इराक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

irak dakshin pashchim eshiya ka ek svatntr rajy hai jo pratham mahayuddh ke bad mosul, bagadad evn basara namak atomanh‌ samrajy ke tin pranton ko milakar 1919 ee. men barasaee ki sndhi dvara sthapit hua tatha antararashtriy parishadh dvara briten ko shasanarth saunpa gaya. sanh‌ 1921 ee. men hezaj ke raja husen ka tritiy putr phaizal jab irak ka raja ghoshit kiya gaya tab yah ek sanvaidhanik rajatntr ban gaya. aktoobar, 1932 ee. ko briten ki shasanavadhi samapt hone par yah rajy poornat: svatntr ho gaya. hal men hi (julaee, 1959 ee. men) sainik kranti ke bad yah ganatntr rajy ghoshit kiya gaya hai. sainik kranti ke poorv yah rajy bagadad-sainik-sndhi dvara briten, snyukt rajy (amarika), turki, jaaurdan, eeran evn pakistan se snbaddh tha, kintu kranti ke bad yah svatntr evn tatasth niti ka anusaran karane laga hai. isake uttar men turki, uttar pashchim men siriya, pashchim men jaaurdan, dakshin pashchim men soodi arab, dakshin men pharas ki khadi evn kuvait hain. nineve evn baibilon ke bhagnavashesh aj bhi isake prachin vaibhav ke pratik hain. kshetraphal 1,69,240 varg mil hai aur janasnkhya 88,00,000 (1968). bagadad (janasnkhya 21,24,323) pramukh nagar evn rajadhani hai. basara (janasnkhya 6,73,623), mosool (janasnkhya 9,54,157), kirakak (janasnkhya 4,62,027) tatha najaph (janasnkhya 5,48,830) any mukhy nagar hain. janasnkhya ke 96 pratishat log islam dharm ko manate hain jinamen shiya matanuyayi adhe se kuchh adhik hain. rajyabhasha arabi hai.

irak tin bhaugolik khndon men vibhakt hai:

  1. kurdistan (irak ke uttar poorv ka parvatiy bhag) jisake shikhar irak-eeran-sima par lagabhag 10,000 phut oonche hain. isake antargat alasulemaniyan ka urvar evn ooncha maidan hai. yahan ke nivasi kurd log bade upadravi hain.
  2. mesopotemiya ka urvar maidan: mesopotemiya pharat evn dajala nadiyon ki den hai. ye nadiyan arminiya ke pathar se nikalati hain tatha kramash: 1460 evn 1150 mil tak pravahit ho shat-al-arab ke nam se pharas ki khadi men girati hain. 10,000-5,000 ee. poorv men ye nadiyan alag alag pharas ki khadi men girati thin. isaka dakshini bhag, bagadad se basara tak, jo lagabhag 300 mil lnba hai, aitihasik kal men prakritik karanon se nirmit hua hai. yah bhag daladali hai. yahan ki mukhy upaj chaval evn khajoor hai. shat-al-arab ke donon taton par ek se do mil chaude kshetr men khajoor ke saghan van milate hain. mesopotemiya ke uttari bhag men gehoon, jau evn phal ki kheti hai.
  3. steps evn marusthali khnd, jo dakshin pashchim men 50 se 100 phut ka tivr dhal dvara mesopotemiya ke maidan se prithakh‌ hain. irak ki jalavayu shushk hai. yahan ka dainik evn varshik tapantar adhik tatha ausat varsha keval 10 hai. kurdistan ke parvatiy bhag men alpain jalavayu milati hai jahan varsha 25 se 30 tak hoti hai. pharat evn dajala ki ghati men roomasagariy jalavayu milati hai tatha pharas ki khadi ke samip duniya ka ek bahut hi ushn bhag sthit hai. isake dakshin pashchim men ushn marusthaliy jalavayu hai. bagadad ka uchchatam tap 123° pha. tatha nyoonatam tap 19° pha. tak paya gaya hai. yahan varsha keval 6 hoti hai. uttari mesopotemiya men varsha 15 tatha dakshin pashchim men marusthal men 5 se bhi kam hoti hai.

uttari irak men roomasagariy vanaspati milati hai. isake adhik bhag vrikshavihin hain. yahan chinar, akharot evn manushyon dvara lagae ge any phalon ke ped milate hain. dakshini irak ke kam varshavale bhag men keval kntili jhadiyan milati hain. nadiyon ki ghatiyon evn sinchit kshetr men tad, khajoor evn chinar ke ped milate hain.

irak krishipradhan evn pashupalak desh hai jisake 90 prati shat nivasi apani jivika ke lie bhoomi par ashrit hain. phir bhi isake keval tin pratishat bhag men krishi ki jati hai. isaki mitti atyadhik urvara hai, kintu adhikansh kshetr aise hain jahan sinchaee ke bina krishi snbhav nahin hain. sinchaee nahar, dijal injan dvara chalit pnp adi sadhanon dvara ki jati hai. lagabhag 74,50,000 ekad bhoomi sinchit hai. jade men jau evn gehoon tatha garmi men dhan, makka, jvar evn bajara ki kheti hoti hai. makka evn jvar bajara madhy irak ki mukhy upaj hai. anjir, akharot, nashapati, kharabooje adi phal vishesh roop se shat-al-arab ke kshetr men hote hain. irak snsar ka 90 prati shat khajoor utpann karata hai. yahan lagabhag 640 lakh ke ped hain jinase lagabhag 3,50,000 tan khajoor prati varsh prapt hota hai. kuchh rooee nadiyon ki ghatiyon men tatha tnbakoo evn angoor kurdistan ki talahati men hota hai.

yahan ki khanabadosh evn ardh khanabadosh jatiyan oont, bhed tatha bakare charati hain. dugdhapashu pharat evn dajala ke maidan men, bhed jajira evn kurdistan men, bakare uttar poorv ki pahadiyon men tatha oont dakshin pashchim ke marusthal men pale jate hain. khanij tel ke lie irak jagatprasiddh hai. sanh‌ 1956 men khanij tel ka utpadan 306 lakh tan tha. yahan tel ke tin kshetr hain: (1) babagujar, kirakar ke nikat, jo tel ka atyadhik dhani kshetr hain; (2) natphakhana, eeran ki sima ke nikat, khanakin se 30 mil dakshin; (3) ain zaleh, mosool ke uttar. bagadad ke nikat daura tatha masool jile men gayyarah namak sthanon men tel saph karane ke karakhane hain. sanh‌ 1955 ee. men irak ko tel knpaniyon dvara 7,37,40,000 iraki dalar rajyakar ke roop men mila. khanij tel ke atirikt bhoora koyala (ligh‌nait) kaphrii men tatha namak evn jipsam any sthanon men prapt hota hai.

irak men keval chhote udyogon ka vikas hua hai. 1954 ee. men audyogik shramikon ki janasnkhya 90,000 thi. bagadad men ooni kapade evn dari bunane ke atirikt diyasalaee, sigaret, sabun tatha vanaspati ghi ke udyog hain. mosool men kritrim resham evn mady ke karakhane hain. irak ke mukhy niryat khanij tel, khajoor jau, kachcha, chamada, oon evn rooee hain tatha ayat kapada, mashin, motaragadiyan, loha, chini evn chay hain.[1]


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 537-38 |

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