महाभाष्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mahabhashy maharshi patnjali dvara rachit hai. patnjati ne panini ke 'ashtadhyayi' ke kuchh chune hue sootron par bhashy likha tha, jise 'vyakaran mahabhashy' ka nam diya gaya. 'mahabhashy' vaise to vyakaran ka grnth mana jata hai, kintu isamen kahin-kahin rajaon-maharajaon evn janatntron ke ghatanachakr ka vivaran bhi milata hain.

adhyay

maharshi patnjali dvara krit 'mahabhashy' 84 adhyayon men vibhakt vyakaran mahabhashy hai. isaka pratham adhyay "paspasha" ke nam se jana jata hai, jisamen shabd svaroop ka niroopan kiya gaya hai. 'ath shabdanushasanam' se shastr ka prarnbh karate hue patnjali muni ne shabdon ke do prakar batae hain-

  1. laukik
  2. vaidik
  • laukik shabd - in shabdon men gau, ashv, purush, shakuni arthath pashu, pakshi evn manushy adi ko liya gaya hai.
  • vaidik shabd - is prakar ke shabdon men 'agnimile purohitamh' adi vaidik mantron ko liya gaya hai.

udaharan

'gau' shabd ka varnan karate hue bhashyakar kahate hain ki jab 'gau' bola jata hai to vastav men usamen shabd kya hota hai? spashtikaran men ve kahate hain ki 'gau' ke sharirik avayav khur, sing ko shabd nahin kaha jata, ise dravy kahate hain. isaki sharirik kriyaon ko bhi shabd nahin kahate, ise kriya kahate hain. isake rng (shukl, nil) ko shabd nahin kahate, yah to gun hai. yadi darshanik drishtikon se yah kaha jay ki jo bhinn-bhinn padarthon men ekaroop hai aur jo usake nasht hone par bhi nasht nahin hota, sab men sadharan aur anugat hai, vah shabd hai to aisa nahin hai, ise jati kahate hain.[1]

vastavik roop men jo uchcharit dhvaniyon se abhivyakt hokar khur, sing vale gau ka bodh karata hai, vah shabd hai. arthath lok-vyavahar men jis dhvani se arth ka bodh hota hai, vah 'shabd' kahalata hai. sarthak dhvani shabd hai. isi shabdarth bodhan ko bhartrihari ne 'sphot' kaha hai. shabd vah hai, jo uchcharit dhvaniyon se abhivyakt hota hai aur abhivyakt hone par us arth ka bodh karata hai.

patnjali ka samay

bahusnkhy bharatiy v pashchaty vidvanon ke anusar patnjali ka samay 150 ee. poo. hai, par yudhishthir mimansakaji ne zor dekar bataya hai ki patnjali vikram snvat se do hazar varsh poorv hue the. is sambandh men abhi tak koee nishchit praman prapt nahin ho saka hai, par ant:sakshy ke adhar par inaka samay niroopan koee kathin kary nahin hai. mahabhashy ke varnan se pata chalata hai ki pushyamitr ne kisi aise vishal ygy ka ayojan kiya tha, jisamen anek purohit the aur jinamen patnjali bhi shamil the. ve svayn brahman yajak the aur isi karan se unhonne kshatriy yajak par kataksh kiya hai- yadi bhavadvidh: kshatriyn yajayeth.[2]

pushyamitron yajate, yajaka: yajayati. tatr bhavitavyamh pushyamitro yajayate, yajaka: yajayntiti yajvadishu chaviparyaso vaktavy:.[3]

isase pata chalata hai ki patnjali ka abhirbhav kalidas ke poorv v pushyamitr ke rajy kal men hua tha. ‘matsy puran’ ke anusar pushyamitr ne 36 varshon tak rajy kiya tha. pushyamitr ke sinhasan par baithane ka samay 185 ee. poo. hai aur 36 varsh kam kar dene par usake shasan ki sima 149 ee. poo. nishchit hoti hai. goldastukar ne mahabhashy ka kal 140 se 120 ee. poo. mana hai. daauktar bhandarakar ke anusar patnjali ka samay 158 ee. poo. ke lagabhag hai, par profesar vebar ke anusar inaka samay kanishk ke bad, arthath ee. poo. 25 varsh hona chahie. daauktar bhandarakar ne profesar vebar ke is kathan ka khndan kar diya hai. bothalink ke matanusar pntajali ka samay 2000 ee. poo. hai.[4] is mat ka samarthan meksamoolar ne bhi kiya hai. kith ke anusar patnjali ka samay 140-150 ee. poo. hai.[5]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahabhashy (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 3 march, 2013.
  2. (3-3-147, prishth snkhya 332)
  3. (mahabhashy, 3-1-26)
  4. (paninijh grametik)
  5. sn.va.ko. (dvitiy khand), prishth 360-363

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