बौधायन धर्मसूत्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

karta

is dharmasootr ke rachayita baudhayan (ya bodhayan) hain. kintu svayn is dharmasootr men baudhayan ke mat ko kee sthalon par uddhrit kiya gaya hai.[1] ek sthan par tarpan ke prasng men any sootrakaron ke sath kanv baudhayan ka ullekh bhi kiya gaya hai.[2] isase spasht hai ki kanv baudhayan vartaman dharmasootr ke karta nahin ho sakate. is dharmasootr ki rachana ke samay ve rishi mane jate the. vartaman dharmasootr ka karta inaka hi vnshaj hai, jisaki arvachinata svat: siddh hai. baudhayan dharmasootr ke tikakar govindasvami ne bhi vartaman dharmasootr ke karta ko kanvayan kaha hai.

svaroop

yah dharmasootr char prashnon men hain. prashnon ka vibhajan adhyay tatha khandon men kiya gaya hai.

  • pratham prashn men 11 adhyay tatha 21 khand hain.
  • dvitiy prashn men 10 adhyay tatha 12 khand hain.
  • tritiy prashn men 10 adhyay tatha 10 hi khand hain.
  • chaturth prashn men 8 adhyay tatha 8 khand hain.

tritiy tatha chaturth prashn ke adhyay tatha khandon men koee antar nahin hai. tritiy prashn men kisi mahattvapoorn vishay ka vivechan n karake poorv vivechit vishayon par hi atirikt niyam diye gaye hain. is prashn ka dasham adhyay gautam dharmasootr se uddhrit hai tatha shashth adhyay vishnu dharmasootr ke adatalisaven adhyay ke tuly hai. baudhayan dharmasootr men vishayavastu ke vibhajan men astavyastata hai. kee vishay anek bar tatha bina kisi kram-vyavastha ke doharaye gaye hain. yatha dayabhag ke niyamon ka pratipadan prayashchit-prakaran ke madhy hai. anadhyayon ki charcha ashtavidh vivah ke prasng men ki gayi hai. pratham prashn ke tritiy adhyay men tatha pun: 2.3.10 men snatak ke vraton ki charcha ki gayi hai. is dharmasootr men ek hi sthan par kisi bhi vishay ke sabhi niyamon ko samapt nahin kar diya jata, apitu ek hi vishay ka bhinn-bhinn adhyayon men vivechan kiya gaya hai. yatha-uttaradhikar, prayashchit, shuddhi, putr-bhed tatha anadhyay bhinn-bhinn sthalon par charchit hain.[3]

bhasha evn shaili

baudhayan dharmasootr ki bhasha panini poorv pratit hoti hai. isamen anek apaniniy prayog bhi upalabdh hote hain[4] 'abhigachchhath' tatha[5] 'anayitva' prayog paniniy vyakaran ke viruddh hain. yah sootragranth gady-padyamay hai. brahman-granthon ki shaili ke sadrish lambe gadyatmak ansh tatha chhote-chhote sootr bhi isamen hain. is dharmasootr men anek vedamantr sampoorn roop men[6] ya anshik[7] roop men uddhrit hain. vaidik mantron athava mantranshon ka nirdesh 'iti shruti:' tatha 'iti vigyayate' dvara kiya gaya hai. 'athapyudaharanti' kahakar anek shlokon ko isamen uddhrit kiya gaya hai. baudhayan pray: virodhi mat ko upasthit karane ke pashchath hi apana mat dete hain. is sootragranth ki shaili any dharmasootron ki apeksha saral hai. [8]govindasvami ne is tathy ki or ingit kiya hai ki baudhayan laghavapriy nahin hain. vibhajan ki ast-vyastata ke karan aisa mana jata hai ki samay-samay par isamen parivartan evn parivardhan kiye jate rahe hain, jis karan is dharmasootr ka kuchh ansh prakshipt hai. yatha chaturth prashn bad men joda gaya pratit hota hai. isake char adhyayon men prayashchitt ka vivechan kiya gaya hai, jisaka pratipadan pahale hi dvitiy prashn ke pratham adhyay men 'athat: prayashchittani'[9] kahakar diya gaya hai.

baudhayan dharmasootr ka samay

baudhayan dharmasootr men hiranyakeshi, apastamb tatha kanv baudhayan tinon ka nam-nirdeshapoorvak ullekh hua.[10] punarapi hiranyakeshi shrautasootr ke bhashyakar mahadev ne baudhayan ko apastamb se prachin mana jata hai. baudhayan ne apane dharmasootr men do bar gautam ka nam lekar ullekh kiya hai[11] tatha gautam dharmasootr ke 19ven adhyay ke anek sootron ko jyon-ka-tyon[12] tatha anek sootron ko paravarti roop men apane dharmasootr men grahan kar liya hai. at: baudhayan dharmasootr nishchit roop se gautam dharmasootr se paravarti rachana hai. isi prakar baudhayan tatha apastamb dharmasootron men bhi kee sthanon par samanata hai. apastamb men prapt kee sootron ko baudhayan 'iti' lagakar uddhrit karate hain. isase yahi siddh hota hai ki baudhayan ne in sootron ko apastamb se grahan kiya hai. apastamb ki bhasha tatha shaili adhik avyavasthit hai, sath hi isamen purane arthon men hi shabdon ka prayog kiya gaya hai. is adhar par apastamb ko baudhayan se poorvavarti mana jata hai. byoohalar baudhayan ko apastamb se poorvavarti manate hain. unaka tark hai ki apastamb dvara pratipadit mat baudhayan ki apeksha paravarti hai tatha apastamb ne baudhayan ke maton ki alochana bhi ki hai. baudhayan dharmasootr men pratipadit vishayon ko snkshep men is prakar spasht kiya ja sakata hai-

pratham prashn

  • adhyay-1 dharm, aryavart, vibhinn pradeshon ke achar, brahmachary tatha upanayan, abhivadan ke niyam.
  • adhyay-2 shishy ki yogyata tatha brahmachary ka mahattv.
  • adhyay-3 snatak ke kartavy.
  • adhyay-4 kamandalu ka mahattv.
  • adhyay-5 achaman tatha vastron evn patron ki shuddhi, shuddh vastuen, byaj ka niyam, ashauch evn asprishyata, bhakshyabhakshy.
  • adhyay-6 bhoomi evn patr ki shuddhi.
  • adhyay-7 ygy ke niyam.
  • adhyay 8-9 patni, vivah, putr ke prakar.
  • adhyay-10 kar ka ansh, varnadharm, varnanusar manushy-vadh ka dand, sakshi ki yogyata.
  • adhyay-11 vivah ke bhed aur anadhyay.

dvitiy prashn

  • adhyay-1 patak karmon ke prayashchit, pataniy karm, krichchhavrat ke bhed.
  • adhyay-2 sampatti vibhajan tatha putr ke bhed, stri ki paratantrata evn stri-dharm.
  • adhyay-3 snan, dan evn bhojan ki vidhi, nivasayogy sthan evn poojy vyakti.
  • adhyay-4 sandhyopasan, gayatri evn pranayam.
  • adhyay-5 sharirik shuddhi evn tarpan.
  • adhyay-6 grihasth, vanaprasth evn snnyasi ke kartavy.
  • adhyay-7 atmgyan.
  • adhyay-8 shraddh evn dan ki vidhi.
  • adhyay-9 santan-utpatti ka mahattv.
  • adhyay-10 sannyas tatha atmaygy.

tritiy prashn

  • adhyay-1 parivrajak ke bhed.
  • adhyay-2 chh: prakar ki jivan-vritiyan.
  • adhyay-3 vanaprasth ke bhed.
  • adhyay-4 vratabhng ka prayashchit.
  • adhyay 5-9 aghamarshan, yavakavrat, kooshmandahom, chandrayan, anashnatparayan.
  • adhyay-10 prayashchitt ke niyam.

chaturth prashn

  • adhyay-1 prayashchitt, kanyadan ka kal, ritugaman ka mahattv, pranayam.
  • adhyay-2 bhroonahatya ka prayashchitt, avakirni ka prayashchitt.
  • adhyay-3 rahasyaprayashchitt.
  • adhyay-4 shastr-sampraday.
  • adhyay-5 jap tatha vividh vrat.
  • adhyay-6 prayashchitt ke niyam.
  • adhyay-7 dharmapalan ki prashnsa.
  • adhyay-8 ganahom.

pratipady ka vishleshan

baudhayan dharmasootr men vyakti ke vyaktigat evn samajik achar tatha kartavyon ka vishad vivechan kiya gaya hai. bharatiy snskriti ka adhar varn-vyavastha rahi hai. is dharmasootr men sabhi varnon evn ashramon ke kartavyon par vistar se prakash dala gaya hai. baudhayan ke anusar brahman ka kartavy vedadhyayan, dan lena-dena tatha ygy karana hai. vedadhyayan ke sath-sath ygy karana, dan dena, praniyon ki raksha karana kshatriyon ke kartavy hain tatha adhyayan, ygy, krishi, vyapar tatha pashupalan vaishyon ke kartavy hain. shoodr ka keval ek hi kartavy hai tinon varnon ki seva karana. yadyapi samanyat: in karyon ka vidhan kiya gaya hai, kintu inamen vyavasthit kram bhi dekhane ko milata hai- yatha 1-5-10 men brahmanon ko kheti karane ki chhoot bhi di gayi hai. isi prakar vishesh sthiti men brahman tatha vaishy ko bhi shastr grahan karane ka vidhan kiya gaya hai. ek sthan par yah bhi kaha gaya hai ki pashupalak, vyapar karane vale, bhrityon ka kary karane vale tatha soodakhor brahmanon ke sath shoodr ke saman acharan karen.[13] vaishy sood par dhan de sakata hai kintu adhik byaj lena pap hai.[14]

char ashram

is dharmasootr men manushy jivan ko brahmachary, grihasth, vanaprasth tatha parivrajak ke roop men char ashramon men vibhakt karake prithak-prithakh sabake kartavy ginaye gaye hain.

  • brahmachary ke niyamon men brahmachari ki bhiksha, ygyopavit, sandhya, achaman, anadhyay adi ke sambandh men jo kuchh bhi kaha gaya hai vah vartaman manusmriti men nirdisht brahmachari ke kartavyon ke saman hi hai. itana hi nahin, apitu aise anek shlok bhi baudhayan dharmasootr men upalabdh hote hain, jo ki manusmriti men bhi vidyaman hain.[15]
  • grihasth ke lie any dharmagranthon ki bhanti baudhayan ne bhi ath vivah mane hain.[16] grihasthashram se poorv vidya samapt karake tin prakar ke snatakon ka ullekh yahan par kiya gaya hai-
    • vedasnatak,
    • vratasnatak tatha
    • vedavratasnatak.

grihasth ke lie baudhayan ne devaygy, pitriygy, bhootaygy, manushyaygy tatha brahmaygy ke roop men pnch mahaygyon ka vidhan kiya hai tatha inako mahasatr kaha hai. svadhyay par paryapt bal diya gaya hai, yahan tak ki use brahmaygy kaha gaya hai. svadhyay ke sath-sath gayatri-jap, pranayam tatha sandhyopasan ka vidhan bhi yahan par kiya gaya hai. sootrakar ka in kriyaon par sambhavat: isalie bal hai ki ye kary vyakti ko sanmarg ki or prerit karate hain. vaikhanas arthath snnyasi ke lie das prakar ki diksha ka vidhan yahan par kiya gaya hai.

vivah ke vividh niyam

yadyapi baudhayan ne vivah ke vividh niyam bana kar stri-purushon ki kamapravritti ko uchit disha dene ka yatn kiya hai, tathapi unhen pata hai ki kumargagamiyon dvara samaj men anaitik sambandh bhi panap jate hain. isi ko dhyan men rakhate hue baudhayan ne santan ke kee prakar ginae hain-yatha- kanin, dattak, kritrim, apaviddh, sahodh, krit tatha paunarbhav. inamen se kuchh par vichar karana avashyak hai. avivahit kanya se utpann putr kanin kahalata hai. pratit hota hai ki samaj men tab aise putr ko svikar kar liya jata tha. panini ne bhi isake lie ek sootr ka nirman kiya hai.[17] vivah kal men garbhini ke udar men surakshit putr sahodh kahalata hai. klib ya patit pati ko chhodakar any pati se utpann sntan paunarbhav kahalati thi.[18] isase niyog pratha ki or snket milata hai. ukt sabhi putr dayabhag ke adhikari the. vyabhichar ke lie baudhayan kathoratam dand ka vidhan karate hain, yahan tak ki agni men jivit jala dene ka bhi.

baudhayan dharmasootr men brahman, kshatriy tatha vaishy ke lie kramashah char, tin tatha do patniyon ka vidhan bhi kiya gaya hai. shoodr ke lie keval ek patni hi vihit hai.[19] yadyapi yah uchch adarsh nahin hai, sath hi varnon ke prati pakshapat bhi hai; kintu snbhav hai ki us samay samaj men yah sab kuchh svikrit ho. isi prasng men baudhayan ne varnasnkaron ka ullekh bhi kiya hai. pratilom vivah se utpann sntanon ko is dharmasootr ke pratham prashn ke navam adhyay men chandal, rathakar, kukkut, vaidehak, shvapak, parashav, nishad adi anek namon se pukara gaya hai[20] ki sabhi varnasnkar sntanen hain jo varnon ke paraspar snbndhon se utpann huee hain. pratit hota hai ki baudhayan dharmasootr ki rachana ke samay samaj men ukt avastha utpann ho rahi thi. vivah ki vaidik maryada tootakar varnasnkarata ke karan nee–nee jatiyan banati ja rahin thin. dharmasootron ne in sabako samajik manyata dene ka upakram kiya jisase ki inaki upeksha n hone pae tatha kisi roop men samajik bndhan bhi bana rahe.

dand–vidhan

gautam ki bhanti baudhayan bhi manate hain ki manushy bure karyon men lipt ho jata hai.[21] etadarth baudhayan ne anek prakar ke prayashchiton tatha chandrayan adi vraton ka vidhan kiya hai jisase vyakti apane pap–bhar ko chhodakar punah sanmarg–gami ban sake. unhonne is sndarbh men patakon tatha upapatakon ki ganana bhi ki hai tatha sabhi ke lie dand–vidhan kiya hai. inamen se kee dand to atynt kathor hain – yatha – surapan ka dand jalati huee sura pikar sharir ko jalana hai. manusmriti men bhi is dand ka vidhan isi prakar kiya gaya hai. sambhavatah kathor dand isalie hai jisase vyakti pap–marg men pravritt hi n ho sake. baudhayan ne saman aparadh ke lie sabhi varnon ke lie dand men bhed kiya hai. brahman ke lie yadyapi kathor dand ka vidhan to milata hai tathapi use sabhi aparadhon men avadhy kaha gaya hai.[22] varnashram ke sath–sath baudhayan ne raja ke adhikar evn karttavyon par bhi paryapt prakash dala hai. raja ko praja se ay ka chhatha bhag kar ke roop men lena chahie, jisase vah praja ki raksha kar sake.[23] abhigyanashakuntalamh men bhi dushyant dvara kar ke roop men shashth bhag ka hi ullekh kiya gaya hai.[24]

ygy

baudhayan ne ygy ke samay ne vastr dharan karane ka vidhan kiya hai, sath hi nam lekar yah bhi kaha hai ki yajaman, yajaman patni tatha ritvik ye sabhi shuddh vastr pahanen.[25] is kathan se spasht hai ki striyon ko bhi pati ke sath ygy men baithane ka adhikar tha. [26]baudhayan ne striyon ki svatntrata par rok lagaee hai[27] tatha is vishay men ek shlok bhi uddhrit kiya hai, jo vartaman manusmriti men[28] men bhi svalp shabd–bhed se upalabdh hai. baudhayan dharmasootr ke anusar, dayabhag men bhi striyon ka adhikar nahin hai.[29] baudhayan ne kashyap ke nam se ek shlok bhi uddhrit kiya hai – jo stri dravy se kray ki jati hai use patni ka nahin apitu dasi ka sthan prapt hota hai.[30] is prakar kul milakar is dharmasootr men stri ki sthiti achchhi nahin hai. striyon ke saman shoodron ki bhi bahut achchhi sthiti nahin hai. ek sthan par utane samay tak anadhyay karane ka vidhan kiya gaya hai, jitane samay tak shoodr dikhalayi pade ya usaki dhvani sunayi de.[31]

baudhayan dharmasootr ke pratham prashn ke pncham adhyay ke anek sootron men mansabhakshan ka prasng bhi chalaya gaya hai. sabhi vidvanh aisa manate hain ki is dharmasootr men samay samay par anek parivartan evn parivardhan hote rahe hain, jisase pratit hota hai ki yah mans–prakaran tatha stri evn shoodron ki dinavastha ke pratipadak prakaran bhi isamen prakshipt kar die ge. is prakar is dharmasootr men manav jivan se snbandhit prayah sabhi karttavyon ka vidhan karake use prashast karane ka yatn kiya gaya hai. tatkalik paristhitiyon ka prabhav sootrakar par pada hi hoga, usi ka digdarshan anekatr is dharmasootr men dekhane ko milata hai. is dharmasootr ka pratipady manusmriti se paryapt samy rakhata hai.

baudhayan dharmasootr ke vyakhyakar

isaki govindasvamikrit vivaran ‘namni’ ekamatr vyakhya upalabdh hai. is vyakhya men govand svami ne anek smritiyon ke uddharan die hain. isake atirikt unhonne shatatap, shankhalikhit, mahabhashy, yogasootr, bhagavadgita tatha shabarabhashy se bhi anek uddharan die hain. shrautasootron ke bhi paryapt uddharan isamen prapt hote hain. in sabase govind svami ki vidvata ka anuman kiya ja sakata hai. in uddharanon se nishchay hi govind svami ki vyakhya ke gaurav men vriddhi huee hai.

baudhayan dharmasootr ke snskaran

  • sarvapratham ee. hultsh (E. Hultsch) ne lipajig se 1884 ee. men ise prakashit kiya tha. yah snskaran govind svami ki ‘vivaran’ tika sahit hai.
  • saikred buks aauph di eest–bhag 14 men isi snskaran ka byoohlarakrit angl bhashanuvad aauksaphord se prakashit hua. isi ka dvitiy snskaran 1965 ee. men dilli men prakashit hua.
  • maisoor gavarnament oriyantal laibreri se 1907 men ek snskaran prakashit hua. ‘anandashram smarttasamuchchay’ ke antargat 1929 ee. men poona se prakashit hai.
  • 1924 ee. men chaukhamba sn. sirij aauphis varanasi ne bhi ek snskaran prakashit kiya jisaka sampadan pandit chinnasvami shastri ne kiya hai. is snskaran ke ant men baudhayan dharm ke sootron men aye hue pratyek pad ki soochi bhi di huee hai. 1972 men chaukhamba sn. sirij varanasi se hi isaka dvitiy snskaran prakashit hua hai, jisaka sampadan daau. umesh chandr pandey ne kiya hai. isamen sootron ka hindi anuvad bhi hai. prastavana men anek upayogi vishayon ki vivechana hai.


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. baudhayan dharmasootr, 1.3.13, 1.4.9, 3.5.8, 3.6.2 adi
  2. baudhayan dharmasootr, 2.5.27- kanvn baudhayann tarpayami
  3. baudhayan dharmasootr 1.5.105-109 tatha 2.1.49-51 adi
  4. yatha 2.9.9 men
  5. 3.3-6 men
  6. yatha baudhayan sootr 2.6.35 par rimh 2-24-4 adi mantr
  7. baudhayan dharmasootr 2-5-13 tatha 3-7.9 adi sootron par anek mantransh uddhrit hain
  8. 1-3-19 sootr ki tika men
  9. 2.1.1
  10. baudhayan dharmasootr 2-5.14
  11. baudhayan dharmasootr, 2.1-7 tatha 2.2-17
  12. ukto varnadharmashchashramadharmashch- gautam dharmasootr 3.1-1 tatha baudhayan dharmasootr 3.10-1 nahi karm kshiyat iti- gautam dharmasootr, 3.1.5 tatha baudhayan dharmasootr 10.1.5
  13. baudhayan dharmasootr 1.5-25
  14. baudhayan dharmasootr, 1.5-23
  15. baudhayan dharmasootr 1-1.11, 1.4.1, 1.4.2 adi ke shlok
  16. baudhayan dharmasootr, 1.11.1 ashtau vivaha:. (ashtadhyayi 4.1.116
  17. baudhayan dharmasootr 2.2.26–32
  18. baudhayan dharmasootr 1–8, 2–5
  19. baudhayan dharmasootr 1–8, 2–5
  20. baudhayan dharmasootr 1–8, 2–5
  21. baudhayan dharmasootr 2.1.17
  22. baudhayan dharmasootr 1.10.17
  23. baudhayan dharmasootr 1.10.1 shadbhagabhrito raja rakshetprajamh
  24. abhi. shaku. 2–14
  25. baudhayan dharmasootr 1–6.5
  26. baudhayan men 2–2–45
  27. baudhayan dharmasootr – n stri svatantryn vindate
  28. manusmriti, 9.3
  29. baudhayan dharmasootr 2–247
  30. baudhayan dharmasootr 1.11.4
  31. baudhayan dharmasootr 1–11.17

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