आर्यभटीय  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aryabhatiy
aryabhatiy grnth
lekhak aryabhat
mool shirshak aryabhatiy
desh bharat
bhasha snskrit
vishay ganit tatha khagolashastr
bhag aryabhatiy men kul 108 chhnd hai, sath hi parichayatmak 13 atirikt hain. yah char padon athava adhyayon men vibhajit hai: gitikapad, ganitapad, kalakriyapad, golapad.
rachanakal 499 ee.
vishesh isaki rachanapaddhati bahut hi vaigyanik aur bhasha bahut hi snkshipt tatha mnji huee hai.

aryabhatiy (angrezi: Aryabhatiya) namak granth ki rachana mahan ganitgy aryabhat ne ki thi. yah snskrit bhasha men arya chhnd men kavyaroop men rachit ganit tatha khagolashastr ka grnth hai. isaki rachanapaddhati bahut hi vaigyanik aur bhasha bahut hi snkshipt tatha mnji huee hai. isamen char adhyayon men 121 shlok hain. aryabhatiy, dasagitika pad se arambh hoti hai.

rachana kal

aryabhat ne apane aryabhatiy grnth ki rachana 499 ee. men ki. khyughri 43,20,000 men khh‌ 2 ke lie likha gaya hai aur yh‌ 30 ke lie. donon akshar milakar likhe ge hain aur unamen u ki matra lagi hai, jo 10,000 ke saman hai; isalie khyu ka arth hua 3,20,000; ghri ke ghh‌ ka arth hai 4 aur ri ka 10,00,000, isalie ghri ka arth hua 40,00,000. is tarah khyughri ka uparyukt man hua. snkhya likhane ki is riti men sabase bada dosh yah hai ki yadi aksharon men thoda sa bhi her pher ho jay to badi bhari bhool ho sakati hai. doosara dosh yah hai ki lh‌ men ri ki matra lagaee jay to isaka roop vahi hota hai jo lri svar ka, parntu donon ke arthon men bada antar padata hai. in doshon ke hote hue bhi is pranali ke lie aryabhat ki pratibha ki prashnsa karani hi padati hai. isamen unhonne thode se shlokon men bahut si baten likh dali hain; sachamuch, gagar men sagar bhar diya hai. aryabhatiy ke pratham shlok men brahm aur parabrahm ki vndana hai evn doosare men snkhyaon ko aksharon se soochit karane ka dhng. in do shlokon men koee kramasnkhya nahin hai, kyonki ye prastavana ke roop men hain. isake bad ke shlok ki kramasnkhya 1 hai jisamen soory, chndrama, prithvi, shani, guru, mngal, shukr aur budh ke mahayugiy bhaganon ki snkhyaen bataee gee hain. yahan ek bat dhyan dene yogy hai ki aryabhat ne ek mahayug men prithvi ke ghoornan ki snkhya bhi di hai, kyonki unhonne prithvi ka dainik ghoornan mana hai. is bat ke lie paravarti achary brahmagupt ne inaki ninda ki hai. agale shlok men grahon ke uchch aur pat ke mahayugiy bhaganon ki snkhya bataee gee hai. tisare shlok men bataya gaya hai ki brahma ke ek din (arthat ek kalp) men kitane manvntar aur yug hote hain aur vartaman kalp ke arnbh se lekar mahabharat yuddh ki samaptivale din tak kitane yug aur yugapad bit chuke the. age ke sat shlokon men rashi, ansh, kala adi ka snbndh, akashakaksha ka vistar, prithvi ke vyas tatha soory, chndrama aur grahon ke binbon ke vyas ke pariman, grahon ki kranti aur vikshep, unake paton aur mndochchon ke sthan, unaki mndaparidhiyon aur shighraparidhiyon ke pariman tatha 3 ansh 45 kalaon ke antar par jyakhndon ke manon ki sarani hai. antim shlok men pahale kahi huee baton ke janane ka phal bataya gaya hai. is prakar prakat hai ki aryabhat ne apani navin snkhya-lekhan-paddhati se jyotish aur trikonamiti ki kitani hi baten 13 shlokon men bhar di hain. is chhote-se grnth men unhonne ganit aur jyotish ki pramukh baten rakhin. is grnth men ham pahali bar dekhate hain ki bharatiy vigyan ne dharm se apane ko svatntr kar liya hai. aryabhat ne yoonaniyon ka anukaran karate hue, varnamala ke adhar par ek nee aksharank-paddhati ko janm diya. unaki manyata thi ki prithvi sthir nahin hai, balki yah apane aksh par ghoomati hai. kintu bad ke bharatiy jyotishiyon ne unake is siddhant ki upeksha ki. aryabhat ne yah bhi kaha tha ki soory grahan aur chndr grahan kisi rahu-ketu (rakshason) ke karan nahin, balki chndr aur prithvi ki chhayaon ke karan ghatit hote hain. trikonamiti men aj bhi aryabhat ki mool vidhiyon ka istemal hoti hain.[1]

'aryabhatiy' nam

aryabhatiy unake dvara kiye ge karyon ka pratyaksh vivaran pradan karata hai. aisa mana jata hai ki aryabhat ne svayn ise yah nam nahin diya hoga balki bad ke tippanikaron ne aryabhatiy nam ka prayog kiya hoga. isaka ullekh bhi aryabhat ke shishy bhaskar pratham ne apane lekhon men kiya hai. is granth ko kabhi-kabhi ary-shat-asht (arthat aryabhatt ke 108 – jo ki unake path men chhndon ki snkhya hai) ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. aryabhatiy men vargamool, ghanamool, samantar shreni tatha vibhinn prakar ke samikaranon ka varnan hai. vastav men yah granth ganit aur khagol vigyan ka ek sngrah hai. aryabhatiy ke ganitiy bhag men ankaganit, bijaganit, saral trikonamiti aur goliy trikonamiti shamil hain. isamen satat bhinn (kntinyood frekshans), dvighat samikaran (kvadretik ikveshns), ghat shrrinkhala ke yog (sams aauph pavar siriz) aur jyaon ki ek talika (Table of Sines) shamil hain. aryabhatiy men kul 108 chhnd hai, sath hi parichayatmak 13 atirikt hain. yah char padon athava adhyayon men vibhajit hai: gitikapad, ganitapad, kalakriyapad, golapad.[2]

aryabhatiy ke khand

aryabhatiy prachin bharat ki ek mahath‍vapoorn snrakshit kriti hai. aryabhat ne ise padyabaddh snsh‍krit ke shh‍lokon ke roop men likha hai. snsh‍krit bhasha men rachit is push‍tak men ganit evn khagol vigyan se samh‍bndhit krantikari sootr diye. push‍tak men kul 121 shh‍lok ya bndh hain. inako char pad (khanh‍don) men banta gaya hai. in khanh‍don ke nam hain: gitikapad, ganitapad, kalakriyapad evn golapad.

1. gitikapad

aryabhatiy ke charon khndon men yah sabase chhota bhag hai. isamen kul 13 shh‍lok hain. is khanh‍d ka pahala shh‍lok mngalacharan hai. yah (tatha is khanh‍d ke 9 anh‍y shh‍lok) gitika chhnd men hai. isilie is khanh‍d ko gitikapad kaha gaya hai. is khanh‍d men jh‍yotish ke mahath‍vapoorn siddhanton ki janakari di gayi hai. is khanh‍d men snskrit aksharon ke dvara snkhyaen likhane ki ek ‘aksharank paddhati’ ke bare men bhi janakari di gayi hai.

  • aksharank paddhati aksharon ke dvara badi snkhh‍yaon ko likhane ki ek aasan takanik hai. is paddhati men aryabhat ne 'a' se lekar 'o' tak ke aksharon ko 1 se lekar 1,00,00,00,00,00,00,00 tak shatagunoth‍tar man, k se m tak ke sabhi aksharon ko 1 se lekar 25 snkhh‍yaon ke man tatha y se lekar h tak ke vh‍ynjanon ko 30, 40, 50 ke kram men 100 tak ke man diye. is prakar unh‍honne chhote shabh‍don ke dvara badi snkhh‍yaon ko likhane ka ek asan tarika vikasit kiya.

2. ganitapad

is khanh‍d men ganit ki charcha ki gayi hai. isamen kul 33 shh‍lok hain. jinamen aryabhat ne ankaganit, bijaganit aur rekhaganit snbndhi kuchh sootron ka samavesh kiya hai. pahale shlok men apana nam bataya hai aur likha hai ki jis grnth par unaka grnth adharit hai vah (guptasamrajy ki rajadhani) kusumapur men many tha. doosare shlok men snkhya likhane ki dashamalav paddhati ki ikaiyon ke nam hain. isake age ke shlokon men vargakshetr, ghan, vargamool, ghanamool, tribhuj ka kshetraphal, tribhujakar shnku ka ghanaphal, vritt ka kshetraphal, gole ka ghanaphal, samalnb chaturbhuj kshetr ke karnon ke snpat se samantar bhujaon ki doori aur kshetraphal tatha sab prakar ke kshetron ki madhyam lnbaee aur chaudaee janakar kshetraphal batane ke sadharan niyam die ge hain. ek jagah bataya gaya hai ki paridhi ke chhathe bhag ko jya usaki trijya ke saman hoti hai. shlok men bataya gaya hai ki yadi vritt ka vyas 20,000 ho to usaki paridhi 62,832 hoti hai. isase paridhi aur vyas ka snbndh chauthe dashamalav sthan tak shuddh a jata hai. do shlokon men jyakhndon ke janane ki vidhi bataee gee hai, jisase gyat hota hai ki jyakhndon ki sarani (tebul aauv sainadifarensez) aryabhat ne kaise banaee thi. age vritt, tribhuj aur chaturbhuj khinchane ki riti, samatal dharatal ke parakhane ki riti, oorghvadhar ke parakhane ki rit, shnku aur chhaya se chhayakarn janane ki riti, kisi oonche sthan par rakhe hue dipak ke prakash ke karan bani huee shaku ki chhaya ki lnbaee janane ki riti, ek hi rekha par sthit dipak aur do shnkuon ke snbndh ke prashn ki ganana karane ki riti, samakon tribhuj ke karn aur any do bhujaon ke vargon ka snbndh (jise paithagoras ka niyam kahate hain, parntu jo shulvasootr men paithagoras se bahut pahale likha gaya tha), vritt ki jiva aur sharon ka snbndh, do shlokon men shreni ganit ke kee niyam, ek shlok men ek-ek badhati huee snkhyaon ke vargon aur ghanon ka yogaphal janane ka niyam, (k+kh)2-(k2akh2)=2kakh, do rashiyon ka gunanaphal aur antar janakar rashiyon ko alag-alag karane ki riti, byaj ki dar janane ka ek niyam jo vargasamikaran ka udaharan hai, trairashik ka niyam, bhinnon ko ekahar karane ki riti, bijaganit ke saral samikaran aur ek vishesh prakar ke yugapath‌ samikaranon par adharit prashnon ko hal karane ke niyam, do grahon ka yutikal janane ka niyam aur kuttak niyam (solyooshan aauv inaditarminet ikveshan aauv d farst digari) batae ge hain. jitani baten taintis shlokon men bataee gee hain unakon yadi ajakal ki paripati ke anusar vistarapoorvak likha jae to ek badi bhari pustak ban sakati hai.

3. kalakriyapad

kalakriyapad ka arth hai kal ganana. is khanh‍d men 25 shh‍lok hain. yah khanh‍d khagol vigyan par kendrit hai. isamen kal evn vritt ka vibhajan, saur varsh, chndr mas, nakshatr divas, antarveshi mas, grahiy pranaliyan evn gatiyon ka varnan hai. yah kalavibhag aur kal ke adhar par ki gee jyotish snbndhi ganana se snbndh rakhata hai. pahale do shlokon men kal aur kon ki ikaiyon ka snbndh bataya gaya hai. age ke chhah shlokon men yog, vyatipat, kendrabhagan aur barhaspaty varshon ki paribhasha di gee hai tatha anek prakar ke mason, varshon aur yugon ka snbndh bataya gaya hai. naven shlok men bataya gaya hai ki yug ka prathamardh utsarpini aur uttarardh avasarpini kal hai aur inaka vichar chndrochch se kiya jata hai. parntu isaka arth samajh men nahi ata. kisi tikakar ne isaki sntoshajanak vyakhya nahin ki hai. 10ven shlok ki charcha pahale hi a chuki hai, jisamen aryabhat ne apane janm ka samay bataya hai. isake age bataya hai ki chaitr shukl pratipada se yug, varsh, mas aur divas ki ganana arnbh hoti hai. age ke 20 shlokon men grahon ki madhyam aur spasht gati snbndhi niyam hain.

4. golapad

yah aryabhatiy ka sabase vrihad, antim evn mahath‍vapoorn khanh‍d hai. is khanh‍d men kul 50 shh‍lok hain. is khanh‍d ke anh‍targat ek khagoliy gole men grahiy gatiyon ke niroopan ki vidhi samajhaee gayi hai. aryabhat ki khagol vigyan samh‍bndhi sabhi pramukh dharanaon ka varnan bhi isi khanh‍d men milata hai. pahale shlok se prakat hota hai ki krantivritt ke jis bindu ko aryabhat ne meshadi mana hai vah vasnt-snpat-bindu tha, kyonki vah kahate hain, mesh ke adi se kanya ke ant tak apamndal (krantivritt) uttar ki or hata rahata hai aur tula ke adi se min ke ant tak dakshin ki or. age ke do shlokon men bataya gaya he ki grahon ke pat aur prithvi ki chhaya ka bhraman krantivritt par hota hai. chauthe shlok men bataya hai ki soory se kitane antar par chndrama, mngal, budh adi drishy hote hain. panchavan shlok batata hai ki prithvi, grahon aur nakshatron ka adha gola apani hi chhaya se prakashit hai aur adha soory ke snmukh hone se prakashit hai. nakshatron ke snbndh men yah bat thik nahin hai. shlok chhah sat men prithvi ki sthiti, banavat aur akar ka nirdesh kiya gaya hai. athaven shlok men yah vichitr bat bataee gee hai ki brahma ke din men prithvi ki trijya ek yojan badh jati hai aur brahma ki ratri men ek yojan ghat jati hai. shlok nau men bataya gaya hai ki jaise chalati huee nav par baitha hua manushy kinare ke sthir pedon ko viparit disha men chalata hua dekhata hai vaise hi lnka (prithvi ki vishuvath‌ dekha par ek kalpit sthan) se sthir tare pashchim ki or ghoomate hue dikhaee padate hain. parntu 10ven shlok men bataya gaya hai ki aisa pratit hota hai, mano uday aur ast karane ke bahane grahayukt snpoorn nakshatrachakr, pravah vayu se prerit hokar, pashchim ki or chal raha ho. shlok 11 men sumeru parvat (uttari dhruv par sthit parvat) ka akar aur shlok 12 men sumeru aur badavamukh (dakshin dhruv) ki sthiti bataee gee hai. shlok 13 men vishuvat rekha par 90-90 ansh ki doori par sthit char nagariyon ka varnan hai. shlok 14 men lnka se ujjain ka antar bataya gaya hai. shlok 15 men bataya gaya hai ki bhoogol ki motaee ke karan khagol adhe bhag se kitana kam dikhaee padata hai. 16ven shlok men bataya gaya hai ki devataon aur asuron ko khagol kaise ghoomata hua dikhaee padata hai. shlok 17 men devataon, asuron, pitaron aur manushyon ke din rat ka pariman hai. shlok 18 se 23 tak khagol ka varnan hai. shlok 24-33 men triprashnadhikar ke pradhan sootron ka kathan hai, jinase lagn, kal adi jane jate hain. shlok 34 men lnban, 35 men akshanadrikkarm aur 36 men ayanadrikkarm ka varnan hai. shlok 37 se 47 tak soory aur chndrama ke grahanon ki ganana karane ki riti hai. shlok 48 men bataya gaya hai ki prithvi aur soory ke yog se soory ke, soory aur chndrama ke yog se chndrama tatha grahon ke yog se sab grahon ke moolank jane ge hain. shlok 49 aur 50 men aryabhatiy ki prashnsa ki gee hai.

prachar

aryabhatiy ka prachar dakshin bharat men vishesh roop se hua. is grnth ka pathan pathan 16vin 17vin shatabdi tak hota raha, jo is par likhi gee tikaon se spasht hai. dakshin bharat men isi ke adhar par bane hue pnchang aj bhi vaishnav dharm valon ko many hote hain. khed hai, ki hindi men aryabhatiy ki koee achchhi tika nahin hai. angreji men isake do anuvad hain, ek shri prabodhachndr senagupt ka aur doosara shri dablyoo.ee. klark ka. pahala 1927 ee. men kalakatte aur doosara 1930 ee. men shikagon se prakashit hua tha.

  • aryabhat ke doosare grnth ka prachar uttar bharat men vishesh roop se hua, jo is bat se spasht hai ki aryabhat ke tivr alochak brahmagupt ko vriddhavastha men apane grnth khndakhadyak men aryabhat ke grnth ka anukaran karana pada. parntu ab khndakhadyak ke vyapak prachar ke samane aryabhat ke grnth ka pathan pathan kam ho gaya aur dhire-dhire lupt ho gaya.[3]
  • aryabhat jor dekar kahate hain ki prithvi brahmand ka kendr hai aur apane aksh par ghoornan karati hai. vastutah aryabhat pahale bharatiy khagol vigyani the jinhonne sthir taron ki dainik abhasi gati ki vyakhya karane ke lie prithvi ki ghoorni gati ka vichar samane rakha. parntu unake is vichar ko n to unake samakalinon ne manyata pradan ki n hi unake bad ke khagol vigyaniyon ne. yah anapekshit bhi nahin tha, kyonki un dinon am manyata yah thi ki prithvi brahmand ke kendr men hai aur yah sthir bhi rahati hai.[4]


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pustak- bharat: itihas, snskriti aur vigyan |lekhak- gunakar mule |prakashak- rajakamal prakashan, nee dilli | prishth snkhya- 158
  2. aryabhatiy (hindi) its hindi. abhigaman tithi: 18 march, 2018.
  3. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 440-42 |
  4. aryabhatiy: duniya ko gan‍it evn khagol vigyan ka path padhane vali mahan kriti (hindi) saneetiphik varld. abhigaman tithi: 18 march, 2018.

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