मॉरीशस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

maaurishas
maaurishas ka rashtriy dhvaj
rajadhani port luee
rajabhasha angrezi
nivasi maaurishiyaee
svatntrata prapti 1968
ganarajy 1992
mudra maaurishiyaee rupaya (MUR)
yatayat chalan disha baen
doorabhash koot 230
rashtravaky "Stella Clavisque Maris Indici" (laitin)

"hind mahasagar ka sitara aur kunji"

rashtragan madaralaind (matribhoomi)
any janakari maaurishas ki janasnkhya men lagabhag 52 pratishat hindoo hain. yahan ke hinduon men shaivon ki snkhya sarvadhik hai. yahi vajah hai ki yahan shiv ke mandiron ki bahutayat hai.

maaurishas (angrezi: Mauritius) nile sagar aur shvet sagar taton ka desh hai. yah duniya ke sabase khoobasoorat dvipon men se ek hai, jisake lie mark tven ne kaha tha ki- "eeshvar ne pahale maaurishas banaya aur phir usamen se svarg ki rachana ki." maaurishas aur bharat ka bahut gahara nata hai. maaurishas ko aupaniveshik shasan se azadi dilane men bharatiy mool ke sar shivasagar ramagulam ne aguaee ki thi. aj bhi vahan hindi aur bhojapuri ka prachalan dekhakar videshi jamin par bharatiy mitti ki mahak mahasoos ki ja sakati hai. yah desh afrika men sabase adhik prativyakti ay vale deshon men se ek hai.

itihas

yadi maaurishas ke itihas par drishti dali jaye to sabase purane abhilekh lagabhag 10vin shatabdi ki shuruat ke hain, jo dravid (tamil) aur aaustroneshi navikon ke sndnrbh se ate hai. purtagali navik sabase pahale yahan 1507 ee. men aye. unhonne is nirjan dvip par ek yatra adda sthapit kiya aur phir is dvip ko chhodakar chale gaye. sanh 1598 ee. men haaulaind ke tin pot jo masala dvip ki yatra par nikale the, ek chakravat ke dauran rasta bhatak kar yahan pahunch gaye. unhonne is dvip ka nam apane nasaon ke yuvaraj maauris ke samman men maaurishas rakh diya. 1638 ee. men dach logon ne yahan pahali sthayi basti basaee.

chakravaton vali kathor jalavayu ki paristhitiyon aur basti ko hone vale lagatar nukasan ke karan dachon ne kuchh dashakon ke bad is dvip ko chhod diya. frans, jisaka pahale se hi isake padosi ail baaurabon (ab riyooniyan) dvip par niyntran tha, ne 1715 ee. men maaurishas par kabza kar liya aur isaka nam badalakar 'ail de frans' (frans ka dvip) rakh diya. frans ke shasan men yah dvip ek samriddh arthavyavastha ke roop men vikasit hua jo chini utpadan par adharit thi. yah arthik parivartan gavarnar phrenkaaues mahe de lebaaurdaaunais ke dvara shuroo kiya gaya tha. briten ke sath apane kee sainy sngharshon ke dauran, frans ne gairaqanooni ghoshit jaladasyuon korsers ko sharan di, jo aksar british jahajon, jin par moolyavan vyapar ka mal lada hota tha, ko unaki bharat aur briten ke madhy hone vali yatraon ke dauran loot lete the. sanh 1803-1815 ke dauran hue nepoliyan yuddhon men british is dvip ka niyntran pane men saphal ho gaye.

maaurishas ka kul chihn

grand port ki ladaee jitane ke bavajood, jo ki nepoliyan ki britishon par ekamatr samudri vijay thi, fransisi, tin mahine bad, kep mailahyuraau men briten se har gaye. unhonne aupacharik roop se 3 disambar, 1810 ee. ko kuchh sharton ke sath samarpan kar diya. sharten yah thin ki dvip par fransisi bhasha ka prayog jari rahega aur aparadhik mamalon men nagarikon par frans ka qanoon lagoo hoga. british shasan ke antargat is dvip ka nam badalakar vapas maaurishas kar diya gaya. 1965 men briten ne chhagos dvipasamooh ko maaurishas se alag kar diya. unhonne aisa british hind mahasagar kshetr sthapit karane ke liye kiya, jisase ve samarik mahatv ke dvipon ka prayog snyukt rajy amerika ke sath raksha sahayog ke vibhinn prayojanon ke lie kar saken. halanki maaurishas ki tatkalin sarakar unake is kadam se sahamat thi, par bad ki sarakaron ne unake is kadam ko antararashtriy qanoon ke tahat avaidh bataya aur in dvip samoohon par apana adhikar jataya hai. maaurishas ne 1968 men svatntrata prapt ki aur desh rashtramndal ke tahat 1992 men ek ganatntr bana. maaurishas ek sthir lokatntr hai, jahan niyamit roop se svatntr chunav hote hain aur manavadhikaron ke mamale men bhi desh ki chhavi achchhi hai. isake chalate yahan kaphi videshi nivesh hua hai aur

paryatan

maaurishas ka ek drishy

door-door tak phaile safed samudr tat maaurishas ko sapanon sa sundar bana dete hain. safed ret se chamakate isake tat un logon ke lie svarg hain jo samudr ka annd uthana chahate hain ya bas dhoop senkana chahate hain. dvip men har or bade-bade sarvajanik samudr tat hain jo saptah ke dauran apake aram karane ke lie annt snbhavanaen aur saptahanton men sthaniy logon se milane-julane ke vyapak avasar muhaiya karate hain. adhikansh sarvajanik tat tairane ke lie adarsh hain. maaurishas ka uttari bhag vatar sports jaise vatar skiing, vind sarphing, seling, gahare jal men machhaliyan pakadane aur pairaseling adi ke lie prasiddh hai. sham ko yahan ke bar, restaran aur klab jivnt ho uthate hain jahan se ap sooryast ka nazara bhi dekh sakate hain.

  • poorvi hissa adhik hara-bhara aur alpavikasit hai jisaki vajah se yahan par apako prakriti poore rng men dikhati hain. palamar aur bailamar ke safed samudr tat bahut hi suramy hain.
  • dakshin poorv apane oonche chattanon ke lie mashahoor hai jahan se dvip ke dakshini sire ki or jane par apako khoobasoorat nazare dikhate hain. yahan par chattanon ke bich ke dararon se khula samudr zamin tak a jata hai aur chattanon se takarate hue ek svapnil drishy utpann karata hai.
  • pashchimi tat men ap adbhut sooryaston aur gahare jal men machhali pakadane ka annd utha sakate hai. sarpharon ko temerin jana chahie jo maaurishas ka sarphig sentar hai. yahan par shuruat karane vale log sarph skool men sarfing ke besiks sikh sakate hain.
  • maaurishas ke adhikansh bich hotal apane grahakon ko kanplimentari vatar sports suvidha muhaiyya karate hain. skooba daiving, pairaseling aur dip si phishing atirikt lagat par upalabdh hai.

as-pas

port luis aur narth ke akarshak 360 digri nazare ke lie 812 mitar oonchaee par sthit la poor ya 'd thnb' par chadhaee karen. yah la laaura ganv se do ghnte ki asan chadhaee hai aur port luis pahunchane men aur 2 ghnte lagate hai. ap baik, ghode ya charapahiya vahan se moka mauten par ja sakate hain jahan domen pelis ka 1500 hekteyar men phaila nechar park hai. ap tren ya ghodagadi men shugar mil aur ram distilari bhi ja sakate hain. sthaniy vanaspati, pakshiyon aur vany jivan dekhane ke lie ap blaik rivar jarj neshanal park ja sakate hain. hazaron nil magaramachchhon ki vajah se la venil dis meskerains ko am bhasha men 'krokodail park' bhi kaha jata hai. ap rajashani port luis men khoobasoorat aupaniveshik shilpakala ke udaharan dekh sakate hain jaise gavarnament haus. bloo peni myoojiyam men duniya ke durlabhatam stainp dekhen ya nechural histri myoojiyam ki sair karen. port luis ke chahal-pahal vale saintral market, d kaaudan vataraphrnt ke kraaupht market ya dvip men har kahin dikhane vale shaauping sentaron se ap smriti chihn ki kharidari kar sakate hain.

yatayat aur parivahan

maaurishas jane ke lie munbee, chennee aur dilli se eyar maaurishas ki udanen hain jo munbee se saptah men 4 bar, chennee se 1 bar aur dilli se 2 bar udan bharati hain. sar shivasagar ramagulam havaeeadda jise am taur par plesens eyaraport kaha jata hai, port luis se 48 ki.mi. dakshinapoorv men hai. shahar jane-ane ke lie taiksiyan upalabdh hain jisamen 45 minat ka samay lagata hai.

bhaugolik dashaen

maaurishas ke pashchim tat

maaurishas ko sal bhar ek halke, ushnakatibndhiy jalavayu ka ashish prapt hai. tapaman men koee mausami parivartan ya badalav nahin hote hain. maaurishas ka mausam sukhad dhoop vala rahata hai. is sundar desh men do mausam hain; navnbar se aprail tak tej garmi aur joon se sitnbar tak shushk aur thndi sardi. aktoobar aur mee yah do mahine mausam men badalav vale hain. varsh ke sabase garm mahine janavari aur faravari hain. sabase achchhe mahinon men julaee aur agast men tapaman 16.4 digri selsiyas rahata hai.[1]

varsha

maaurishas ka mausam jaduee hai. yahan aksar yah hota hai ki yah ek kshetr men barish aur doosare kshetr men soory shanadar dhng se keval kuchh hi kilomitar ki doori par chamakata hai. barish lagabhag sabhi mahinon men hoti hai, lekin disambar se aprail sabase kharab mahine hain. in mahinon men kabhi-kabhi ushnakatibndhiy chakravat ate hain, jisase bhari varsha hoti hai aur bahut tej havaen chalati hain. varsha bhinn kshetr men alag-alag hoti hai, lekin is dvip par varshik varsha 210 mi.mi. tak hoti hai.

dhoop

maaurishas ke dvip par rozana 6 se 8 ghnte tak dhoop rahati hai. garmiyon men sooryoday lagabhag 5 baje hota hai, jabaki sardiyon men sooryoday ek ghnte bad shuroo hota hai. garmiyon ke mahinon men, oonche sthanon par 6 ghnte tak achchhi dhoop hoti hai, jabaki tatiy kshetron men 7 se 8 ghnte tak dhoop hoti hai. sardiyon men, din bhar men 5 ghnte dhoop hoti hai, jabaki tat par 7 ghnte dhoop hoti hai.

samudri tapaman

maaurishas ke asapas samudr ka tapaman amataur par sukhad hota hai, jo 26-25 digri selsiyas se lekar grishm ritu men 23-25 digri selsiyas tak hota hai. sardiyon men entikaklon kabhi-kabhi 2 ya 3 digri selsiyas tapaman ke girane ke karan banate hai. poore dvip ke asapas ke koral riphs utkrisht aur adarsh samudr ki sthiti ka parinam hai. chattanon ne ise adarsh sthan bana diya hai. bhari barish ke karan pani ke tapaman men badalav ho sakata hai.

havaen

apane pair ki ungaliyon men ret aur apane balon men hava; yahi maaurishas men chhutiyan bitane ka sahi tarika hai. yahan soory asaman men bhoomadhy rekha ke najadik sthit hai, yahi desh ke atyadhik garmi ka karan hai. tred vind satah ki vayu hai, jo ki uposhnakatibndhiy uchch dabav vale kshetr se bahati rahati hain. ye dakshin-poorv ki tred vind maaurishas ki jalavayu par pratyaksh prabhav dalati hai. ve badalon ko dvip ke dakshin poorv men pahadon par ikattha hone ke lie dhakka deti hain, jisake bad badal dhire-dhire barish aur tej havaon ke roop men apani bachi huee nami ke sath barasate hain.

chakravat

halanki poorvavarti dakshin-poorvi havaen poore sal bhar bahati rahati hain, ve vastav men hanirahit aur sukhad hain. jabaki chakravat ke mamale men sthiti bahut hi vikat ho sakati hai. chakravat janavari se march ke mahinon ke dauran utpann hote hain. is samay ke dauran hava aur pani ke tapaman men bahut teji se vriddhi hoti hai. ankade batate hain ki maaurishas har 5 salon men ek chakravat ke kendr men hota hai. phir bhi dvip sirph tin se panch toophanon ke chapet men aya hai.

snskriti

maaurishas ko isake svadisht khane se bhi jana jata hai, jo bharatiy, chini, kreyol aur yooropiyan khano ka mishran hai. is dvip par ram ka utpadan bade paimane par hota hai. 1638 ee. men dach logon ne maaurishas ko sabase pahale ganna se parichit karaya. dach ganne ki kheti mukhyatah arak (ram ka ek poorv prakar) ke utpadan ke lie karate the. lekin frans aur briten ke shasan ke dauran yahan ganne ki kheti ko bade paimane par kiya gaya, jisane is dvip ke arthik vikas men kaphi yogadan diya. piyare charls phrenkoez harel pahala vyakti tha, jisane 1850 men maaurishas men ram ke sthaniy asavan ka prastav kiya. sega yahan ka sthaniy lok sngit hai. sega moolat: aphriki sngit hai, jisamen parnparagat vadyon ka upayog hota hai, jaise- ravane jise bakari ki tvacha se banaya jata hai. amataur par sega men gulami ke dinon ki yatanaon ka varnan hota hai. sath hi in giton men ajakal ke daur men ashveton ki samajik samasyaon ko bhi uthaya jata hai. amataur par purushon dvara vady bajae jate hain aur mahilayen sath men nrity karati hain. tatiy kshetr ke hotalon men ye sho niyamit roop se ayojit kiye jate hain.

rajaniti tatha samaj par hindoo prabhav

maaurishas ka ek drishy

maaurishas ki janasnkhya men lagabhag 52 pratishat hindoo hain. afrika mahadvip men sabase jyada. jahir hai, sthaniy rajaniti, samaj aur snskriti par unaki pradhanata hogi hi. maaurishas men dharmik astha ke star par ek kism ka navajagaran chal raha hai, jisake pichhe kee hindoo sngathanon ki dashakon ki mehanat chhipi hai. in sngathanon men hindoo svaynsevak sngh, hindoo mahasabha, vishv hindoo parishad, maaurishas sanatan dharm mndir sngh, maaurishas ary sabha, ary samaj, sanatan dharm pracharini sabha, maaurishas tamil mndir sngh, maaurishas andhr sabha, maaurishas marathi mndali sngh adi ka jikr khas taur par hota hai. hindoo svaynsevak sngh, rashtriy svaynsevak sngh ke maaurishas chauptar ke roop men sngh ki vicharadhara tatha kam ko age badhane men juta hai. maaurishas men chinmay mishan, mata amritanndamayi ashram, ramakrishn mishan, iskan aur brahmakumari ashram adi ki bhi shakhaen hain, jinhonne yahan ke samajik tane-bane ko prabhavit kiya hai.

maaurishas ke hinduon men shaivon ki snkhya sarvadhik hai. yahi vajah hai ki yahan shiv ke mandiron ki bahutayat hai. maaurishas ke uttari bhag men sthit maheshvaranath mandir jo trayolet shivala ke nam se bhi charchit hai, bhi gnga talab se kam prasiddh nahin hai. vastav men yah mndir do sadiyon se maaurishas men hindoo pahachan ka mahatvapoorn pratik hai. poorvi maaurishas men ek manoram dvip par atynt darshaniy sagar shiv mndir hai. charon taraph se ati samudri laharon aur samudri havaon ke bich phaharata hua sagar shiv mndir ka dhvaj mano udghosh kar raha ho ki maaurishas men bharatiyata aur adhyatm ki kirti pataka hamesha oonchi rahegi. maaurishas ke mndiron ki ek khas bat hai. bhale hi mndir ka pradhan devata koee bhi ho, darjanon doosare devataon ki moortiyan bhi rahengi. aisa isalie taki har astha ke vyakti ko apane aradhy ke darshan ho jaen. vaise yahan ke bharatavnshiyon ke gharon men bhi mndir hona anivary hai aur ye mndir hain hanuman ke.

isi prakar uttar bharatiy prishthabhoomi vale hinduon ke sngathan, mndir adi hindi ke sath judav mahasoos karate hain. karib tin sau hindibhashi mndiron ka ek alag sngathan bhi hai, jisaka nam hai- sanatan dharm mndir sngathan. kee mndiron men hindi ki prathamik kakshaen lagati hain, jinamen nanhen bachchon ko hindi akshar gyan karaya jata hai. hindi se jude kee sahityik, shaikshanik aur sanskritik ayojan bhi yahan hote hain. hindi bhashiyon ke lie samudayik gatividhiyon ka kendr ban rahe ye mndir dharmik dayitv nibhane ke sath-sath bhashaon ke prasar ko bhi apana uddeshy manakar chalate hain. halanki amarika, kanada, inglaind adi deshon men bhi mndir bharatiyon ki sanskritik aur bhashayi gatividhiyon ke kendr ban rahe hain.[2]

ramayan sentar

maaurishas ki snsad ne 2001 men ek qanoon banakar 'ramayan sentar' ki sthapana ki thi, jo ab hindoo dharm aur ramayan adhyayan ka antarrashtriy kendr ban chuka hai. maaurishas ki snsad men muslim, eesaee sahit doosare snpraday ke logon ne ekasur se ramayan sentar banane ke prastav ka samarthan kiya tha. maaurishas ka ramayan sentar pahale tab charcha men aya tha, jab yahan ki snsad ne bakayada qanoon banakar is snsthan ke nirman ko mnjoori di thi. snsad ne qanoon 2001 men banaya tha aur agale sal isaka nirman kary bhi shuroo ho gaya. maaurishas duniya ke un ginechune deshon men hai, jahan takariban adhi abadi (52 pratishat) abadi hindoo hai, lekin yahan doosare dharm ke log bhi achchhi-khasi tadad men rahate hain. takariban 30 pratishat log eesaee hain aur musalamanon ki abadi 17 pratishat hai.[3]

hind mahasagar men sthit lekin bhaugolik roop se aphriki mahadvip ke najadik sthit maaurishas ka snvidhan use dharmanirapeksh rashtr ghoshit karata hai. yahi vajah hai ki jab snsad se ramayan sentar ke lie qanoon banaya gaya to is par bharat sahit duniya bhar men kaphi hairat jataee gee. saval yah bhi utha ki kya maaurishas hindoo rashtr banane ki rah par hai? lekin is desh ko samajhane vale batate hain ki ram aur ramayan adhe maaurishasavasiyon ke lie to poori tarah se dharmik vishay ho sakata hai, lekin takariban poori janasnkhya ke lie sanskritik virasat hai. maaurishas ke lekhak pndit rajendr arun ke anusar ‘maaurishas ki rashtriy snsad men muslim aur eesaee sahit doosare snpraday ke logon ne ek sur se ramayan sentar banane ke prastav ka samarthan kiya tha. yah is bat ka pratik hai ki ramayan ki shikshaen sabhi ke lie mahatvapoorn hain.’

maaurishas ke samaj men ramayan ki shikshaen itani mahatvapoorn mani jati hain ki ise vahan ke skooli pathyakram ka hissa bhi banaya gaya hai. halanki yah ek vaikalpik vishay hai, lekin yahan ke jyadatar bachche ise padhana pasnd karate hain. ramayan ki isi lokapriyata ne is desh men ramayan sentar ki ninv rakhi hai. maaurishas ke ramayan sentar ki ek aur khas bat hai ki yah pichhale salon men ramayan aur hindoo dharm se jude kee antarrashtriy sammelanon ko ayojit kar chuka hai.

kab jaen

maaurishas parivar ki chhuttiyon ke lie svapn ka sthal hai. varsh ke dauran jyadatar samay maaurishas ka mausam garm aur sukhad rahata hai. yah snpoorn varsh achchhi yatra ki ek jagah ke roop men achchha rahata hai. samudr tat ke premiyon ke lie, garmiyon ke mahine sabase achchhe hain. sardiyon ke mahinon ke dauran thnd ka mausam maaurishas ke vayumndal men nami ko kam karata hai aur yah haiking, treking aur kvad baiking jaise gatividhiyon men shamil hone ka sahi samay hai. daiving ke prati utsahi logon ko disnbar se march ke madhy men pahunchana chahie. is samay samudr ka pani svachchh rahata hai.

bhasha

maaurishas ki adhikarik bhasha angrezi hai, isalie sarakar ka sara prashasanik kamakaj angrezi men hota hai. shiksha pranali men angrezi ke sath fransisi ka bhi istemal kiya jata hai. phransisi bhasha midiya ki mukhy bhasha hai, chahe prasaran ho ya mudran. isake alava vyapar aur udyog jagat ke mamalon men bhi mukhyatah phransisi hi prayog men ati hai. sabase vyapak roop se yahan maaurishiyan kreyol bhasha boli jati hai. hindi bhi ek bade varg dvara boli v samajhi jati hai.

khanapan

yahan ka sthaniy zayaqa 3 mahadvipon se aya hai jo samay-samay par un mahadvipon se yahan akar base vibhinn sanskritik virasaton aur pak parnparaon vale nivasiyon ne vikasit kiya hain. agntuk ek hi jagah bharatiy, chini, greol aur yooropiy vynjanon ka svad chakh sakate hain, sab milakar anootha svad banate hain. yahan ka sthaniy pasndida snaik 'dhol poori' zaroor ajamaen, yah pili matar ki dal bhare ate ki poori hoti hai jisako kari aur tamatar ke saaus ke sath parosa jata hai. farata, jilr baits ya 'samosa' bhi yahan khoob pasnd kie jate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. maaurishas ke mausam ko aur bhi behatar tarike se janie (hindi) blog.thomascook.in. abhigaman tithi: 07 agast, 2018.
  2. maaurishas men 'ram-ram' (hindi) praveenguptahindu.blogspot. abhigaman tithi: 07 agast, 2018.
  3. kaisa hai maaurishas ka ramayan sentar (hindi) satyagrah.scroll.in. abhigaman tithi: 07 agast, 2018.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah