971 ko rashtriy asenbali ke chunav snpann hue jisamen 93 samajavadi, 80 pipuls parti aur 10 phridam parti ke pratinidhi chune ge.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 468-69 |
  2. shri harihar sinh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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