मेघदूत  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

meghadoot
'meghadoot' ka avaran prishth
kavi mahakavi kalidas
mool shirshak meghadoot
prakashak dayamnd paauket buks
prakashan tithi 1 janavari 2005
ISBN 81-7182-947-3
desh bharat
bhasha snskrit (mool)
vidha kavy-grnth
vishesh meghadoot vipralambh shrringar ka snskrit sahity men sahity men sarvotkrisht kavy kaha ja sakata hai.
tippani samikshakon ne ise n keval snskrit jagath men apitu vishv sahity men shreshth kavy ke roop men ankit kiya hai.

meghadoot mahakavi kalidas ki apratim rachana hai. akeli yah rachana hi unhen 'kavikul guru' upadhi se mandit karane men samarth hai. bhasha, bhavapravanata, ras, chhand aur charitr-chitran samast ddashtiyon se meghadoot anupam khandakavy hai. sahriday rasikon ne mukt kanth se isaki sarahana ki hai. samikshakon ne ise n keval snskrit jagath men apitu vishv sahity men shreshth kavy ke roop men ankit kiya hai. meghadoot men kathanak ka abhav sa hai. vastut: yah pranayakar hriday ki abhivyakti hai.

  • meghadoot ke do bhag hain -
  1. poorvamegh evn
  2. uttaramegh.

vishayavastu

alaka nagari ke adhipati dhanaraj kuber apane sevak yaksh ko kartavy-pramad ke karan ek varsh ke lie nagar - nishkasan ka shap de dete hain. vah yaksh alaka nagari se sudoor dakshin disha men ramagiri ke ashramon men nivas karane lagata hai. sadyavivahit yaksh jaise - taise ath mah vyatit kar leta hai, kintu jab vah ashadh mas ke pahale din ramagiri par ek meghakhand ko dekhata hai, to patni yakshi ki smriti se vyakul ho uthata hai. vah yah sochakar ki megh alakapuri pahunchega to preyasi yakshi ki kya dasha hogi, adhir ho jata hai aur priya ke jivan ki raksha ke lie sandesh bhejane ka nirnay karata hai. megh ko hi sarvottam patr ke roop men pakar yathochit satkar ke anntar usase dootakary ke lie nivedan karata hai. ramagiri se vida lene ka anurodh karane ke pashchath yaksh megh ko ramagiri se alaka tak ka marg savistar batata hai. marg men kaun-kaun se parvat padenge jin par kuchh kshan ke lie megh ko vishram karana hai, kaun-kaun si nadiyan jinamen megh ko thoda jal grahan karana hai aur kaun-kaun se gram athava nagar padenge, jahan barasa kar use shitalata pradan karana hai ya nagaron ka avalokan karana hai, in sabaka ullekh karata hai. ujjayini, vidisha, dashapur adi nagaron, brahmavart, kanakhal adi tirthon tatha vetravati, gambhira adi nadiyon ko par kar megh himalay aur us par basi alaka nagari tak pahunchane ki kalpana yaksh karata hai. uttaramegh men alakanagari, yaksh ka ghar, usaki priya aur priya ke lie usaka sandesh- yah vishayavastu hai.

meghadoot ki tikayen

  • daau. en. pi. unni ne meghoodat par likhi 63 tikaon ka vivaran diya hai. inamen suprasiddh tikakar dinakar mishr, poorn sarasvati[1], malatimadhav adi prabandhon par vishrut tika likhane vale jagaddhar[2], parameshvar[3], saroddharini ka agyat nama lekhak[4], mahimasnghagani[5], sumativijay[6], vijayasoorigani[7], bharatallik [8], krishnapati[9] adi ki tikayen ullekhaniy hain.

tikakaron dvara meghadoot ka samikshan

nayak-vichar -
  • tikakaron ne meghadoot ke vishay men sookshm udbhavanaon tatha tattvik vishleshan ke sath kriti ka gahan anushilan prastut kiya hai. kalidas ne apane is kavy men nayak yaksh ka kahin bhi nam nirdisht nahin kiya aur n usaki priya yakshini ka hi. kavy ka pahala hi pad 'kashchit' hai- 'koee' anam yaksh isaka nayak hai. is 'kashchit' pad ke pichhe nihit kavi ke tatpary par anek tikakaron ne vichar kiya hai. tikakar sumativijay ne to 'kashchit' pad ke pichhe yaksh ke aparadh ke prati bhartsana ka bhav paya hai aur praman ke lie nimnalikhit prachin pady uddhat kiya hai-

bharturagyan n kurvnti ye ch vishvasaghataka:.
teshan nanapi n grahmn kavyarambhe visheshat:॥[10]

  • tikakar krishnapati ka bhi yahin mat hai ki apana svayn ka, gurujan ka tatha abhishapt vyakti ka nam nahin liya[11] jana chahiye - is vidhan ka palan karane ke liye kavi ne yaksh ka nam nahin liya.
  • tikakar haragovind ne bhi isi mat ko doharate hue bharatamuni ki yah karika bhi uddhat ki hai, jisaka srot anusandhey hai-

khandakavyamukhn kuryat kashchidityadibhi: padai:.
sargabandhevashyn tu nam kary sushobhanam॥

  • tadanusar khandakavy men nayak ka nam nirdesh n karake 'kashchit' adi padon ka prayog karana chahiye. haragovind ne vaikalpik roop se yah samadhan bhi diya hai ki abhishapt ya du:khit patr ka namagrahan nahin karana chahiye.[12]
  • tikakar bharatamallik ne 'kashchit' pad ki vyakhya men chh: mat prastut kiye hain, jinamen tin mat to ukt tikakaron ke hi hain.
  • chauthe mat vyakhya men chh: mat prastut kiye hain, jinamen tin mat to ukt tikakaron ke hi hain. chauthe mat ke anusar asti kashchid vagvishesh; vidyottama ki is ukti ka anurodh hi kashchit pad ke prayog ka karan hai.
  • panchaven mat ke anusar meghadoot ki kathavastu ka prakhyat n hokar kalpit hona is sarvanam ke prayog ka hetu hai.[13]

meghadoot ke srot

meghadoot ke srot ke vishay men in tikakaron ne vishad vichar kiya hai. dakshinavartanath ka kathan hai ki ramayan se sita ke prati hanuman ke mukh se ram ke dvara preshit sandesh ko man men rakh kar usake patron ka meghadoot ke patron ke roop men upasthit karate hue kavi kalidas ne is kavy ki rachana ki - il khalu kavi: sitan prati hanoomata harit sandesh hridayen, samudvahan tatsthaniyanayakadyutpadanen sandeshn karoti.[14]

  • mallinath ne dakshinavartanath ki vyakhya ka adhar svikar karate hue ramayan ki prerana meghadoot ki rachana men prishthabhoomi mana hai. par ramayan ke patron aur meghadoot ke patron ke adhyavasan ka unhonne n samarthan kiya hai, n virodh ; jabaki poornasarasvati ne ramayan se kalidas ko prerit manate hue dakshinavartanath ki is manyata ka kada virodh kiya hai ki yaksh - yakshini - vrittant men ram - sita - vrittant ki samadhi hai. unaka tark hai ki yadi meghadoot men sita - raghavavritt ka adhyavasan hota to kavi usaka upaman ke roop men ya anyatha prithakh ullekh kyon karata?[15]
  • par isake sath hi poornasarasvati ne kalidas ko 'ramayan rasayan parayan mahakavi' kah kar unake kee padyon men ramayan ki chhaya nidarshit ki hai. poornasarasvati ne meghadoot par mahabharat ka bhi prabhav mana hai. sthoonakarn namak yaksh ko kuber dvara shap diye jane ki mahabharatokt katha ko unhonne vistar se sakshy ke roop men prastut kiya hai. isi prakar nalakoobar aur manigriv namak yakshon ke shapagrast hone ka vrittant bhi meghadoot ki rachana men prerak ho sakata hai.[16]
  • tathapi isamen koee sandeh nahin ki meghadoot ki rachana prakriya men adi kavi valmiki ki sarvatishayi pratibha aur sitaraghav vrittant tatha hanumatsandesh prakaran ki prerana adynt bani rahi hai. dakshinavartanath tatha poornasarasvati adi tikakaron ne to anusandhanapoorvak ramayan ke aise anek sthal meghadoot ke pady ki vyakhya men uddhat kiye hain, jinaka aprastut vidhan, kalpana ya bhav lekar kavi ne anyachchhaya yoni kavy ka atynt utkrisht udaharan meghadoot men prastut kiya hai. meghadoot ki yakshini ke liye kavi ne upama utkrisht udaharan meghadoot men prastut kiya hai. meghadoot ki yakshini ke lie kavi ne upama di hai - yaksh ko lagata hai ki usaki priya shishir men murajhaee padmini jaisi ho gayi hogi.[17]
  • poornasarasvati ke anusar yah utpreksha ramayan men sitavarnan ke nimnalikhit pady par adharit hai-

himahatanaliniv nashtashobha vyasanaparamparaya nipinyamana.
sahachararahitev chakravaki janakasuta kripanan dasha prapanna॥[18]

  • isi prakar yakshini ke varnan men kavi ne prem ki ananyanishth bhavottanata ki jo karunik chhavi ankit ki hai, usaka bhi adhar ramayan men hanuman ke dvara sita ke darshan ke samay ki gayi is abhivyakti men poornasarasvati ne paya hai-

naisha pashyati rakshasyon neman pushpaphaladruman.
ekasthahridaya noonn ramamevanupashyati.
naiv dnshanshch mashakan n kitan n sarisripan
raghavapanayed gatrat tvadagatenantaratmana॥

  • isi prakar yaksh jab kahata hai- he megh tumhari sakhi yakshini ka man mere liye sneh se labalab bhara hai[19], to poornasarasvati isamen sita ki premamayata pratibimbit pate hain-

'anyonya raghavenahn bhaskar prabha yatha.'

  • isi prakar dakshinavartanath tatha poornasarasvati ne meghadoot ke anek padyon men ramayan se bhavasamy tatha ramayan ki prerana ka digdarshan karaya hai. udaharanarth-

tvayyasanne nayanamuparispandi shanke mrigakshya
minakshobhachchalakuvalay shritulameshyatiti॥

  • machhali ke uchhalane se hilate nilakamal ka netr ke lie yah upaman valmiki ne virah-vidhura sita ke lie sadrish prasng men prayukt kiya- 'praspandataikn nayann sukeshya minahatn padmamamivatitamram.

agale chhand men kalidas ne yaksh ke mukh se pun: utpreksha karayi hai-
yasyatyooru: sarasakadalistambhagaurashchalatvam.'
yahan bhi valmiki ki is abhivyakti ki chhaya in tikakaron ne dekhi hai-
'praspandaman: punarurastha ram: purastat sthitamachachakshe.'
vastut:dootakavy ki parampara ka mool vaidik snhitaon men hai, jis par 'sandeshakavy vishayak adhyay men vichar kiya gaya hai.

katha ki prishthabhoomi

meghadoot men mahakavy - khandakavyadi ke saman katha kahana kavi ka lakshy nahin hai. katha ka snket pahale pady men bahut sookshm roop se karake vah yaksh ki manodashaon ki gahan mimansa tatha tajjany rasasiddhi men tallin ho jata hai. kuchh tikakaron ne yogavasishth men ek paksh ke shapagrast hone ki katha ko meghadoot ke kathanak ki is bhoomika ka adhar mana jata hai. to jain tikakaron ne alag-alag roop men is katha ka pratipadan kiya hai. ek katha men kuber ko pooja ke lie sadyovikasit kamalapushp dene ke sthan par ek din poorv tode gaye basi pushp dene par yaksh shapagrast hota hai. any katha men kuber ke udyan ka dvar asavadhani se khula chhod dene par airavat ke dvara ghus kar udyan tahas-nahas kar diye jane ke karan. any katha men kuber ke lie yaksh ne jo pushpashayya banayi thi, us par svayn so jane ke aparadh ke karan use dand vidhan dilaya gaya hai. ek any katha men vah pooja ke liye nirmit mala pahale apani priya ko pahana deta hai. vastut: meghadoot men yaksh ki bhavakulata aur yaksh - yakshini ke pragadh anurag ke chitran ke adhar par tikakaron ne apane-apane dhng se is prakar ki kathaon ki kalpana kar dali hai.[20]

bauddh sahity men meghadoot ka katha-srot

katipay adhunik vidvanon ne meghadoot ki kathabhoomi ka adhar prachin bauddh vangamay men mana hai. isamen koee sandeh nahin ki tripitak sahity men kuchh aise prasng milate hain, jinamen dauty tatha pranayini ke prati karun sandesh ka nirupan hai. kalidas ke lie ye prasng prerak the athava nahin yah vicharaniy hai. dighanikay ke sakkapanhasutt[21] men sakk namak vyakti buddh ke pas svayn n jakar pnchashikh namak gandharv ke dvara sandesh bhejana hai, aur pnchashikh sandesh men jo prastut karata hai, unaka vishay shrringar tatha prem hai aur bhavadhara meghadoot ke sadrish hai. bauddhon ki manyata hai ki shrringarit hote hue bhi in gathaon men darshanik arth antarnihit hai. kintu in gathaon men pnchashikh tatha madda sooriyavachchasa ke pranayanurag ka udghat bhi hua hai aur pnchashikh ke kathanon men yaksh ki abhivyakti se samy bhi hai.[22]

  • rayaj devidas tatha chaildars ki yah bhi manyata hai ki kalidas ko alakanagari ki parikalpana bauddh sahity men mahaparinijbanasutt men varnit devon ki rajadhani alakananda se mili hai.[23]

meghadoot ki atmakathatmakata

  • katipay tikakaron ne meghadoot men svayn kavi ke dvara apane svayn ke sambandh men paroksh roop se snket ya sandarbh diye jane ki sambhavana par bhi vichar kiya hai. anushruti hai ki kalidas ne vikramadity raja ki bhagini aur apani pranayini ke virah men yah kavy likha tha tatha isake nayak ve svayn hain.
  • chaudahavin shatabdi men keral men manipravalam shaili men likhit kakadoot namak kavy men kaha gaya hai-

svastre poorv mahitanripatervikramadityanamn:
pokkanchakre tarunajaladn kalidas: kavindr:॥[24]

  • mahakavi kshemendr ne bhi raja vikramadity dvara kalidas ko pravarasen ke pas bheje jane tatha kavi dvara is pravasavadhi men 'kuntaleshvaradauty' ki rachana karane ka snket diya hai.
  • aisi sthiti men tikakaron ka meghadoot ke vividh varnanon tatha ullekhon men kavi ke atmanubhav ki chhaya khojane ka prayas karana svabhavik hi hai. meghadoot ke pady men 'nichul' tatha 'dinnag' in do shabdon ke prayog ke adhar par tikakaron ka anuman hai ki kavi kalidas ne yahan apane samay ke nichul kavi tatha dinnag namak pandit ka ullekh kiya hai. dakshinavartanath ka kathan hai ki nichul kavi kalidas ke mitr the, yahan tak ki nichul kavi ka banaya ek pady bhi dakshinavartanath ne uddhat kiya hai. dinnag pandit apane 'sthoolahastavalep' ke sath kalidas ki katu alochana karate the.[25] kavi ne is pad men un par kataksh kiya hai.[26]
  • dakshinavartanath ka anugaman karate hue mallinath ne bhi is kinvadnti ko manyata di hai.

rasasrishti

meghadoot vipralambh shrringar ka snskrit sahity men sahity men sarvotkrisht kavy kaha ja sakata hai. virah vedana ki tivrata, prem ki ananyata tatha bhavaikatanata ka aisa anootha chitran, vah bhi gambhir jivanadrishti tatha sanskritik moolyabodh ke sath, anyatr nahin milata. kavi ne apana kavy us yaksh ki us manodasha ke chitran ke sath arambh kiya hai, jab ramagiri par abhishapt jivan vyatit karate-karate usane kisi tarah ath mahine to bita diye hain. milan ka samay nikat ata ja raha hai, usaki priya ke liye chinta aur usase milane ki aturata badhati ja rahi hai. yaksh bavala aur ardhavikshipt sa ho gaya hai. aise men vah svapn, kalpana aur abhivyakti ke dvara apane ap ko jilaye rakhana chahata hai. utkrit jijivisha, bhavasandrata aur manushy ke kalpanalok ki ramyata ka bejod samavay meghadoot men ham anubhav karate hain. hriday ki sukumarata aur prem ke prasar ka bhi bodh meghadoot deta hai, vah bharatiy sahity men sudurlabh hai. yaksh ka chitt kamatur hai, par prem aur virah ki anch usake kalush ko dhoti chali gayi hai. is prakar meghadoot ki rasasrishti men manovigyan aur chitt ke snskar ki prakriya ko kavipratibha ne badi kushalata se meghadoot men piron diya hai.

chhandovidhan tatha bhashashaili

meghadoot men adynt keval 'mandakranta' chhnd ka hi prayog hai. is chhand ki vishisht lay tatha yati se yah samagr kavy vedana, uchchhvas-ni:shvas tatha megh ki drutavilambit gati ka anubhav deta hai. vastut: kalidas ke dvara is chhnd ke itane satik prayog ke karan hi achary-parampara men yah manyata sthapit huee ki varsha, pravas tatha vyasan ke varnan ke liye 'mandakranta chhand' vishesh upayukt hai. kshemendr kalidas ke mandakranta-prayog ki sarahana karate hue kahate hain -

pravritapravas-vyasane mandakranta virajate.[27]

is chhand ki vishisht snrachana gati, lay, tvara aur mntharata ka ek sath both karati hai aur kalidas ne tadanuroop ki sare kavy men bhasha aur padavali ka bhi anukool prayog kiya hai, jisamen yaksh ke antarjagat tatha bahm jagath usake man ki aturata aur gambhirata, vyatha aur vivek tatha megh ko shidhr bhejane aur tvarik gati ke lie usaka nirdesh, phir bhi sare desh men pratyek suramy ya pavitr sthal par atak-atak kar use age le jane ki chah-in sabaka paryavaran is vishisht bhasha - shaili ke dvara rachata chala gaya hai. tvara aur mntharata donon ka bhav samekit karati huee shabdavali bhi sajal hokar kavi ne yahan goonthi hai - jo laghugati: (16), gntumashu vyasyet (23), vahayedadhvashesham-mandaynte n khalu suhradamabhyupetarthakritya: (41), utpatodanmukh: kham-adi men padavali ki gatyatmakata aur tvara ki abhivyakti tatha 'khinn: khinn shikharishu padn nyasy gntasi yatr, kshin: kshin: parilaghu pay: shrotasan chopabhujy - (13), sthitva tasmin vanacharavadhoomuktakunje muhoortam - (19), kalakshepn kakubhasurabhau parvate parvate te (23) nichairakhyn girimadhivasestatr vishramaheto: (26), sthatavy te nayanavishayn yavadatyeti bhanu: (37), nitva ratrin chiravilasanat khinnavidyutkalatr: (41), prasthan te kathamapi sakhe lambamanasy bhavi (44), nanacheshtairjalad lalitairnirvishestn nagendram- (65) - thahar-thahar kar atak-atak kar age badhane ka bhav prakat karati chalati hai. vastut: meghadoot chhandovidhan aur bhasha-shaili ki drishti se snskrit sahity ki anupam nidhi hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 14vin-15vin shatabdi
  2. 14vin shatabdi
  3. 15vin shatabdi
  4. 1618 vi.sn.
  5. 1693 vi. sn.
  6. 17vin shatabdi
  7. 1709 vi. sn.
  8. 1700 vi.sn.
  9. 1777 vi.sn.
  10. meghadoot: sn. nandaragikar,pri. 101 par uddhat.
  11. meghadoot: krishnapatikrit tika, sn. gopikamohan bhattachary, pri.
  12. meghadoot: sn. nandagikar, pri.101 tatha jatindravimal chaudhari ka sn., pri. 25
  13. meghadoot: subodh tika, sn. jatindravimal chaudhari, kalakatta, 1950, pri.2
  14. meghadoot: subodh tika, sn. jatindravimal chaudhari, kalakatta, 1950, pri.1
  15. kaveryakshavrittante sitaraghavavrittantasamadhirastiti kechit. tann sahridayahridayasnvaday. kavinaiv 'janakatanayasnan' iti, 'raghupatipadai:, iti chatyntatatasthataya pratipaditatvat upari ch 'ityakhyate pavanatanayn maithilivonmukhi sa ityatropamanataya pratipadayishyamanatvat. (vidyullata, pri.7)
  16. meghasandesh, vidyullata tika, sn. krishnamachariyar, pri.5-6
  17. 'jatan manye shishiramathitan padminin vanyaroopam.'
  18. meghasandesh, vidyullata tika, sn. krishnamachariyar, pri.125-26
  19. 'jane sakhyastav mayi man: sambhritasneham'
  20. vivaran ke liye dr.- snskrit ke sandesh kavy: ramakumar achary, pri. 85-86
  21. dighanikay 21.2
  22. kalidas: hij art end that, ti.ji. meenakaran, 1962, pri.121-24
  23. kalidas: hij art end that, ti.ji. meenakaran, 1962, pri.126-27
  24. meghasandesh: en esesament phraaum d sauth, en. pi. unni, dilli, 1987 ee. men pri.12 par uddhat.
  25. meghadoot, poorvamedh pady 14
  26. meghasandesh: sn. en. pi. unni pri.36 par pradip tika.
  27. suvrittatilak, 3.21, kavyamala guchchhak-2,pri.52

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