सप्ताह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

samanyat: ek mah men char saptah hote hain aur ek saptah men sat din hote hain. saptah ke pratyek din par nau grahon ke svamiyon men se kramash: pahale sat ka raj chalata hai. jaise-

  1. ravivar par soory ka raj chalata hai.
  2. somavar par chandrama ka raj chalata hai.
  3. mngalavar par mngal ka raj chalata hai.
  4. budhavar par budh ka raj chalata hai.
  5. brihaspativar par guru ka raj chalata hai.
  6. shukravar par shukr ka raj chalata hai.
  7. shanivar par shani ka raj chalata hai.
  • antim do rahu aur ketu kramash: mngalavar aur shanivar ke sath sambandh banate hain.

yahan ek bat yad rakhana zaroori hai- pashchim men din ki shuruat madhy ratri se hoti hai aur vaidik din ki shuruat sooryoday se hoti hai. vaidik jyotish men jab ham din ki bat karen to matalab sooryoday se hi hoga. saptah ke pratyek din ke karyakalap usake svami ke prabhav se prabhavit hote hain aur vyakti ke jivan men usi ke anurup phal ki prapti hoti hai. jaise- chandrama dimag aur guru dharmik karyakalap ka karak hota hai. is var men inase sambandhit kary karana vyakti ke paksh men jata hai. saptah ke dinon ke nam grahon ki sngyaon ke adhar par rakhe ge hain arthat jo nam grahon ke hain, vahi nam in dinon ke bhi hain. jaise-

  • soory ke din ka nam ravivar, adityavar, arkavar, bhanuvar ityadi.
  • shanishchar ke din ka nam shanivar, saurivar adi.
  • snskriht men ya any kisi bhi bhasha men bhi saptahik dinon ke nam sat grahon ke nam par hi milate hain. snskriht men grah ke nam ke age var ya vasar ya koee or prayayavachi shabd rakh diya jata hai.
  • saptah keval manav nirmit vyavastha hai. isake pichhe koee jyotiahshastriy ya prakritik yojana nahin hai.
  • spen akraman ke poorv meksiko men panch dinon ki yojana thi.
  • sat dinon ki yojana yahoodiyon, bebiloniyon evn dakshin amerika ke inka logon men thi.
  • lokatantrik yug men romanon men ath dinon ki vyavastha thi, misriyon evn prachin atheniyanon men das dinon ki yojana thi.
  • old testament men aya hai ki eeshvar ne chhah dinon tak srishti ki aur sataven din vishram karake use ashish dekar pavitr banaya. - jenesira[1], eksodas[2] evn deuteronami[3] men eeshvar ne yahoodiyon ko chhah dinon tak kam karane ka adesh diya hai aur ek din (sataven din) aram karane ko kaha hai aur use eeshvar ke saibbath (vishramavasar) ke roop men pavitr manane ki agya di hai.
  • yahoodiyon ne saibbath (jo ki saptah ka antim din hai) ko chhodakar kisi din ko nam nahin diya hai; use ve ravivar n kahakar shanivar manate hain.
  • old testament men saptah-dinon ke nam (vyaktivachak) nahin milate. aisa pratit hota hai ki nyoo testament men bhi saptah-din keval snkhya se hi dyotit hain.[4] saptah men koee n koee din katipay deshon evn dharmik sampradayon dvara saibbath (vishramadin) ya pavitr mana gaya hai, yatha - somavar yoonani saibbath din, mngal parasiyon ka, budh asiriyon ka, brihaspati misriyon ka, shukr musalamanon ka, shanivar yahoodiyon ka evn ravivar eesaeeyon ka pavitr vishramadin hai.
  • sat dinon ke vritt ke udbhav evn vikas ka varnan 'eph. ech. kolsan' ke granth 'di vik'[5] men ullikhit hai.
  • dayon kaisias (tisari shati ke pratham charan men) ne apani 37vin pustak men likha hai ki 'pampeyi ee. poo. 83 men yeroosalem par adhikar kiya, us din yahoodiyon ka vishram din tha. usamen aya hai ki grahiy saptah (jisamen dinon ke nam grahon ke nam par adharit hain) ka udbhav misr men hua.
  • diyo ne 'roman histri'[6] men yah spasht kiya hai ki saptah ka udgam yoonan men n hokar misr men hua aur vah bhi prachin nahin hai balki hal ka hai. isase prakat hai ki yoonan men saptah ka gyan-pravesh eesa ki pahali shati men hua. pampeyi ke nagar men, jo sanh 79 ee. men lava (jvalamukhi) men doob gaya tha, ek divar par saptah ke chhah dinon ke nam alikhit hain. isase snket milata hai ki sanh 79ee0 ke poorv hi itali men saptah-dinon ke nam gyat the.
  • kolsan mahoday is bat se bhramit ho ge hain ki tyootan deshon men 'vensde' evn 'thastade' jaise nam kaise ae.
  • sartan ne 'histri aauph sains' men likha hai ki 'yahoodi, misri din-ghante evn chaldiya ke jyotish ne vartaman saptah ki srishti ki hai.[7] sartan ka mat hai ki grahiy dinon ka arambh misr evn bebilon men hua, yoonan men isaka poorvgyan nahin tha. adhunik yooropiy ghante bebilon ghanton evn misri pnchang ki din-snkhya par adharit hain.
  • ee. poo. doosari shati tak yoorop men tatha madhy eshiya men aj ke saptah-dinon ke namon ke adi ke vishay men koee gyan nahin tha.

roman kelainndar

roman kelainndar men samrat konstentaeen ne eesa ke qarib tin sau varsh ke bad sat dinon vale saptah ko nishchat kiya aur unhen nakshatron ke nam diye -

  • saptah ke pahale din ko 'soory ka nam' diya gaya hai.
  • doosare din ko chand ka nam diya gaya hai.
  • tisare din ko mngal diya gaya hai.
  • chauthe din ko budh diya gaya hai.
  • panchaven din ko brihaspati diya gaya hai.
  • chhathe din ko shukr diya gaya hai.
  • sataven din ko shani ka nam diya gaya hai.
  • aj bhi roman snskriti se prabhavit deshon men inhin namon ka prayog hota hai.

vibhinn deshon ke anusar

somavar ko 'loona' yani chand ka nam diya gaya, isalie italavi bhasha men use 'lunedi' aur phrans men use 'lndi' kahate hain. bharat men bhi saptah ke din isi parampara se jude hain. lekin purtagal jo ki letin bhasha aur roman snskriti ka desh hai, vahan kuchh bhinn hua. ve log 'ravivar' ko to soory ke sath jodate hain par saptah ke baki ke dinon ko 'sugunda phera', 'teraseira phera', yani doosara din, tisara din adi kahate hain. isi prakar ka hisab chin men bhi hai jahan 'chhingachiyi', 'chhingachier', 'chhingachisan' adi ka arth pahala din, doosara din, tisara din adi hi hota hai. par japani bhasha isase bhinn hai. japani bhasha men dinon ke nam is prakar hain-

  • ravivar ko 'nichiyobi' yani 'soory ka din' kaha jata hai.
  • somavar ko getasuyobi yani chand ka din kaha jata hai.
  • mngalavar ko kayobi yani ag ka din kaha jata hai.
  • budhavar ko sueeyobi yani pani ka din kaha jata hai.
  • brihaspativar ko mokuyobi yani lakadi ka din kaha jata hai.
  • shukravar ko kinayobi yani svarnadin kaha jata hai.
  • shanivar ko doyobi yani dharati ka din kaha jata hai.

agreji men inhin dino ko 'sande', 'mande' aur 'setarade' tin dinon ke nam roman namon se milate hain yani 'soory', 'chndr' aur 'shani' ke nam se jude par baki dinon ke nam bhinn hain, yah kaise hua? isaka karan inglaind ka itihas hai. roman samrajy ke bad vahan par bahar se hamale hote rahe, kabhi jarmani se, kabhi skedeneviya ke deshon se, jahan ke engaloseksan log apane sath apane devi devata le kar aye. norve ke 'thor devata' jo badalon aur toofan ki gadagadahat ke devata hain unhonne apana nam diya 'brihaspativar' ko yani ki 'tharsade'. norve ke sabase bade devata 'vodan' ne nam diya budhavar yani 'vedanesade' ko. 'voden' devata ke putr 'tiv' ne nam diya mngalavar yani 'tyoosade' ko aur 'voden' ki patni 'phriya' ne nam diya shukravar yani 'phraeede' ko.

grnthon ke anusar

  • yahi bat vishnupuran[8] men bhi hai.

aisa tark diya jata hai ki saptah - dinon ka kram misriyon ke 24 ghanton vali vidhi par adharit hai, jahan pratyek din - bhag kram se ek grah se shasit hai.

  • ravivar ko pratham bhag par soory ka,
  • 21ven bhag ke uparant 22ven bhag par punah soory ka,
  • 23ven par shukr ka,
  • 24ven par budh ka shasan mana jata hai tatha
  • doosare din 25ven bhag (ya ghante) ko somavar kaha jata hai. yadi yah vyavastha 24 ghanton evn ghanta-shasakon par adharit hai to vahi kram lambe dhng se bhi ho sakata hai. 24 ghanton ke sthan par 60 bhagon (ghatikaon) men din ko banta ja sakata hai. yadi ham chandr se arambh karen aur ek ghati (ya ghatika) ek grah se samanvit karen to 57vin ghati chandr ki hogi, 58vin budh ki, 59vin shukr ki, 60vin soory ki aur somavar ke uparant doosara din hoga mngalavar.
  • aisa pratit hota hai ki prachin kal men kisi desh men (aur aj bhi aisa hai) saptah - dinon men ek ke uparant ek dinon men dharmik krity nahin hote the. saptah ke dinon ke udbhav evn vikas ke vishay par mat-matantar hai. aisa kaha gaya hai ki bharatiy saptah - din bharat ke nahin hain, prachyut ve chaldiya ya yoonan ke hain. yahan ham yah dekhenge sahityik evn shilalekhiy praman hamen is vishay men kitani door le jate hain. is vishay men atyant prachin shilalekhiy praman hai-
  • eran ka stambh-shilalekh, jo budhagupt (san 484 ee.) ka hai, jisamen ashadh shukl dvadashi evn brihaspati ka ullekh hai. man liya jae ki saptah ki dharana abharatiy hai, to isake poorv ki vah sarvasadharan ke jivan men is prakar samahit ho jae ki gupt samrat apani ghoshanaon men usaka prayog karane lagen, to yah manana padega ki aisa hone men kee shatiyon ki avashyakata padegi.
  • ab ham sahityik praman len. aryabhat krit dashagitika, shlok 3 men gurudivas (brihaspativad) ka ullekh hai.[9]
  • brihatsnhita[10] men mngal (kshititanay divas) ka ullekh hai.
  • pnchasiddhantika[11] men som divas (somavar) aya hai.
  • brihatsnhita[12] ne ravivar se shanivar tak ke karmon ka ullekh kiya hai.
  • isi vishay men utpal ne garg namak prachin jyotirvidh ke 18 anushtuph shlokon ka uddharan diya hai. karn ne garg ko ee. poo. pahali shati ka mana hai. isase prakat hai ki bharat men saptah-dinon ka gyan ee. poo. pratham shati men avashy tha.
  • philastretas ne tayana ke apolloniyas (jo sanh 18 ee. men mara) ke jivan charit men likha hai ki kis prakar bharat men yatra karate samay apolloniyas ne brahmanon ke neta irchus se 7 angoothiyan prapt kin, jin par 7 grahon ke nam the aur jinhen use pratidin ek-ek karake pahanana tha. isase bhi yahi prakat hota hai ki grah - nam pratham shati ke bich men bharat ke log grahiy dinon se parichit the.
  • vaikhanas-smart-sootr[13] evn baudhayan dharmasootr[14] men soory, chandr, mngal, budh, brihaspati, shukr, shani, rahu evn ketu namak grahon ke nam ae hain.
  • pratham granth[15] men budhavar ka bhi ullekh hai.
  • atharvan-vedang-jyotish (varaprakaran, shlok 1 se 8) men ravivar se lekar shanivar tak ke karmon ka ullekh hai.
  • gatha-saptashati (hal krit prakrit kavy sngrah) men mngal evn vishti ka ullekh hai.[16]
  • yagyvalky smriti[17] men aj ki bhanti dinon evn rahu-ketu ke sath navagrahon ki charcha hai.
  • yahi bat narad puran[18] men hai.[19]
  • puranon men saptah-dinon ke vishay men bahut-se varjit evn many karmon ke ullekh hain. bahut-se puranon ki tithiyon ke vishay men matabhed hain, kintu itana to pramanon se siddh hai ki eesa ki pratham do shatiyon men grahon ki pooja evn saptah ke dinon ke vishay men poorn gyan tha.
  • mahabharat jaise vishal granth men, jahan par dharmashastriy ullekh adhik snkhya men hue hain, saptah-dinon ki charcha nahin hai. jaisa ki oopar kaha ja chuka hai, yah sapraman siddh ho chuka hai ki bharatiy log ee. poo. pratham shati evn ee. uparant pratham shati ke bich grahon ki pooja evn grahayukt dinon ke gyan se bhali-bhanti parichit the. ek any drashtavy bat yah hai ki dinon ke nam poornataya bharatiy hain, un par yoonani ya abharatiy prabhav nahin hai. kintu rashiyon ke nam ke vishay men aisi bat nahin hai, vahan 'kriy' evn 'ley' jaise shabd bahy roop se a ge hain. taaulmi (san 150 ee.) ne 24 ghanton evn 60 bhagon ka ullekh kiya hai. bharatiyon men 60 ghatikaon ka prayog prachin hai. bharatiyon ne dopahar ya ratri se din ki ganana nahin ki, pratyut pratah se hi ki hai. ashvamedhik parv[20] men spasht kathan hai ki pahale din ata hai tab ratri ati hai.

bharat men sat dinon vale din-vritt ke vishay men kee siddhanton ka pratipadan karana sambhav hai. budh, shukr, mngal, brihaspati evn shani panch grahon ke sath prachin bebiloniyon ne panch devon ki kalpana ki thi. ye dev age chalakar romak roopon men parivartit ho ge. prem ki devi eestar shukr ke roop men ho gee, murduk namak bada dev brihaspati ho gaya.......adi. ye panchon grah soory evn chandr ke sath svargik roop vale ho ge. chaldiya ke mandiron men jo pooja hoti thi aur jo siriya tak pracharit thi, usamen vishisht din par pratyek dev ki prarthanaen hoti thin. jo dev jis din poojit hota tha vah usi din ke sath samanvit ho gaya. jo din soory evn chandr ke lie pavitr the ve ravivar evn somavar ho ge. inglaind men kuchh din-nam prayog men a ge, yatha vednas de (vodensade) evn tharsade (thors de). kintu saptah ke din yoorop men bebilon devon ke nam se hi bane. bharat evn bebilon men ate prachin kal se vyaparik tatha any prakar ke sampark sthapit the. bharat men soory-pooja prachin hai, yatha- kashmir men martand, uttari gujarat men modhera, udisa men konark. aj bhi kahin-kahin 'rahu' evn 'ketu' ke mandir hain, yatha- ahamadanagar zile men 'rahuri' sthan par. kautily ne kal ke bahut-se bhagon ka (truti se yug tak) ullekh kiya hai aur kaha hai ki do nadikaen ek muhoort ke tatha ek ahoratr (din-rat) 30 muhoorton ke barabar hain. isase prakat hai ki kautily ko keval 60 nadikaon vala din gyat tha. ek nadi barabar thi ek ghati (ya ghatika) ke.

  • kal-ganana ki any vidhiyan bhi prachalit thin, yatha-6 bade aksharon ke uchcharan men jo samay lagata hai use pran kaha jata hai; 6 pran milakar ek pal ke barabar hote hain, 60 pal ek dand, ghati ya nadi ke barabar (sooryasiddhant 1|11; jyotistattv, pri0 562).
  • panini[21] ne 'nadingham' ki vyutpatti 'nadi' se ki hai. 'nadi' ek ati prachin shabd hai.[22]
  • yah rigved[23] men aya hai jisaka arth hai murali. lagata hai, age chalakar yah kalavadhi ka dyotak ho gaya jo shnkh ya murali ya turahi jaise baje ke bajane se prakat kiya jata tha aur jo 'nadi' ke roop men (ek din ke 60ven bhag men) ghoshit ho gaya, kyonki un dinon ghadiyan nahin hoti thin. atah 60 nadiyan evn ghatiyan (donon shabd pntanjali dvara, jo ee. poo. 150 men vidyaman the, prayukt hue hain) ka din-vibhajan bahut prachin hai.
  • sooryasiddhant men 24 ghanton ki charcha hai, kintu vah granth pashchatkalin hai aur us par bahy prabhav ho sakata hai, kintu uparyukt vivechan se spasht hai ki bharat men din-vibhajan paripati (arthath din ko ghatiyon evn nadiyon men bantana) ati prachin hai aur us par bahy prabhav ki bat hi nahin uthati. svayn pntajali ne nadi evn ghati ke prayog ko purana mana hai. atah ee. poo. doosari shati se bahut pahale nadi evn ghati ka prachalan siddh hai. poorn roop se saptah-dinon par bhi bahy prabhav siddh nahin kiya ja sakata. bebiloni evn siriyaee prachalan ke prabhav ki bat uthayi jati hai, kintu ise samanata matr se siddh nahin kiya ja sakata. keval pashchaty hathavadita praman nahin ho sakati.[24] jahan yooropiyan evn bharatiy saptah-vibhajan ki talikaen evn rekhachitr die he hain.
  • albarooni[25] ne likha hai ki bharatiy log grahon evn saptah-dinon ke vishay men apani paripati rakhate hain aur doosare logon ki paripati ko, bhale hi vah adhik thik ho, manane ko sannaddh nahin hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. jenesira 2|1-3
  2. eksodas 20|8-11,23|12-14
  3. deuteronami 5|12-15
  4. maithyoo, 28|1; mark, 16|9; lyook, 24|1
  5. eph. ech. kolsan ke granth 'di vik' kaimbrij yoonivarsiti pres, 1926
  6. roman histri jild 3, pri0 129, 131
  7. histri aauph sains pri0 76-77
  8. vishnupuran 1|12|92
  9. kaho dh manuyug shkh gataste ch manuyug chhna ch. kalpaderyugapada g ch gurudivasachch bharatatpoorvamh.. dashagitika, shlok 3.
    tikakar ne likha haiah 'rajyn charatan yughishthiradinayantyo gurudivaso bharatagurudivasah. dvaparavasanagat ityarthah.
    tasminh divase yudhishthiradayo rajyamutsrijy mahaprasthann gata iti prasiddhah.
    tasmatgurudivasath poorvakalpaderarabhy gata manvaday ihoktaah.

    is shlok ka arth haiah 'brahma ke ek din men 14 manu hain tatha 72 yug ek manvantar banate hain; is kalp men bharat yuddh ke brihaspativar tak 6 manu, 27 yug, 3 yugapad vyatit ho chuke hain.' 'kah'-ka arth hai kasy brahmanah ahah divasah; aryabhat ke anusar dh 14; shkh 72; shh 70 evn kh 2; chhana 27 (chh 7 evn n ya na 20); g 3.
  10. brihatsnhita 1|4
  11. pnchasiddhantika (1|8)
  12. brihatsnhita 103|61-63
  13. vaikhanas-smart-sootr 1|4
  14. baudhayan dharmasootr 2|5|23
  15. pratham granth (2|12)
  16. 3|61
  17. yagyvalky smriti 1|296
  18. narad puran 1|5180
  19. aur dekhie matsy puran (93|7), vishnudharmottar puran (78|1-7) adi.
  20. mahabharat ashvamedhik parv 44|2
  21. panini (3|2|30)
  22. 11. 'nadi' evn 'nadika' ke kee arth hain-murali, nali, dhamani, ek adha muhoort. 'nadingham' ka arth svarnakar hai (kyonki vah ek nali se phoonkakar ag dhaunkata hai). kathakasnhita (23|4 saisha vanaspatishu vagvadati ya nadya toonave) se prakat hota hai ki nadi ek aisa vady tha jisase svar nikalate the.
  23. rigved (10|135|7
  24. karnigham (indiyan aintikveri, jild 14, pri0 1
  25. albarooni sachau, jild 1, adhyay 19, pri0 214-215

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