कादम्बरी -बाणभट्ट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kadambari

'kadambari' banabhatt ki amar kriti hai. satavin shatabdi ke poorvarddh men likha gaya yah upanyas sahi mayanon men vishv ka pahala upanyas kaha ja sakata hai. aisa isalie kyonki isamen upanyas men paye jane vale vividh lakshan dekhe ja sakate hain. udaharan ke lie kisi up-kahani ka achchhe se varnan aur utane hi achchhe se use vikasit karane ke lie samay dena. sath hi sath snvadon ki upasthiti aur patron ki manahsthati ka vistar se varnan, laghu se laghu soochana ka bariki se vishleshan, aur kavyatmak padd ka jagah jagah prayog, aisi hi kuchh sahityik vidhaen hain jo ki isase pahale kisi rachanakar ne prayog nahin kiye the jaisa ki banabhatt ne kiya tha. banabhatt ‘kadambari’ ko poora nahin kar paye the, aur unaki mrityu ke bad unake putr bhooshanabhatt ne pita ke die ge dishanirdeshon ke anusar ise poora kiya tha. yah upanyas do bhagon men vibhajit hai. poorvabhag banabhatt ne likha tha aur uttarabhag bhooshanabhatt ka likha hua hai. kuchh jagahon par bhooshanabhatt ka nam pulindabhatt bhi kaha jata hai.[1]

snskrit bhasha men

yah unaki hi nahin samast snskrit vanamay ki anoothi gady-rachana hai. kadnbari moolatah snskrit bhasha men likhi gayi thi jo ki us samay ki sahity aur rajadarabar ki bhasha hua karati thi. banabhatt raja harshavardhan ke darabar ki shobha badhaya karate the. unhonne harshavardhan ke rajy aur us samay ka varnan karate hue pratishthit rachana ‘harshacharit’ bhi likhi thi. raja harshavardhan svayn bhi snskrit ke vidvan hua karate the aur unhonne ‘naganand’, ‘ratnavali’ aur ‘priyadarshika’ jaisi rachanaen snskrit men likhi thin. ‘kadambari’ men upanyas ke gun kaise paye jate hain is ki pushti ke lie yahan par yahan kahana yathesht rahega ki bharat ki do kshetriy bhashaon, marathi aur kannad, men upanyas ko kadambari kahate hain. is bat ke sakshy hain ki isaki kahani 'gunadhy' dvara rachit 'vrihadkatha' se prerit hai jo ki moolatah paishachi bhasha men likhi gayi hai.[1]

kathanak

‘kadambari’ do prem kahaniyon ka mishran hai. isaka yah nam kahani ki nayika kadambari ke nam par diya gaya hai. kadambari ko chandrapid aur mahashveta ko pundarik se pranay hua hai aur poori kahani isi ke ird-gird ghoomati hai. yah kahani kee janmon ki hai jisamen ek janm men kiye ge achchhe-bure karmon ka phal agale janm men mila hai. anek kathanakon ka varnan kisi patr ke smaran ke adhar par kiya gaya hai. is prakar se adhikansh bhag kisi patr ke dvara sunaya gaya varnan hai n ki rachanakar ke dvara kiya gaya prathamapurush men varnan. manaviy bhavon ka sundar chitran kiya gaya hai aur kisi ghatana ka mahaul banane ke lie prakritik tatvon ka sundar varnan kiya gaya hai.[1]

likhane ki prerana

ban ko kadambari-katha likhane ki prerana gunadhy ki 'brihatkatha' se prapt huee hai. paishachi bhasha men nibaddh 'brihatkatha' ka snskrit roopantar 'katha saritsagar' men aee huee raja sumana ki katha aur kadambari ki katha men bahut kuchh samanata milati hai. at: ban ne kadambari ki mool ghatanaon ko brihatkatha se liya ho aur apani vilakshan kavy pratibha se brihatkatha ke nishpran ghatanachakron aur patron men sajivata lakar unhen navin kalevar diya ho. kadambari men ban ki sabase anoothi kalpana jo prem ke alaukik svaroop aur rahasy ka pratik hai- vah hai nayika dvara nayak ki sharir raksha karate hue punarmilan ki pratiksha karana. kadambari kalidas ke ashabandh aur jananantar sauhrid ke adarsh ki sajiv avatarana hai. kadambari 'katha' hai. ban ne svayn prastavana ke ant men-'dhiya nivaddheyamatidvayi katha' kahakar ise 'katha' ke roop men spasht svikar kiya hai. tin janmon se sambaddh kadambari ki kahani rochak shaili men likhi gee hai.[1]

gatividhiyan

is upanyas se satavin shatabdi ke kal ke bare men aur us samay ki sahtyik gatividhiyon ke bare men kuchh nishkarsh nikale ja sakate hain. yah kaha ja sakata hai ki sahity men alaukik tattv aur ghatanaen, jaise devataon ka manushyon ke sath bhent hona, bahutayat men prayog kiye jate the. sath hi sath saundary ras ek mahatvapoorn vishay hua karata tha. rajaon ki vilasita aur sampannata bhi dekhi ja sakati hai. choonki yah upanyas paishachi bhasha ki ek kriti se prerit hai isalie yahan kaha ja sakata hai ki us samay tak paishachi bhasha vilupt nahin huee thi lekin use pratishtha prapt sahityik bhasha bhi nahin mana jata tha. rajaon aur rajapootron ka lambe abhiyan par nikalana samany bat hua karati thi. kul milakar yadi kalidas aur banabhatt jaise snskrit ke mahanh rachanakaron ki kritiyon ko padhane ka man hai lekin snskrit ka gyan nahin hai to is hindi anuvad ko padha ja sakata hai.[1] kavikrant drashta hota hai. usaka kavy manav jivan ke param lakshy ki or snket karata hai. kavy atma ras hai. ras svaroop anand hai. anand ki anubhooti hi kavy ka param prayojan hai. banabhatt 'kadambari' ke nayak aur nayika ke prarnbhik laukik prem ko shapavash janmantar men samapt kar pun: alaukik vishuddh premaprapti dvara manav ke lie adarsh prem ka divy sndesh dete hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 pustak samiksha : banabhatt krit ‘kadambari’ (hindi) www.yayawar.in. abhigaman tithi: 26 julaee, 2017.

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