अर्जेंटीना  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

arjentina kshetraphal evn janasnkhya ki drishti se dakshini amarika ka, brajil desh ke bad, dvitiy vishalatam desh hai (kshetraphal: 27,76,656 varg ki.mi.). desh 22° d.a. tatha 55° d.a. ke madhy 37,700 ki.mi. ki lnbaee me uttar dakshin phaila hua hai. isaki akriti ek adhomukhi tribhuj ke saman hai jo lagabhag 2,600 ki.mi. chaude adhar se dakshin ki or snkara hota chala gaya hai. uttar men yah boliviya evn parague, uttar, poorv men yuruge tatha brajil aur pashchim men chili desh se ghira hai. chandi ke lie prayukt laitin tatha spainish paryayavachi shabdon se hi, jo kramash: 'arjetam' evn 'plata' hain, arjetina aur rayo di la plata (desh ki mahanh‌ eschuari) ka namakaran hua hai.

arnbh men yah upanivesh tha jisaki sthapana spen ke charls tritiy ne purtagali dabav ko rokane ke lie ki thi. sanh‌ 1810 ee. men desh ki janata ne spen ki satta ke viruddh andolan arnbh kiya jisake parinam svaroop 1816 ee. men yah svatntr hua. parntu sthayi sarakar ki sthapana 1853 ee se hi snbhav huee.

arjetina ganatntr ke atnrgat 22 rajyon ke atirikt ek phedaral jila tatha tera del phyoogo, antarkatika mahadvip ke kuchh bhag aur dakshini atalantak sagar ke kuchh dvip hain.

prakritik dasha - pashchim ke parvatiy kshetraphal ko chhodakar desh ka any shesh bhag mukhyat: nimn bhoomi hai. desh samanyat: char sthalakritik pradeshon men vibhakt ho jata hai: aindiz parvatiy pradesh, uttar ka maidan, pnpaz aur paitagoniya.

aindiz parvatiy pradesh ke antargat desh ka lagabhag 30 pratishat bhag ata hai. pashchim men uttar dakshin phaili is parvatashreni ka utthan tritiyak kalp men alps giri-nirman-kal men hua tha. yah chili desh ke sath prakritik sima nirdharit karati hai. is shreni men hi, madhy eshiya ke pashchath‌ sima nirdharit karati hai. is shreni me hi, madhy eshiya ke pashchath‌, vishv ke uchchatam shikhar sthit hain, jaise maunt akonkagua (7,023 mitar), marsidariyo (6,672 mitar) aur tupanagato (6,802 mitar). is pradesh men angoor, shahatoot tatha any phal bahutayat se paida hote hain.

uttar ke maidani pradesh ke antargat chaiko maisopotamiya tatha misionez kshetr hain. is pradesh men jalodh ke vistrit nikshep pae jate hain. adhikansh bhag varsha men badhagrast ho jate hain. chaiko kshetr vanasnsadhan men dhani hai tatha misionez men yarba mate (ek prakar ki chay) ki kheti hoti hai. parana, parague adi nadiyon se ghira maisopotamiya pashuon ke lie prasiddh hai.

desh ke madhy men sthit pnpaz pradesh atyadhik upajaoo aur vistrit samatal ghas ki maidan hai. yah desh ka sabase samriddhishali bhag hai jisamen 80 pratishat janasnkhya rahati hai. krishi evn pashupalan udyogon ke kul utpadan ka lagabhag do tihaee bhag yahin se prapt hota hai.

paitagoniya pradesh rayo nigro se dakshin ki or desh ke dakshini chhor tak phaila hai (kshetraphal: 7,77,000 varg ki.mi.). yah ardhashushk evn alp janasnkhyavala pathari pradesh hai. yahan vishesh roos se pashu palan ka karabar hota hai.

nadiyan aindiz parvat athava uttar ki uchch bhoomi se nikalakar poorv ki or pravahit hoti hai aur atalantak sagar men girati hain. parana, parague tatha yurugue mukhy nadiyan hain.

desh ki jalavayu pradhanat: shitoshn hai. parntu, uttar men chaiko ki atyadhik ushn jalavayu , madhy men pnpaz ki sam or suhavani jalavayu, tatha upantarkatik shit se prabhavit dakshini paitagoniya ka himani kshetr jalavayu ki vividhata ko pradarshit karate hain. desh ka yathesht akshanshiy vistar tatha uchchavach ka vishisht antar hi is vividhata ke pradhan karan hai. adhikatam tap (550sen.) uttari chhor par aur nimnatam (180sen.) dakshini chhor par milate hain. varsha ki matra poorv se pashchim ki or ghatati jati hai.

jalavayu, mitti aur uchchavach men vishisht kshetriy vibhinnataon ke karan hi desh men ushnakatibndhiy varshavale vanon se lekar marusthaliy kantedar jhadiyan tak paee jati hain.

janasnkhya evn nagar - desh ki jannsakhya ka adhikansh, kuchh samay poorv se (1880 ee.), apravasit yooropavasi (mukhyat: itali evn spen nivasi) hain. any dakshini amarika ke deshon ke viparit yahan nigro athava indiyan adivasiyon ki snkhya nagany hai. is prakar deshavasiyon men prajatiy evn sanskritik samanataen milati hain. janasnkhya ka ghanatv ath munashy prati varg kilomitar hai. jannsakhya ki vriddhi ke lie bhoomi men paryapt kshamata hai. spainish rashtrabhasha hai. 95 pratishat manushy roman kaithaaulik hain. rashtriy saksharata 91 pratishat hai.

desh ki kul janasnkhya lagabhag 2,33,19,000 (1970) hain jisamen se karib 70 pratishat nagaron men rahate hain. nagariy janasnkhya ke adhe prani gretar byoonas ayars men vas karate hain. is kshetr ki ganana vishv ke vishalatam mahanagariy kshetron men hoti hai. mukhy nagaron ki janasnkhya (1960 ee.) is prakar hai: byoonas ayars-29,66,816; rozairiyo-6,71,852; kardoba-5,89,153; la plata-3,30,310; mar del plata-3,20,000 (anumanit), tukuman-2,87,004; santa phe-2,59,560, parana-1,74,272; bahiya blainka-1,50,354; salta-1,21,491; koriyentiyaz-1,12,725 tatha maindoja-1,09,149.

yatayat-rel marg evn rashtriy mahamarg ki kul lnbaee kramash: 42,193 tatha 59,000 ki.mi. (1970) thi. lagabhag 15,00,000 motar gadiyan sadakon par chal rahi thin. parana, yurugue tatha parague nadiyan antardeshiy jal yatayat ke lie vishvavikhyat hain. byoonas ayars evn la plata (donon plata eschuari par sthit) aur bahiya blaika mukhy pattan hain. parana nadi par rozeriyo sabase bada antardeshiy pattan hai byoonas ayars pashchimi golardh ka, nyooyark ke bad, doosara vishalatam pattan hai tatha isake antargat desh ka 80 pratishat ayat niryat ata hain.

arthik dasha - arjetina vishv ka ek mahatvapoorn khady utpadak aur khady niryatak desh he. gehoon mukhy vyavasayik phasal hai jisaki adhikatam kheti pnpaz men hoti hai. is pradesh ki any mahatvapoorn phasalen makka, jau, jee, patua aur alphalpha hain. yarba mate, soyabin, sooraj mukhi ke bij, ganna kapas, angoor jaitoon ityadi ka utpadan desh ke any bhagon men kaphi matra men hota hai.

mans, chamada tatha oon ke utpadan evn niryat ki drishti se arjetina vishv ka ek mahatvapoorn desh hai. pashupalan udyog mukhyat: pnpaz pradesh men vikasit kiya gaya hai. desh men deri udyog ka bhi yathesht vikas hua hai. matsyakshetron ke vikas ki snbhavanaon ko lekar yah desh age badh raha hai.

khanij snsadhan - isamen desh nirdhan he. sisa, jasta, tngastan, mainganiz, loha aur beriliyam hi yahan ke ullekhaniy khanij hain. mitti ka tel bhi arjetina ka mukhy khanij hai jo mukhyataya paitagoniya pradesh men milata hai. yantrik oorja men bhi desh nirdhan hai yadyapi petreliyam ke utpadan men ab vriddhi ho rahi hai.

audyogik vikas - mukhyat: byoonas ayars fedaral kaipital men (32 pratishat), byoonas ayars rajy (32 pratishat) tatha santa phe (10 pratishat) men kendrit hai. vastunirman udyog ki vriddhi ka krishi evn pashupalan udyogon par pratikool prabhav pada hai. mans ko dibbon men bnd karana, kanch, shrringarasamagri, rng, halki mashinon, yntr, vastr, vastunirman ki mashinon aur bijali ki motaron adi ka nirman mahatvapoorn udyog hai.

videshi vyapar - yahan se mans, dhany phasalon, alasi tatha alasi ka tel, oon, chamada, vany evn dugdh padarth aur pashuon ka niryat hota hai. mashinon, eedhan evn snehak, loha tatha ispat se nirmit vastuon, lakadi, khadyapadarth, rasayan evn oshadhi, alauh dhatu tatha unase nirmit saman ka yahan ayat kiya jata hai. yah vyapar mukhyat: snyukt rajy amarika ,briten, bazij, pashchimi jarmani, nidaralaind, itali, venejyula tatha phrans se hota hai.

vartaman dasha evn bhavishy - yadyapi is desh ke nagaron men janasnkhya ka ooncha anupat hai, to bhi arjetina ek parnparabaddh gramin khetihar desh hai. 1910 ee. se hi desh gramin samaj aur gramin arthatntr se nagariy samaj aur audyogigak arthatntr men parinat ho raha hai. is parivartan se samajik tanche men yathesht tanav utpann hua hai. parntu snsadhanon ke shoshan men nirntar vriddhi ke parinamasvaroop desh ki ganana avashy hi nikat bhavishy men vishv ke pramukh samriddhishali deshon men ho jayagi.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 430-31 |

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